Military Review

Kazakhstan and the lure of Pan-Turkism

57
Kazakhstan and the lure of Pan-TurkismAbout how confidently President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev implements the literary heritage of L.N. Gumilyov, popularizing and promoting the Eurasian unifying idea, is well known. The leaders of three former Soviet republics who were ahead of him in the run to the “Belovezhskaya Sauna” did not allow N.Nazarbayev to enter the history as a destroyer, but they gave him the opportunity to designate a perspective historical dimension of geopolitical processes in Eurasia - the creation of a new integration association ....

Let's live in peace?

The need to maintain friendly, partnership relations between Russia and Kazakhstan Nazarbayev has defended and is upholding to this day. In the matter of creating a modal legislation of the CIS, creating the CSTO, signing a so-called. “Treaty of Four” (29 March 1996), the role of the leadership of Kazakhstan is difficult to overestimate. In December, 2011, in Moscow, with the support of Astana, a serious Protocol was signed on the deployment of military infrastructure in the territories of the CSTO member states.

I can hardly be mistaken if I assume that against the background of instability in the relations of the Russian Federation with the states of Transcaucasia, the Baltics, Central Asia and Ukraine, the mutual attraction of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation has always stood out for the better.

At the same time, a year after the creation of the Customs Union, perhaps, the greatest resistance from business structures and a number of political groups began to emanate from Kazakhstan, where the opposition even initiated a referendum on suspending state participation in this organization. Nazarbayev repulsed these attacks easily.

It is difficult to stop practical steps to integrate not only the states, but also the subjects of the federation and regional centers of Kazakhstan, which was confirmed by the September Pavlodar meeting of V.Putin and N.Nazarbayev and representatives of the regions of the two countries. Even timid attempts by the Russian community to draw attention to the real situation with Russian-speaking education and the permanent growth of nationalist sentiments in Kazakhstan did not prevent integration moods.

And October 7 2012 of the year Nazarbayev signs the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan “On ratification of the Protocol on the creation of a common insurance market of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Community”. A joint military exercise of the CSTO “Indestructible Brotherhood-2012” begins in Alma-Ata. And so…

"New Port" or New Horde?

Signals that there are problems inside the state machinery of Kazakhstan appeared as early as September, when Secretary of the Nur Otan Presidential Party Yerlan Karin called the President’s initiative to create the Eurasian Parliament, announced at the end of 2011, “only the desire of the Russian side”. Karina was supported by Nazarbayev’s political adviser Yermukhamet Yertysbayev. The statements were interpreted by experts as sanctioned from above.

And all this time, the rhetorical fountain of the Kazakh nationalist political scientist Aidos Sarym did not dry up, who in the republic is considered a product of the presidential administration. Sarym is known for his concept of the “only alternative” to Kazakh Islamism - Kazakh nationalism. In his article Naryshkin Labor, Aidos launched an attack on the idea of ​​the Eurasian Union: on inter-ethnic relations within the country. ” Hotly supported by like-minded people in social networks, Aidos Sarym calls the integration model “flawed and unrealizable” and says: “The idea of ​​a vehicle will eventually suffocate, just as the idea of ​​the CIS together with its Parliamentary Assembly and thousands of agreements and treaties. The Customs Union, which has already proven its inefficiency and disadvantage for Kazakhstan, will collapse under the pressure of circumstances and public opinion ... We are doomed to be neighbors. But what are we neighbors like? Will you respect your arrogant, non-respecting neighbor on the landing? Rejoice when meeting, stretching his hand, knowing that he once caused you a lot of grief? Not just caused a lot of grief, but also claims that it should be so? ... What kind of confidence can we say if the majority of Kazakhs consider the Customs Union to be the reincarnation of the USSR, the red empire? They are frankly afraid of him ... ”(Business Kazakhstan World magazine, No. XXUMX-5 (6-23), May-June 24). This is written by a man who is called "the court nationalist of Nazarbayev" and who himself calls himself "an ardent supporter of Turkic integration."

The Istanbul-speaking Nazarbayev’s October 12 speech, spoken under the fluttering flags of Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and the Republic of Turkey, has roots in Kazakhstan itself. However, there were new notes in the speech.

President Nazarbayev rarely allowed himself to hint at the historical memory insulted by Russian imperialism, but here (in Istanbul) he remembered what had been killed, though not by Russians, but by the Kenesary-khan Kokands. ("After the last Kazakh Khan was killed in 1861, we were a colony of the Russian kingdom, then the Soviet Union. For 150 years, the Kazakhs almost lost their national traditions, customs, language, religion"). Although it is not sensible to consider this a sensation, having a quick look at the school curriculum of the history of Kazakhstan. Already there claims to Russia - half a textbook.

Cannot be considered special news and the message that “between the White Sea and Altai lives more than 200 millions of our fellow tribesmen. If they united, we would become a large and influential state in the world. ” For years, Nazarbayev has been building ideological substantiations of the greatness and significance of the steppe people for years, widely using direct references to Turkism in rhetoric and politics. Suffice it to recall his initiatives to create the Turkic Council, and the Eurasian National University. L. Gumilev in Astana is adjacent to the Turkic Academy.

Theses about the economic necessity of Pan-Turkism sounded more alarming. Nazarbayev calls the low volume of trade “not conforming to our relations, our closeness [to relations and closeness with Turkey - V.Sh.]” and declares the maximum opening of its market for Turkish business. And behind the economy there is always politics. It is likely that, in contrast to the project of the Eurasian Economic Union, initiated by Russia, there will be a raw, but quite appetizing for some anti-Russian Turkic integration project.

Of course, the call of the Turks to unite looks somewhat naive, as if Hugo Chavez proposed to unite to all the descendants of the civilization of the Incas and Aztecs. A banal question arises, where will the center of attraction and association of the Turks be? In Astana? In Baku? In Bishkek? In the Stambul? On Ararat or in the area of ​​the sacred mountain of Khan-Tengri?

"Vain words" or oriental tricks?

Undoubtedly, the speech of Nazarbayev was enthusiastically accepted among the national patriots. However, while the “Istanbul theses” cause more skepticism. Relations in the “fraternal Turkic Central Asian environment” can rather be called restrained tensions rather than “good neighborly relations”. Otherwise, why should Kazakhstan increase its military grouping in the Caspian Sea and show nervousness around the militarization of Uzbekistan? Do not add optimism and almost turned into a war, the issues of water energy.

The most acute problem of “intra-Turkic relations”, which is hardly possible to solve in the foreseeable future, is the factor of the Islamic-extremist threat, which originates for Kazakhstan from the territories of its southern neighbors.

Supporting today's “pan-Turkism” of Kazakhstan is unlikely to be a self-sufficient Turkmenistan and alarming as a hive, Tajikistan. Nazarbayev’s bold ideas can irritate Beijing, for whom “pan-Turkism” and separatism in Xinjiang are one and the same.

In addition, statements made in Istanbul can complicate Kazakhstan’s relations with a “non-Turkic” Iran and Iraq. Baghdad seriously engaged in preserving its territorial integrity, made it clear to Ankara that he did not want the Assad regime in Syria to fall, and expressed his protest to Turkey over the unauthorized visit of Turkish Minister Ahmed Davutoglu to Iraqi Kirkuk. The Iraqi Parliament also intends to put to the vote a decision canceling the agreement with Turkey, allowing its military presence in the north of Iraq. It is unlikely that the warming of relations between Astana and Ankara, some, even if contrived, condemnation of Damascus will receive approval in Baghdad and Tehran.

The danger of a “new Pan-Turkism” comes, of course, not from the moldy ideas of Ismail Gasparinsky, Enver Pasha and Ataturk. The key word in this term is “new”. Kazakhstan is fundamentally important for US geopolitics, which for almost a decade has been modeling situations of instability in this country - from organizing strikes and “Zhanaozen” to provoking inter-clan struggle of clans and “soft patronage” of Islamist-Salafists. And the presence in Kazakhstan in the role of "economic adviser" (!!!) of the former British Prime Minister Tony Blair directly indicate the Anglo-Saxons' ears.

The United States energetically plays its solitaire in Central Asia, promising support (weapons and investments) to Islam Karimov, then flirting with Astana, when the words that Kazakhstan "can play a leading role as an investor in regional infrastructure projects" are heard from the mouth of US Assistant Secretary of State Richard Boucher.

As you know, 28 June 2012 of the year Tashkent has already sent a note with a notification of the suspension of Uzbekistan’s membership in the CSTO, and this is the success of the Obama administration. It is possible that the version of the new union of old friends of the United States (Turkey and Azerbaijan) with new Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan is also the fruit of the works of overseas thinkers.

However, explanations and hints about incorrect interpretations and inaccurate translation of Nursultan Abishevich’s Istanbul speech have already been heard from the Presidential Administration of Kazakhstan. The East has always been full of tricks and surprises ...
Author:
Originator:
http://www.fondsk.ru
57 comments
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  1. Sasha 19871987
    Sasha 19871987 25 October 2012 07: 14
    +2
    Thank you Kazakhstan for supporting friendship for many years, but here's what they let Tony Blair do-it’s generally dangerous — the Anglo-Saxons have such a function — to spoil a lot, and also to overthrow undesirable regimes by means of revolutions ....
    1. Yarbay
      Yarbay 25 October 2012 08: 18
      -4
      Quote: sasha 19871987
      Thank you to Kazakhstan for supporting friendship for many years.

      So you fooled them, so they were friends for many years!
      1. tekinoral
        tekinoral 25 October 2012 11: 23
        -1
        WITH HOLIDAY FOR ALL
      2. mazdie
        mazdie 25 October 2012 23: 40
        0
        Politics is a dirty business! Hope about ordinary people you have a different opinion.
  2. mar.tira
    mar.tira 25 October 2012 07: 24
    -2
    The article is full of hints and sleek shapes! We must speak frankly. If Nazarbayev is playing to earn a rating and retain power. This is one thing. A benefit and nothing more. But if he swung at the great "Caliphate", to Altai seriously. Even without asking for opinions and interests of others. And I am ready to conclude an agreement with the Turks for this. And maybe even by military means. That is already another. And smacks of a traitor and an enemy of Russia. Well, with the enemy, there should be one conversation!
    1. Kaa
      Kaa 25 October 2012 09: 24
      +2
      Quote: mar.tira
      If Nazarbayev bothers to earn a rating, and to maintain power. This is one thing. Benefits and nothing more.

      Any newly-born "national elite" is not homogeneous. Nazarbayev is forced to "spin" between those who have pro-Western, pro-Chinese, pro-Turkic and pro-Russian vectors. Something similar is taking place in Ukraine - an attempt to sit on several chairs - pro-European and pro-Russian, and, don’t laugh, even in pro-Turkish, there have recently been such "stuffing. And what do you want, having supported only one vector, it is possible in any country such a bloody to arrange a bath, mom do not worry, for over 20 years such a mess has been created in the minds of the "electorate" that it is often overwhelmed by amazement. but what is really happening is "the fight of the bulldogs under the carpet." -Do you see a gopher? - No. - And he is! "
    2. aksakal
      aksakal 25 October 2012 11: 22
      -2
      Quote: mar.tira
      Without even asking for the opinions and interests of others. And I’m ready to conclude an agreement with the Turks for this. Or maybe even by military means. That’s already different. And it smacks of a traitor and an enemy of Russia. Well, with the enemy, there should be one conversation!
      - Are you going to burn imperial ambitions with a hot iron? Russians can regret the lost empire, dream of its reconstruction and welcome some steps of their leader in this direction, and the Kazakhs can not even dream of a new role for themselves - there is no question of actions? Everyone has ambitions.

      Quote: mar.tira
      great "Caliphate", to Altai in earnest.
      - Someday come true. I bring up children in this spirit. It’s a pity, of course, that it wasn’t with my, or even with the life of my sons. But it will come true. It is the Kazakh caliphate, not Turkish-Kazakh, not Uzbek-Kazakh, no, only Kazakh. And these neighbors in the furnace, more precisely, to us into slavery under the influence.
      Yes, like that. They did not expect? Nothing. There are always discoveries.
      So far, now with the Russians and only with them, without closing any other gates at the same time and without slamming the doors in vain.
      1. Normal
        Normal 25 October 2012 14: 09
        +5
        Quote: aksakal
        Russians can regret the lost empire,


        Russian is possible. But not necessary. As you know, the most powerless and oppressed people in the empire is the titular people. The Russian empire gave more to foreigners than to Russians.
        Quote: aksakal
        and Kazakhs can’t even dream of a new role for themselves - there is no talk of actions? Everyone has ambitions.


        What ambitions and what role are we talking about? What about these ?;
        Quote: aksakal
        It is the Kazakh caliphate,

        Well, congratulations! (I congratulate Bairam on the holiday of Kurban, by the way, too) Are you already preparing hijabs?

        Quote: aksakal
        I bring up children in this spirit. It’s a pity, of course, that it wasn’t with my, or even with the life of my sons. But it will come true.

        Well, why not in your lifetime? Reality can be more fantastic than any dreams. You don’t have time to look around, how the bearded ones will begin to point you. And then you will regret your dreams.

        Quote: aksakal
        Yes, like that. They did not expect? Nothing. There are always discoveries.

        Well, why did not expect. For example, I never experienced any illusions about you or Alibek. National elites are loyal to Russians only when Russians are strong. As soon as an ethnic conflict arises, the bais will be on the side of their scumbags. And European clothing, secular manners, education, and the demonstration of friendly feelings should not mislead us;
        Quote: aksakal
        So far, with the Russians and only with them


        Here I am about too; " WHILE". But woe to the Russian who substitutes his back, if the dagger is not stuck, then they will certainly fit on the neck.
      2. mar.tira
        mar.tira 25 October 2012 16: 18
        +1
        Quote: aksakal
        It is the Kazakh caliphate

        And the navel will not crack dear to Altai! It was with a hot iron, just not all the people, but people like you, because of whom the Union collapsed. China already wanted to lay a paw on you in 68-9. But only the "imperial" guys from Russia did not give them. in vain !!!! Then you would feel all the delights of the Chinese paradise. They still do not take you, because they are afraid of us. But this is for now! Caliphate you say !!!!!!! Oh well!
        1. Islam
          Islam 25 October 2012 16: 29
          +4
          Yes, you do not listen to these Nazis. I have not met those in Kazakhstan who would be against Russia. And for 68 69 I thank you
        2. Marek Rozny
          Marek Rozny 25 November 2012 00: 08
          -1
          1) Altai - the land of Turkic and only Turkic. Although, of course, it is located in several countries, including in Kazakhstan. So learn geography.
          2) The Union was destroyed not by the Kazakhs (who, incidentally, were the last to leave the USSR when the Russians had already wound up from there), but the Slavic politicians of the RSFSR, Ukraine and Belarus. What to roll a barrel on others?
          3) China in 1969 attacked not only the territory of the Kazakh SSR, but also the territory of the RSFSR. And consider the army of the USSR - the Russian (Russian) army - bullshit. It turns out that all the Kazakhs served in some foreign army. My whole relatives shed blood both on the territory of Russia and on the territory of Chechnya (in the first war), and on the territory of Afghanistan, and on the territory of China (the war with Japan), but it turns out they were Russians and fought for the Russians? Here are those on ... They somehow thought that they were fighting in the common Soviet army for a single Motherland.
          4) It is useless to scare us with China. Unlike Russians, Kazakhs fought with the Chinese from the time of the Huns. In one war with the nomads, the Han did not win. Although the Chinese have always been the majority. Only it is impossible to compare the fighting qualities of the steppe and Han. We are the Horde, and the enemy never scared us - neither in the 5th century, nor in the 13th, nor in 1941 near Moscow. But the Chinese, a nation with a rich and interesting culture, have never beaten anyone. Unless their diplomacy is strong, it is a fact. And even my grandmother is not afraid of war with China. This war frightens only some of the tantrums who in Asian history understand as a shoemaker in jewelry.
      3. hommer
        hommer 25 October 2012 20: 42
        +4
        Is that you, elder? Somehow not at all in your style of post. Previously, you did not observe such provocative comments.
        1. aksakal
          aksakal 25 October 2012 21: 10
          -1
          Quote: hommer
          Is that you, elder? Somehow not at all in your style of post. Previously, you did not observe such provocative comments.
          - well, you yourself are being led on provocations, especially on provocative articles of this kind, and there we are deliberately belittled, like "However, explanations and hints about incorrect interpretations and inaccurate translation of Nursultan Abishevich’s Istanbul speech have already been heard from the Presidential Administration of Kazakhstan. The East has always been full of tricks and surprises ...
          - the administration of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan did not hint at any wrong interpretations, this is not the body to hint, it is an official body, and therefore they said there directly about distortion, taking out of context and distorting. You yourself are being led to such provocative articles, as a result of which you publish nonsense of often offensive content in the comments, then why should I swallow it and babble peacefully like "come on"? Wrote bullshit - get bullshit back or think you're typing.
          1. hommer
            hommer 25 October 2012 21: 47
            +5
            Do not poke, they did not drink to the Brudershaft. Pick up expressions.
            I re-read my comments, I did not find where I offended anyone.
            Anglo-Saxons - maybe.
            Quote: aksakal
            It is the Kazakh caliphate, not Turkish-Kazakh, not Uzbek-Kazakh, no, only Kazakh. And these neighbors in the furnace, or rather, into our slavery under the influence.

            Planning all Turkic neighbors to be enslaved (your voiced desire) - Adolf Aloizievich applauds you.
            Conclusion - either it is not aksakal, or aksakal - a civil servant, he received a warning to change shoes.

            All Muslims with a holiday, ay Kabyl Bolsyn!
            1. aksakal
              aksakal 26 October 2012 13: 34
              -1
              Quote: hommer
              Do not poke, they did not drink to the Brudershaft. Pick up expressions.
              - I'm not going to do this with you.
              Quote: aksakal
              Well, you are being led on provocations yourself, especially on provocative articles of such a bruise, and there we deliberately belittled, like
              - where did you poke? Can you read? As for expressions - let me pick them myself. In general, what is written does not refer to your comments, but specifically to Martira’s comment, which specifically led to the provocative message of this article and printed nonsense - I’m not going to write in response to emotion.
              1. hommer
                hommer 26 October 2012 22: 25
                0
                aksakal,
                Quote: hommer
                Do not poke, they did not drink to the Brudershaft. Pick up expressions.
                - I'm not going to do this with you.

                And no one invited you

                aksakal:quote
                In general, what is written does not refer to your comments, but specifically to Martira’s comment, which specifically led to the provocative message of this article and printed nonsense
                - I accept the explanation, please continue to be more careful with quotations. Happy holiday!
          2. Normal
            Normal 25 October 2012 21: 56
            +2
            Quote: aksakal
            I wrote garbage - get garbage in return or think that you are printing.

            This is the third emotional breakdown. It is only in my memory ... You have a neurosis, my friend?
            You need to be treated ... with electricity.
            1. aksakal
              aksakal 26 October 2012 13: 29
              0
              Quote: Normal
              This is the third emotional breakdown. It’s only in my memory ... Do you have a neurosis, my friend? You need to be treated ... with electricity.
              - what a breakdown? Hard answer to printed garbage. And I will continue to be cruel.
              By the way, your State Duma has adopted a law obliging guest workers and other foreign-speaking people living and working in the territory of the Russian Federation to know Russian at a level not lower than the basic one.
              Now I’ll be very, very cruel when provocative articles about introducing the Kazakh language on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan are discussed and how it hurts the poor Russians. This does not infringe on the poor Russians, otherwise it will have to be recognized that the requirements to know the Russian language infringe upon the rights of foreign-speaking people in Russia.
              As they say, we are friends on equal terms, one cannot be "friendlier" than the other, such friendship is in the furnace.
              1. Was mammoth
                Was mammoth 26 October 2012 21: 01
                +1
                Quote: aksakal
                By the way, your State Duma has adopted a law obliging guest workers and other foreign-speaking people living and working in the territory of the Russian Federation to know Russian at a level not lower than the basic one.
                Now I’ll be very, very cruel when provocative articles about introducing the Kazakh language on the territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan are discussed and how it hurts the poor Russians. This does not infringe on the poor Russians, otherwise it will have to be recognized that the requirements to know the Russian language infringe upon the rights of foreign-speaking people in Russia.


                Do not confuse God's gift with scrambled eggs. For millions of Russians, Kazakhstan is the Motherland. And you offer them not to speak their native language. "The language of interethnic communication" is a fiction of resolving an interethnic issue. Some of those who are now going to Russia to earn money shouted: "Russians, get out." Will you again translate BASIC commands into Kazakh (what was your Academy of Sciences trying to do in the 90s)?
              2. cherkas.oe
                cherkas.oe 28 October 2012 01: 13
                0
                Listen, Aksakal, when Tajiks, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, etc. they’ll come to us using their national technologies of a power plant, build cosmodromes, then let them speak their own language. In the meantime, I will explain to them how to properly prepare the glue so that the tile is glued, please.
      4. Kyrgyz
        Kyrgyz 25 October 2012 21: 00
        +3
        Quote: aksakal
        someday come true. I bring up children in this spirit. It’s a pity, of course, that it wasn’t with my, or even with the life of my sons. But it will come true. It is the Kazakh caliphate, not Turkish-Kazakh, not Uzbek-Kazakh, no, only Kazakh. And these neighbors in the furnace, or rather, into our slavery under the influence.

        Kazakhs 10mln, beyond the dream, the Kazakh caliphate will not go, Russians from the north are Chinese, Russians do not need territory or culture - we need stability at the turn and a shield, the Chinese need more, we can try to get out of this situation by inviting the British, but then come forward with their feet, even the Balts cannot be calm and confident in their hostility and anger against the Russians, although it would seem that they have a very powerful roof. Kazakhstan is not poor, it has something to lose and it is necessary to be careful in friendship and talking about the past
      5. Was mammoth
        Was mammoth 25 October 2012 22: 05
        +4
        Aksakal:
        "Someday it will come true. I bring up my children in this spirit. It is a pity, of course, that not with my and not even during the life of my sons. But it will come true. It is the Kazakh caliphate, not the Turkish-Kazakh, not the Uzbek-Kazakh, none, only the Kazakh. these neighbors in the furnace, or rather, to our slavery under the influence. "
        Unfortunately, as Aksakal thinks and Nazarbayev (the same friend of Russia as Saakashvili, only more cunning and resourceful. Therefore, many Russians think that Kazakhstan is a friendly state). So, we must remember that Russia has "two friends - the army and the navy."
        Friendship is based on trust, but what kind of trust if the Russians are "colonialists and occupiers."
      6. cherkas.oe
        cherkas.oe 28 October 2012 00: 54
        -2
        Well what can I say to you: - "well done." The Kazakh who does not want to live in the caliphate is bad. But it seems to me that you will end up living in yurts again in your caliphate, drowning with brushwood and dung and hunt for gophers. In general, you will return to your roots, finally. (I don’t give you a minus because I respect your Great Kazakh self-consciousness. Be healthy. Good luck in raising children.) PS Peacocks you say! Ha.
    3. Yeraz
      Yeraz 25 October 2012 20: 12
      +2
      Quote: mar.tira
      Without even asking for opinions, and the interests of others.

      Do you need to ask permission from someone else to connect with your brother?
      Quote: mar.tira
      And it smacks of a traitor and an enemy of Russia.

      Why does the reunification of our peoples make this a pretense or an enemy of Russia? What can you say about the brotherhood of the Slavs, how good it would be if the Slavs united, but we don’t. Are you better than us? Simply, the Kazakhs will gradually understand the whole talk about the brotherhood of Kazakhs and Russians is a screen. You look at them from high and therefore neither the TS nor anything else will work like the CIS, fiction and all.
      1. Ascetic
        Ascetic 26 October 2012 00: 18
        +5
        Quote: Yeraz
        .You look at them from high and therefore neither the TS nor anything else will work like the CIS, fiction and all.


        Fiction is not fiction, but the facts speak differently. Suffice it to say that the trade turnover between our countries has already reached a record high of $ 24 billion, exceeding the pre-crisis figures. 76 constituent entities of the Russian Federation maintain constant trade and economic ties with Kazakhstan. The direct investment flow from Russia over the past 5 years amounted to $ 4,5 billion, and from Kazakhstan to Russia - $ 1,6 billion. In recent years, hundreds of bilateral projects have been implemented, including the production of enriched uranium at the international center in Angarsk, construction in Kazakhstan, service centers and the development of production of KamAZ truck components, the laying of a transport corridor connecting Western Europe with China, joint research in space ...
        It is planned to increase the turnover to 40 billion dollars. And this is not the limit.
        By the way. Kazakhstan was the last republic to leave the USSR.

        And the last will be the first in the formation of the new Union
        1. Kasym
          Kasym 26 October 2012 01: 38
          +4
          Good night, Stanislav! As always, you are the most informed and meaningful commentary! +++++++++! As Igor (Goga) wrote here - "And you have to judge by deeds ...!"
          ... VAZ, combines and other agricultural. equipment, electric power industry, energy carriers, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, weapons, petrochemicals, food, etc.
        2. Yeraz
          Yeraz 26 October 2012 13: 18
          +4
          Quote: Ascetic
          Suffice it to say that the trade turnover between our countries has already reached a record figure of $ 24 billion, exceeding pre-crisis indicators. 76 constituent entities of the Russian Federation maintain constant trade and economic ties with Kazakhstan.

          And so? Turkey is not a member of the CIS and the turnover is also very decent. The CIS was created as a political union. Economic ties can also be built by two-sided agreements. The Collective Security Treaty Organization is the same. Why is it asked if there is a charter on mutual assistance in case of attack on 2 of parties. Russia is additionally signing an agreement with Armenia on the protection of the borders of Armenia. If the CSTO charter does not work in a critical situation, it will not work.
    4. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 24 November 2012 23: 54
      -1
      What the fuck is the "Caliphate" from the leadership of Kazakhstan? Kazakhs are not going to merge with other nations, especially with the Ottomans, distant in all respects.
      Kazakhs maintain good relations with everyone, including with the Turkic states. Kazakhs are gouging, not loving instructions, but the people are very pragmatic and with a clear understanding of who is who is in the environment. And they don’t get hysterical if Russia is friends with Serbia or Bulgaria, accusing it of pan-Slavism, which threatens the interests of Kazakhstan.
  3. Che
    Che 25 October 2012 07: 27
    +3
    Of course, the call of the Turks to unite looks somewhat naive, as if Hugo Chavez proposed to unite to all the descendants of the civilization of the Incas and Aztecs. A banal question arises, where will the center of attraction and association of the Turks be? In Astana? In Baku? In Bishkek? In the Stambul? On Ararat or in the area of ​​the sacred mountain of Khan-Tengri?

    I hope common sense will prevail in Kazakhstan, they will not be engaged in nationalistic crap there.
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 25 October 2012 10: 02
      -1
      By definition, they cannot but engage in "nationalistic crap", because they have no other ideas and cannot have ....
  4. Pit
    Pit 25 October 2012 07: 33
    0
    “After the last Kazakh khan was killed in 1861, we were a colony of the Russian kingdom, then the Soviet Union. For 150 years, the Kazakhs have almost lost their national traditions, customs, language, religion. ”They pray that they should become part of the Russian Empire, and then the USSR. If they became a colony on the principle of the Anglo-Saxons, then it would certainly be a disaster for language and culture, etc.
    Do someone good condemn and curse, so can it be better to do evil? So even though they will be afraid, and they will condemn, half the voice in the kitchen.
    1. Islam
      Islam 27 October 2012 14: 43
      -2
      Yes, we were lucky with Russia, even if they preserved culture and language wink
  5. bask
    bask 25 October 2012 07: 34
    +3
    Probably another newspaper ... ,, duck, Kazakhstan, like Russia, has no alternative, ONLY CUSTOMS UNION .. In the long term, with the formation of the Union State with Russia !!! The politicians come and go. PEOPLE REMAIN ... We live as neighbors, side by side...
    1. Islam
      Islam 25 October 2012 16: 26
      0
      bask Totally Agree drinks
  6. Yarbay
    Yarbay 25 October 2012 07: 54
    +5
    *** The East was always full of tricks and surprises ... *** - and the West, North and South were always full of naivety and simplicity)))))))))
    1. Islam
      Islam 27 October 2012 14: 45
      -1
      modern Kazakhstan is more a western country, although it is located in the east
    2. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 25 November 2012 06: 21
      0
      wahaha! ))))
  7. VadimSt
    VadimSt 25 October 2012 08: 06
    0
    Smoke without fire does not happen!
    1. Most likely, the foreign economic and foreign political component of Russia is not always in a balanced state. Political statements are always projected through the economy, but the economy is, above all, business, and it has slightly different priorities.
    2. The spirit of the "great brother" has not yet disappeared, which, to one degree or another, sounds from the lips of many Russian politicians and is a breeding ground for nationalism, both within Russia and in countries with which Russia has established "warm" relations.
    3. The creation of any political or economic association should not turn into a "closed club", whose members are prohibited from appearing in a neighboring "institution".
    4. The national elites of the "partner countries", regardless of whether they have their own economic base, in political terms, always strive to sit on two chairs, to put it simply, to suck on two queens at once. This is the simplest strategy aimed at providing "alternate airfields" and a way to "feed" the neighbor's dog - so that he doesn't bark, or God forbid, he doesn't bite!

    Integration processes must mature, and here, Russia must show itself as a reliable brother, friend, partner.
    PS - I, personally, when I see Mr. Miller, or his comments, always think about one thing - "I will not live to see the unification of Russia and Ukraine!"
    1. SergeySK
      SergeySK 25 October 2012 19: 45
      0
      VadimSt,

      I, too, when I look and listen to speeches and, especially, actions, including those related to the activities of the same Mr. Miller, Ukrainian politicians of all levels, JUST SURE I WILL NOT LIVE UP TO THE UNION OF RUSSIA AND UKRAINE! ! !
  8. zemlyak
    zemlyak 25 October 2012 08: 23
    +6
    The multi-vector nature of Nazarbayev's policy. Having once again shown to the whole world the independence of Kazakhstani foreign policy from Moscow and Beijing, raising the internal rating after joining the customs union, "and what we put on Moscow with the device" and stupidly cut down the loot for the dying economy of Kazakhstan. I think they were also wary to these statements. Another "politician" is nothing more. Nazarbayev is an old sly fox, having collected a bunch of billions of dollars in debts in China, then entered the customs union, and now these performances in Istanbul ... I think that after these speeches, those wishing to leave Kazakhstan will only increase .IT'S A PITY
    1. Islam
      Islam 27 October 2012 14: 49
      -1
      Quote: zemlyak
      for the dying economy of Kazakhstan
      this is where you saw the "dying" economy of Kazakhstan
      We are in the 10 fastest growing countries bully
  9. VadimSt
    VadimSt 25 October 2012 08: 34
    +1
    Quote: zemlyak
    Nazarbayev old sly fox

    All of us are not eternal. Nazarbayev knows the consequences of the change of political elites for the relatives of "former" presidents, on the example of Kyrgyzstan, therefore he prepared the ground for his "household members" in advance.
  10. Goga
    Goga 25 October 2012 08: 47
    +4
    - quote - "... And the economy is always followed by politics ..." - often, often, but not always, for example - Russia and Turkey in the economic sphere - partners are nowhere closer - both gas, and nuclear power plants, and tourists, not to mention already about the Turkish builders and their consumer goods in our markets, and what led all this to political rapprochement? Yes, not a half step, so the economy is of course very important, but still not decisive - there are things for which the economy is forgotten.
    In general, I believe that it is not necessary to exaggerate the role of this much-discussed statement by N. A. N., the article correctly states that there is no more consistent supporter of integration in our countries, well, he said something pleasant to his distant tribesmen, so he said - and it is necessary to judge by business .... So there is no need to procrastinate on this topic, because it’s not a day then an article about it, and who needs it - drive a wedge between our countries and peoples? Like this ...
    1. Kasym
      Kasym 25 October 2012 23: 25
      +2
      Igor is a fellow countryman, I welcome you! "And it is necessary to judge by deeds ...". The most competent comment, as always +++++++++!
  11. karimbaev
    karimbaev 25 October 2012 08: 59
    +1
    East is a delicate matter! read between the lines of gentlemen!
  12. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 25 October 2012 10: 00
    +3
    In Tajikistan, not the Turks, actually ...
    Well, whoever will definitely be against the idea of ​​Turkism is Uzbekistan, it is not in vain that the Turks have been uprooted from the country so earnestly, and it’s deep purple for the Turkmens ...
    The Kazakhs are not a decree for the Russian "Turks", the Turks themselves are not decree, and most importantly, the Turks did not have the funds that the corrupt "Turkic" elites expected to receive ...
    Nazarbayev really pierced with this speech, most likely his closest associates framed him ...
    The idea of ​​Turkism against the background of the ideas of naked Islamism is not particularly promising even for its adherents ...
  13. skullcap
    skullcap 25 October 2012 10: 26
    0
    Whatever you may say, all significant events in the Islamic world, including these in Kazakhstan, are in line with the Anglo-Saxon policy of fomenting a new world war, where the role of the instigator, and then the defendant, is intended for Islamic civilization.
    This has already been repeatedly written. According to the supposed Anglo-Saxon plans, Muslims should unleash a war of mutual destruction on the Eurasian continent, in which both Islamic civilization and all its neighbors: Russia, China, India, and Europe will suffer unacceptable losses (in order not to try to get out of control of the Anglo-Saxons) island and continental pirate civilization).
    With all the passionarity of the Islamic civilization and its considerable potential, in the end, in this war, it is doomed to defeat. The United States, with the dollar saved by the war, as it was before, will enter the war at the final stage in order to dictate its terms to the new world order.
    Kazakhstan is located on the border of Islamic, Chinese and Russian civilizations. Staying on the sidelines if the Anglo-Saxons succeed in stoking a planned war will be impossible. The territory of the country in this case will be the scene of hostilities.
    And the further fate of the country will depend on the choice of one’s place in a possible world conflict.
    If Kazakhstan remains in the Eurasian Union, it will eventually end up in the camp of the winners and will be able, in accordance with international law, to compensate its losses at the expense of the aggressors who unleashed the war.
    If he joins the revolutionary Islamic tsunami, he will be among the vanquished and, in addition to the losses suffered, will be obliged to compensate for the damage caused. This is purely in material terms, not entirely cynical, since we are talking about the fate of the people. There is something to think about the Kazakh elite, especially since it will be impossible to flee to America - the enemy’s armed forces will be tightly squeezed from all sides.
  14. Wertynskiy
    Wertynskiy 25 October 2012 10: 36
    +2
    All these graters and creeps, that of Kazakhstan, that of Uzbekistan, and that of Turkey are connected with the lack of a clear policy of Russia in this region.
    Even I don’t understand what we are doing there, what we want to do and see whether we need this region or not, the economy we have there, the friendship of peoples, the empire we are building there or squeezing out Americans. And what do they think about us there, generally a dark forest.
    Empire is needed, however. And you’ll get bogged down in this eastern cunning!
  15. YOUNG
    YOUNG 25 October 2012 12: 14
    +1
    Quote: mar.tira
    And it smacks of a traitor and an enemy of Russia. Well, and with the enemy, there should be one conversation!

    I have not read the article yet, but I knew that they would write something like that in the comments. And I was sure that it was from Russian! The article is already provocatively painful.
    Most importantly, we are all men here and we need to judge people not by words but by deeds. Since then, the Turks are really kindred peoples. This cannot be condemned.
    PS To ridicule the east is not the case. Russia can MUCH MUCH from him
    1. Yeraz
      Yeraz 25 October 2012 20: 16
      +5
      Quote: YOUNG
      Since then, the Turks are really kindred peoples. This cannot be condemned.

      Some individuals do not want to understand this. They put themselves above us. Belarusians, Ukrainians and Russians can and need to unite, but we see no. Double standards. The world is different, everyone wants to be strong and weaken the other. And the union of the Türks even at the cultural level already many infuriated.
    2. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 25 October 2012 22: 45
      -1
      Quote: YOUNG
      I have not read the article yet, but I knew that they would write something like that in the comments. And I was sure that it was from Russian! The article is already provocatively painful.

      Quote: YOUNG
      Most importantly, we are all men here and we need to judge people not by words but by deeds.

      Looks like there is a reason for the Russians to doubt the friendship of the Kazakhs (both at the state level and at the household). According to their actions. I am not talking about everyone.
      Quote: YOUNG
      To ridicule the east is not the case. Russia can MUCH MUCH from him

      I always talk about it. There is much to learn. For example, when I was in Moscow, sometimes I see in the subway that a young man of oriental or Caucasian appearance, who arrived for the first time, readily gets up and gives way to elders. By the way, in Kazakhstan, the first sign of manifestation of nationalism was manifested precisely in disrespect for the elders in transport.
      1. Yeraz
        Yeraz 25 October 2012 23: 05
        +5
        Quote: There was a mammoth
        By the way, in Kazakhstan, the first sign of manifestation of nationalism was manifested precisely in disrespect for the elders in transport.

        In the sense of ??? Kazakhs are not accepted to stand in front of the elders ??
        1. Was mammoth
          Was mammoth 25 October 2012 23: 31
          0
          Quote: Yeraz
          In the sense of ??? Kazakhs are not accepted to stand in front of the elders ??

          Do not distort. This is exactly what is accepted. I gave this example for this reason. I did not give way to a young Kazakh Russian, that's what.
          I -Russian-I want to give way to the elderly here
          1. Yeraz
            Yeraz 26 October 2012 13: 11
            +5
            Quote: There was a mammoth
            Do not distort.

            Yes, I do not distort. You indicated just the elders. It means that older Russians in transport show respect, not to their own. I did not know ... Well, if this is so then this is wrong.
            1. Was mammoth
              Was mammoth 26 October 2012 20: 45
              0
              Quote: Yeraz
              Yes, I do not distort



              Distort again. I do not like that I wish the Russians to take the best features of the behavior of other peoples? Kazakhs have many good features, only nationalists rule the ball. Here is another example: any shepherd in the steppe will not let go until he feeds.
              1. Yeraz
                Yeraz 27 October 2012 00: 20
                +4
                Quote: There was a mammoth
                Distort again. I do not like that I wish the Russians to take the best features of the behavior of other peoples?

                What kind of person are you? I mean what are you talking about? I am only for the Russians to take the best qualities from other nations, just like mine too.
  16. alatau_09
    alatau_09 25 October 2012 13: 32
    +2
    hm, I read and never cease to be surprised ... human stupidity is limitless ...
    one "muddies" thinking to catch the felling, the fish thinks that, wagging its tail, it picks up a worm in the mutilated worm which is NOT and does not notice that the "dregs" are poisonous and settles on its "gills" ...

    something from the series "dumb, even dumber" or how politics differs from politicking ...
    1. alatau_09
      alatau_09 25 October 2012 15: 18
      +2
      For the future to be in the concept of FRIENDSHIP, let us rejoice at each other’s achievements and the common unifying our peoples at our level, then the youth will catch up on good examples ...
      in the world, the Jews have stirred up and muddied enough, only the blind and "gifted" or those who work out their handouts do not see it ...
      Maybe WE will nevertheless rise and be above them at least morally, and not become like them or serve ...
      After all, our grandfathers and fathers shed blood and defended ONE Motherland no matter what it was and no matter how it was blackened, and pouring mud on each other does not honor us with their MEMORY ...
      Unconsciousness - for peoples with stable morality it is equally condemned and identified with bad manners ...
      Do not spit in the well of memory, otherwise thirst will torment you and your descendants.
  17. The gentleman
    The gentleman 25 October 2012 15: 18
    -1
    Once again I’m reading an article and it’s completely incomprehensible with whom Kazakhstan. Well, he said this, and now what will be the reaction of Russia? What can they attract?
  18. Nechai
    Nechai 25 October 2012 15: 29
    0
    Quote: aksakal
    “Are you going to burn imperial ambitions with a hot iron? Yes, like that.” They did not expect? Nothing. There are always discoveries

    Have you seen somewhere in Russia Budyonny-next? Not Nazi guys, you will set your minds while others will be. The Han are not us, Russians. If you try to throw them, then then quickly remember about Russia.
    And no surprise, if you want to believe it or not. Your business, in general. Everything was clear when speeches were inspected against Colbin. And with the transfer of their capital, Alma-Ata (to foreign loans), plans and appetites became clearer than clear. To consider YOURSELF as the smartest and most cunning, of course, adds self-esteem, but does not bring the results of aspirations closer.
    And in raising children in the Nazi spirit, you "aksakal" are far from being a pioneer. This is familiar since the days of developed socialism. Only from the same times, all the national heroism and humiliation of other nations FLIES IN MIG, after receiving a corresponding rebuff from their peers. And immediately a silk and fluffy batyr. An example to follow, the right word.
  19. karimbaev
    karimbaev 25 October 2012 15: 59
    +1
    neighbors stirred, yes! They woke up. First, put things in order in your house, otherwise soon the Far East will completely depart. With respect!
  20. FunkschNNX
    FunkschNNX 25 October 2012 16: 21
    +1
    Kazakhstan is certainly a pleasant neighbor, but Russia needs to think about the integration of the Slavs. For the common people, national ideas are more important than the desires of oligarchs from multinational companies. While they consider the profits from the customs union - Ukraine continues to move away.
  21. Nechai
    Nechai 25 October 2012 16: 58
    +1
    Quote: karimbaev
    neighbors stirred, yes! They woke up. First, put things in order in your house, otherwise soon the Far East will completely depart. With respect!

    Why did you get this? Did you find any practical steps? And do not worry about OUR Far. You have more important concerns. For the rank is much more attractive YOUR resources now. Yes, and as a springboard for an attack on the Russian Federation YOUR territory for them is, well, very tasty. Well, the male part of all newly acquired in the future territories of the PRC will have to say goodbye to their male dignity. Their assimilation skills are millennia old. Yes, after all, you still have a memory among the people that they did when they came last time. Or have you already erased historical memory? And now they have a terrible shortage of women. For the Chinese of reproductive age, exactly half of the brides are missing. In the Far East, they will not find them; there are places that are more attractive in all resource senses.
    As for the now flourishing nationalism, in the former Republics of the Union / By the way, an interesting twist of Nazi propaganda - the last ruler of the Kazakhs was slammed by someone, he also deprived of statehood. But Russia, which has preserved the very nation of Kazakhs, is to blame for everything. In truth - do not do GOOD, you will not get evil! / - an excellent lesson for us. No brothers. Apartheid and nothing more. If you want to achieve something, to realize yourself - accept the state-forming culture, language, ideology. And how the culture will be preserved there, etc. your people, this is your concern. "The sheriff's trouble Indians don't f ... t!" They did not understand the good, it will be different.
    1. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 25 November 2012 06: 33
      -1
      the ancestors of the Kazakhs fought the Chinese for at least 2000 years. we can handle it somehow. do not teach or shake the steppe inhabitants with the Chinese or other enemies. like the Kazakhs of the Russian army are not obliged to do anything to reproach us for something and make us bow. the Kazakhs coped with all the enemies in all the wars without the Russians (WWII is not included here, this is our common war). So scare your neighbors and Kents with castration. And the Horde themselves will cut off the eggs themselves, if necessary. And then tell your castrated friends how the "Chinese" did horror films with Kazakhs in the Kazakh steppe. They are probably the same blockheads as you, and they will absolutely believe your tales.
      Of course, you need to rely on your neighbor's shoulder, if God forbid a war happens, but I personally don't consider you a neighbor. And in general, I would not want such a "ally" and "breadwinner" to be in the same trench with me. E_nu nah_y and then the problems of the dead "Indian" will not really bother me. I will blame the "Chinese atrocities".
  22. The gentleman
    The gentleman 25 October 2012 17: 48
    +1
    I’m sitting and reading comments and it’s become so funny. Look how one article immediately divided the peoples, the two brotherly peoples. It was not so long ago that there was a sharp debate about the fact that Kazakhs and Russian brothers are forever, that they’re specially throwing fire in their relations, that’s all the work of provocateurs, etc. and as such, the article only talks about Nazarbayev’s actions, but other claims to each other just went right away. I won’t deny that it depends on the Russian Federation, but the comments of Russians (mind you not Russians) are snapping. Maybe the Russian Federation can change its attitude towards countries Central Asia? They’ve given freedom themselves, and now they’re trying to strangle them. They can still begin to listen and hear, rather than indicate. Now is the time, and if the dialogue is right, but much can be decided in an instant.
  23. kush62
    kush62 25 October 2012 18: 39
    0
    On both sides, provocateurs successfully conceive a squabble. No need to respond.
    1. Islam
      Islam 26 October 2012 13: 47
      +1
      nationalists who have forgotten that our grandfathers fought shoulder to shoulder for the USSR, there will always be sad therefore, these subhuman must be shut up
  24. 916-th
    916-th 25 October 2012 20: 21
    +1
    Kaa: Nazarbayev is forced to "spin" between those who have pro-Western, pro-Chinese, pro-Turkic and pro-Russian vectors.

    Aksakal: So far, with the Russians and only with them, without closing any other gates and without slamming the doors in vain.

    Che: I hope common sense prevails in Kazakhstan, they won’t be engaged in nationalistic crap there.

    Bask: Kazakhstan, like Russia, has no alternative, ONLY CUSTOMS UNION

    VadimST: Most likely, the foreign economic and foreign political component of Russia is not always in a balanced state. Political statements are always projected through the economy, but the economy is, first of all, business, and it has slightly different priorities.

    Zemlyak: The multi-vector nature of Nazarbayev’s politics. Once again, showing the whole world the independence of Kazakhstan's foreign policy from Moscow and Beijing ...


    The truth is somewhere nearby ... In my opinion, all these gestures, both toward pan-Turkism and within the framework of the Eurasian Union, play the role of a screen behind which the narrow-minded interests of the ruling clans are hidden. Not national, not state and, God forbid (or Allah), not popular interests, namely the interests of the ruling clans, in Kazakhstan - Nazarbayev, in Russia - Putin.

    The Russian "elite" is more aggressive and expansive towards neighboring "elites" from Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. The same resist in the ways available to them. And all this bulldog fuss takes place under the slogan of creating the Eurasian Union. Unfortunately, their project has little in common with the aspiration of the peoples of our countries to unite.
  25. Islam
    Islam 25 October 2012 20: 49
    0
    Of course, Pan-Turkism is not bad, but I am for the unification of the USSR, although the Turks are a great people like the Russians good
    1. Was mammoth
      Was mammoth 25 October 2012 22: 55
      +2
      Quote: Islam
      Of course, pan-Turkism is not bad, but I am for the unification of the USSR, although the Turks are a great people, like the Russians are good


      I am for. Friendship is better than enmity
      1. mazdie
        mazdie 25 October 2012 23: 44
        0
        There are good people in every nation wink even among enemies.
        Nezrya proverb was born - Better is a good Enemy than a bad friend !!!
      2. Islam
        Islam 30 October 2012 12: 17
        0
        Quote: There was a mammoth
        I am for. Friendship is better than enmity

        Well, here I am about the same
  26. wolverine7778
    wolverine7778 25 October 2012 21: 56
    -1
    Everything is simple. Nazarbayev simply decided to stop the painfully arduous process of political integration with Belarus and Russia, the Eurasian Parliament. The opposition launched a powerful media campaign against such integration, they are already raising the issue of holding a referendum, Nazarbayev had recently had sad experience holding a referendum on extending his powers, the opposition, no matter how weak it is, but knows where to hit in weak places, Western countries were very indignant . He retreated, held another election, extended his powers, but still it’s not so. Everyone knows that Nazarbayev is a cunning steppe fox, but the retreat ... retreated once, there is a second, etc. In short, it seems that the process of Kazakhstan’s integration has been suspended somewhere until the end of 2015-2016, and Russia will have to build the Eurasian Union with Belarus itself without Kazakhstan so far. Purely my subjective opinion)
    1. Islam
      Islam 1 November 2012 12: 03
      0
      Let this opposition go to the DPRK and look at a country that has never been to any alliances, can change its mind and stop crap like threats to sovereignty, the extinction of the language. Everything in Kazakhstan will be fine and we will be friends even stronger with Russia. And if China doesn’t make friends with Russia, then there will definitely be no sovereignty.
      “Voluntary integration, based on the interests of the people and the country, is the shortest path to prosperity” N. A. Nazarbayev good
    2. Marek Rozny
      Marek Rozny 25 November 2012 07: 08
      -1
      and when the presidents of Bulgaria and Russia meet - let's call it a betrayal towards the Kazakhs and a threat to the security of Kazakhstan? Turks - albeit distant, but still related to the Kazakhs from a cultural point of view. we communicate in related languages, perform the same rituals on religious holidays, and the Turks did a lot of good for the Kazakhs in practice:
      1) they saved the Kazakhs who fled from the Soviet Union in 1933 as a result of the most severe famine, as a result of which the number of Kazakhs was halved (this is also according to Soviet data). there still lives a rather big diaspora of Kazakhs. The Turks gave everyone land, helped everyone take root.
      2) The Turks searched for Turkestans among prisoners from the Turkestan Legion who came to the Americans in 1945 and issued them Turkish passports to help the people whom the camps were waiting for involuntary service in the Turkestan legion to survive. Most of the Turkestans nevertheless decided to return to the USSR, where all, without exception, went to the camps later, but some still went to Turkey, many of these people are still alive.
      3) The Turks were the first to recognize Kazakhstan as a state after the collapse of the USSR and have provided and are providing real material assistance in many areas - from education to defense. The best school educational institutions are Kazakh-Turkish lyceums. For many years, Kazakhstan has offered Russia to establish production of armored vehicles, in return it received only a refusal. As a result, the Kazakhs turned to the Turks, and the Turks with pleasure agreed to establish production in Kazakhstan with the transfer of the necessary technologies. Now Kazakhs need only technology, we have money. But in the early 90s, the Turks eagerly helped us financially, shared their experience, created a joint business, erected monuments to outstanding Kazakhs in their country, and helped in cultural projects.
      At the same time, they never allowed some kind of open or hidden feeling of superiority, never insulted or humiliated the Kazakhs, still never reproached the Kazakhs for actually saving the Kazakhs in the 30s and 40s. But on the other hand, Russian Internet users, journalists and politicians really believe that they saved the Kazakhs from the Chinese in the nonexistent Russian-Chinese war of the 18th century, allegedly defeated the Dzungarian invaders who attacked the Kazakhs, disinterestedly built a raw material colony in the Kazakh SSR (in connection with which they sent millions of their migrant workers) and wonder why the Kazakhs did not appreciate the fact that they deprived the Kazakhs of their language (in Soviet times, only 1 (one) Kazakh school functioned in the capital of Kazakhstan, one and a half million Alma-Ata!), ruined a bunch of land with ill-conceived virgin lands (most of the virgin lands were destroyed and will still be dead for many tens or centuries of years), ditched the Aral Sea, a quarter of Kazakhstan's territory was turned into military ranges, atomic test sites (they exploded not only in Semipalatinsk, but there were other nuclear explosions in other regions of the Kazakh SSR), landfills, places where heptyl fell, GULAGs. "We've built so many gorgeous Disneylands for you, and you ungrateful natives still grumble when our rockets poison your Kostanay wheat ..."
      And how enraged the Russians were that the neighbors dared to communicate and make friends with someone without a team from Moscow! Ah bastards! Ah, traitors! Ah, a naughty herd!
      Well, the Union of Russia and Belarus is still an epic ... Rather, a circus, not a Union.