Military Review

He Who Fought

24
He Who Fought

“Green grass, green grass ...” he stutters. - A deep sleep ... They rest ... In the manure pits, in the funnels they lie, riddled with bullets, shredded with projectiles, tightened in a swamp ...
E. M. Remarque "The Return"


War and death are not terrible in the movie - the heroes die from a neat little hole in the heart. Dirt, blood and the horrors of this war always remain behind the scenes. But it was for real fighting created the Soviet fighter-bomber Su-17. The "dry" flew there, from where there was no official television coverage, where it was not possible to distinguish others from their own, and the conditions demanded with utmost cruelty to strike at enemy positions. In contrast to the solemn ceremonial MiG-29 and Su-27, the "seventeenth" remained unknown to the general public. But his silhouette is well remembered by those on whose head he brought down tons of bombs.

The Su-17 first "lit up" on an air attack at Domodedovo in 1967, where it was immediately marked by NATO observers as a "primary objective" along with the legendary MiG-25 interceptor and vertical takeoff aircraft at Yakovlev Design Bureau. "Seventeenth" was the first Soviet aircraft with a variable geometry wing. This wing design improved the take-off and landing characteristics and increased aerodynamic quality on the dial. As a basic design, the Su-7B supersonic fighter-bomber was chosen - a deep modernization turned the old proven machine into a multi-mode third generation combat aircraft.

Three thousand aircraft of this type flew into both hemispheres of the Earth: at different times the Su-17 was in service with the Warsaw Pact countries, Egypt, Iraq, Afghanistan and even the distant state of Peru. Forty years after its inception, the “seventeenth” remains in service: in addition to countries such as Angola, North Korea and Uzbekistan, the Su-17 form the basis of the fighter-bombing aviation Poland is a member country of the NATO bloc. The previous 2 years, the Su-17 again spent on the front line - fighter-bomber aircraft (ISA) of the government forces of Libya and Syria periodically subjected the rebel base to attacks.

The Su-17 fighter-bomber was mass-produced throughout 20 years - up to 1990, during which time 4 modifications were created for the USSR Air Force and 8 export versions (Su-20 and Su-22) with reduced armament and on-board equipment, not counting two combat training options and modifications that turn the strike aircraft in reconnaissance. All of them differed significantly from each other in the composition of weapons, avionics and flight characteristics. Especially distinguished two most advanced modifications:
- Su-17М3 - was created on the basis of the combat training option: on-board electronic equipment and an additional fuel tank appeared on the site of the instructor's cabin.
- Su-17М4 - the last, in many respects a new modification. The aircraft was optimized for low-altitude flight, the air intake cone was fixed in one position. Pervasive automation was introduced, an on-board computer, a Klen-PS laser target illumination system and a teleindicator for the use of controlled weapons. An automatic system “Uvod” was developed, which monitored the danger zone and determined the optimal time of the lapel taking into account the flight capabilities of the aircraft and the zone of destruction of the enemy’s anti-aircraft assets. If the pilot did not respond to the appropriate indication, the system automatically took the aircraft out of the danger zone.

Despite being a fighter aircraft, the Su-17 was extremely rarely involved in air battles with enemy aircraft — the Land of the Soviets had enough specialized fighters (there were three types of interceptors: Su-15, MiG-25 and MiG-31). The main task of the Su-17 was strikes against ground targets using a wide range of air-to-surface weapons.

Su-17 received "baptism of fire" during the Arab-Israeli war 1973 of the year - as a part of the Syrian Air Force at that time there were 15 machines of this type (under the designation Su-20). In view of the general chaos, it is difficult to estimate the results from combat use - it is known that the vehicles made several combat missions, there were serious losses.
The X-NUMXs saw the peak of the Su-1980 combat use: the Su-17 export versions were used to suppress the support bases of the partisan UNITA group (these black citizens demanded the liberation of Angola, first from Portugal, then from communism, then completely unknown from whom — the civil war continued almost 22 years).
Su-22 Libyan air force stormed ground targets during the First Civil War in the troubled state of Chad (the last half century there has been a senseless slaughter with short breaks to regroup the forces). Two of this type of aircraft were shot down over Sidra Bay by the US Navy's deck interceptors in August 1981.

Su-20 and Su-22 Iraqi Air Force 8 years fought on the fronts of the Iran-Iraq war (1980 - 1988), simultaneously engaging in the suppression of Shiite uprisings in the south of the country. With the outbreak of the Persian Gulf War (1991), many Iraqi fighter-bombers were temporarily redeployed to Iran - with the full superiority of air forces of multinational forces in the air they could no longer fight. Iran, as usual, did not return the aircraft, and forty "dry" went to the guard of the Islamic revolution.

The use of Su-20 during the civil war 1994 of the year in Yemen was noted, at about the same time on the other side of the Earth, the Peruvian Su-22 entered into aerial combat with the “Mirage” of the Ecuadorian air force during the war with the strange name Alto Senepa. The planes were shot down, and both Latin American countries, as usual, declared themselves the victors.

Afghan swifts

A truly significant event for the Su-17 was the Afghan war. In the very first days after the entry of Soviet troops, two dozen "dry" 217 Aviation Regiment of fighter-bombers of the Turkestan Military District were deployed to the air base of Shindad (Herat province, north-west of the country). All this was done with such haste, that no one had any idea what a new airfield was, in what condition it was and who it belonged to. Fears of the pilots were in vain - Shindad was a prepared military base under the control of the Soviet troops. The runway with a length of 2,7 kilometers was in fair condition, while, of course, all navigation and lighting equipment required major repairs and restoration.
In all, there were 4 suitable lanes for fighter-bombers on the territory of Afghanistan: the already mentioned Shindad near the border with Iran, the notorious Bagram and Kandahar, and directly Kabul airport. By the end of 1980, when the fighting in Afghanistan had become the scale of a real war, the Su-17 of the Turkestan Military District began to be involved in strikes.

The “dry” flew a lot and often, fulfilling the whole range of tasks of fighter-bomber front aviation - fire support, destruction of previously identified targets, “free hunting”. The standard was 4-5 sorties per day. Intelligence versions, for example, Su-17М3Р, which became the "eyes" of the 40 army, became very popular. The scouts constantly hung in the Afghan sky, controlling the movements of the caravans of the Mujahideen, searched for new targets and carried out additional exploration of the results of the IBA bombing assault strikes.

Scout Su-17 is night photographing the foothills of Saprohigar

Of particular importance were the night sorties of the Su-17 scouts - in the dark, movements of dushmans became more active, countless caravans set in motion. Complex night reconnaissance of gorges and passes was carried out with the use of thermal imagers and radio-technical systems that directed the radio stations of the enemy. Infrared sensors of the Zima complex (analogous to the modern American infrared aiming-navigation system LANTIRN, which increases the light of the stars by 25 000 times) made it possible at night to detect even traces of a recently passed car or an extinct bonfire. At the same time, at any time, the scouts could independently attack the identified target - on the suspensions, besides the container with photographic equipment, there were always bombs.

Another Su-17’s mournful task was to mine dangerous areas and mountain trails from the air — by the time the fighting ended, the number of mines in Afghan soil was many times higher than the number of Afghan citizens. Mining from the air was carried out using containers for small loads, each of which carried 8 blocks that contained 1248 anti-personnel mines. It was not necessary to speak about the accuracy of the discharge - the mining of a given square was carried out at a transonic speed. Such a combat technique not only impeded the movement of dushmans, but also jeopardized the conduct of special operations in the mountains by Soviet forces. Double edged weapon.

Under the conditions when every stone and crevice became a shelter for the enemy, mass use of cluster bombs of the RBC type began, which destroyed all life on an area of ​​several hectares. The mighty FAB-500 showed themselves well: the explosion of an 500-kilogram bomb caused landslides on the mountain slopes, causing the destruction of secret paths, disguised warehouses and shelters. A typical variant of the combat load became the 2 of the NAR unit (64 unguided C-5 missiles) and two RBC cassettes with fragmentation or ball bombs. At the same time, each aircraft necessarily carried two 800-liter outboard fuel tanks: in the absence of any natural landmarks and interrupted radio communication (communication with aircraft running between the mountain folds, the An-26PT repeaters provided) increased fuel capacity was one of the most important factors directly affecting the success of a combat departure. The instruction stated that in the event of a loss of orientation, the pilot was obliged to take a course to the north and to eject after full development of the fuel — at least there was a possibility that he would be safe in the territory of the USSR.
Unfortunately, fierce fighting led to losses in attack aircraft - 23 March 1980, the first Su-17 did not return from the mission. On that day, a pair of "dry" struck at Chigcharan fortress, the direction of the attack in the direction of the ridge with a steep dive. Su-17 Major Gerasimov was not enough just a few meters - the plane caught the top of the ridge and exploded on the back side. The pilot died, the wreckage fell into the abyss.

With the increase in the number of anti-aircraft artillery barrels and large-caliber machine guns in the hands of the Mujahideen, each combat sortie turned into a dance with death - by the middle of the 80's losses were 20-30 “dry” per year. Three-quarters of damage to attack aircraft received from the fire of small arms, DShK and anti-aircraft mining installations, to combat this phenomenon, armor plates were installed on the lower surface of the Su-17 fuselage that protected the main components of the aircraft: a gearbox, a generator, a fuel pump. With the advent of man-portable air defense missiles, the installation of systems for shooting heat traps began - by the way, the threat of man-portable air defense systems was largely exaggerated - competent counteraction (heat traps, Lipa, special flight tactics), as well as a relatively small number of anti-aircraft missiles and poor training of warheads led to the fact that three-quarters of the losses of the aircraft were ... from the fire of hand-held small arms, DShK and anti-aircraft mountain installations.

Couple Su-17 doing their usual thing

The simple and reliable Su-17 demonstrated completely unique performance in the unimaginable conditions of the Afghan war: the aircraft engine worked without interruption during dust storms (here I immediately recall the gas turbine engine tank Abrams), using the most disgusting fuel (pipelines stretching to Shindad from the Soviet border were constantly fired upon and damaged by local "lovers" of gratuitous fuel). There were times when the damaged Su-17 rolled out of the strip and smashed the entire nose of the fuselage on the ground - they were able to be restored and put back into operation by the personnel of the air base.
According to the results of the Afghan company, Su-17М3 in reliability was ahead of all other types of airplanes and helicopter gunships of the Air Force of the Limited contingent of Soviet troops, having 145 hours time to failure.

Guillemot

Speaking of the Su-17, one can not fail to mention its eternal rival and partner, the MiG-27 aircraft. Both cars appeared almost at the same time, had identical mass-dimensional characteristics and a common structural element - a wing of variable geometry. At the same time, unlike the “flying tube” of the Su-17, the shock of the MiG was based on a more modern design of a third-generation fighter, the MiG-23.

In the last months of the Afghan war, the Su-17 at the airport of Shindad changed the MiG-27 - this could not affect the effectiveness of the air strikes, the command just wanted to check the MiGs in combat conditions.
At aviation forums between the pilots flying to the Su-17 and MiG-27, every time there are heated discussions on the topic: "What is better - MiG or Su?" The debaters did not come to an unambiguous conclusion. Solid arguments and equally serious accusations are heard from both sides:
“Avionics is a stone age” - a former IBA pilot is outraged who apparently once flew Su-17М3.
"But the spacious cabin and on the strength of the design it has no equal" - stands up for your favorite plane another panel member
“MiG-27 is the best. It is more powerful and modern. We caught up on the 4 "pyatisotki" and for the first round over the airfield they collected 3000 m. Goodbye, stinger! "- the MiG pilot authoritatively declares -" Particularly impressive, "Kayra, here Su-17 was not close”.

Optical “eye” of the Kaira-23 sighting system in the nose of the MiG fuselage

Then the pilots began to ardently discuss the famous modification of the MiG-27K, equipped with a laser-television aiming system "Kaira-23". Of course, it was a completely different plane - at the time of its creation, one of the best fighter-bombers in the world.

“At the MiG there was a six-barreled caliber gun 30 mm! Bursting the target to shreds ... "- exclaims someone.
"Come on! The gun is certainly good, but there was no way to use it - in Afghanistan, at the end of the war, we did not fly below 5000 meters. The gun and ammunition were carried as ballast, ”the new participant of the discussion says with restraint.
“Simplicity is the key to success! Su-17 is safer and easier to fly, ”the amateur Su-17 does not let up, continuing to list the facts of the incredible resurrection of wrecked aircraft. - “Maybe for the European theater of war and preferably the MiG, but for Afghanistan Su-17 was the most it!”

In general, the result of the dispute MiG vs Su is quite obvious: the MiG-27 is a more modern striking machine, superior to the “dry” one in a number of characteristics. In turn, the Su-17 is a cruel, merciless killer, designed for the same cruel, ruthless, and senseless wars.

Epilogue.

When in January 1995, Russian tanks were burning on the streets of Grozny, and the fighting in the Chechen Republic acquired the character of a large-scale war, the Russian command suddenly remembered that it would be nice to attract fighter aircraft to attack. Just a couple of years ago, hundreds of MiG-27 and Su-17 of the latest modifications were in the domestic Air Force. Why are they not visible in the sky now? Where are the planes?

Your ###! - Generals of all stripes swear in the hearts. In accordance with the directive of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation from 1 July 1993, the new commands of Frontal Aviation, Reserve and Training were formed. Only modern aircraft remained in service of Frontal Aviation, to which Glavkom ranked MiG-29, Su-27, Su-24 and Su-25. In the same year, fighter-bomber aircraft were eliminated as a kind of military aviation, its tasks were transferred to bombers and attack aircraft, and all MiG-27 were massively written off and transferred to storage bases.

Due to the acute need for fighter-bombers, high state commissions went to these "cemeteries of technology" in order to select the most combat-ready vehicles and return them to service, even under the designation "attack aircraft" or "bomber". Alas, not a single combat-capable MiG-27 was found - in just a couple of years of “storage” under the open sky, without any conservation and proper supervision — all MiGs turned into ruins.

MiG-27ML "Bahadur" Air Force of India and F-15 US Air Force at a joint exercise

As of 2012 year, India is the largest MiG-27 operator in the world. The MiG-88ML Bahadur 27 airplanes form the basis of the Indian Air Force fighter-bomber aircraft, and may be in service until the end of this decade.


Interesting facts about the Afghan epic Su-17 are taken from the book by V. Markovsky "Hot Sky of Afghanistan"
Author:
24 comments
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  1. Flying Dutchman
    Flying Dutchman 24 October 2012 08: 42
    +4
    As always, we have a completely careless end to the road of beautiful cars.
    1. Krapovy32
      Krapovy32 April 11 2013 14: 36
      +3
      At stake, you must put those who killed the aircraft.
  2. sea
    sea 24 October 2012 08: 48
    +2
    our generals are quick to disassemble, only then they turn it very badly. when it turns out that there is nothing to replace.
  3. merkel1961
    merkel1961 24 October 2012 08: 53
    +40
    Kizyl-Arvat, 82 years old, after withdrawing from the DRA.Su-17 with Al-7, which fought 217 apibs (military unit 15430). I flew them for 7 years, before the disbandment of the regiment in the 89th. Simple equipment, aiming by lead angle, speed, dive angle (horizontal flight, cabrio) and altitude. For low altitudes, high fuel consumption, but easier to control and accelerate at high altitude to supersonic than the Su-17m3 that flew in Mary-2 .An entirely different song: review, spaciousness in the cockpit, sighting and navigation system KN-23, programmable flight within 22,5 degrees latitude-longitude using RSDN, more economical Al-21 with high responsiveness and more fuel in internal tanks - irreplaceable for small and medium heights. I read the article with pleasure! One hundred pluses !!!
  4. grizzlir
    grizzlir 24 October 2012 09: 03
    +18
    Alas, not a single combat-ready MiG-27 was found - in just a couple of years of “storage” in the open air, without any conservation and proper supervision, all MiGs turned into ruins.
    This is called CANNING ??? In my shelf, the vehicles and MTLB tractors were mainly used for conservation. So the routine work was strictly observed. Remove from the blocks, put the battery in, blow out the oil cylinders and can be operated after an hour if necessary.
    I wonder who else answered for such a "conservation" of aircraft.
    1. borisst64
      borisst64 24 October 2012 11: 47
      0
      We read carefully, the aircraft were decommissioned.
      1. grizzlir
        grizzlir 24 October 2012 12: 05
        0
        Yes, this question is not clear to me why the commission will look at suitable aircraft for operation at the airplane cemetery. Or this episode, the author’s invention or the aircraft were still on the long-term storage sites (I don’t know what the conservation is called in the Air Force)
        1. Retx
          Retx 25 October 2012 16: 22
          0
          The slackness typical of those years, the aircraft handed over to the storage base, but they did not preserve them, put the bolt that's all.
  5. Wedmak
    Wedmak 24 October 2012 10: 17
    +7
    When will we get rid of short-sighted crucifixes ... in the army?
    Su-17, city of Akhtubinsk Astrakhan region.
    1. ATATA
      ATATA 24 October 2012 12: 36
      0
      "This is Su-7
    2. ATATA
      ATATA 24 October 2012 12: 39
      +1
      IMHO This is a Su-7
      1. Wedmak
        Wedmak 24 October 2012 12: 46
        +1
        No, specifically this board is Su-17M2. Of course it is painted clumsily ... I prefer a dark green protective coloring.
        1. postman
          postman 24 October 2012 19: 13
          +1
          Quote: Wedmak
          No, specifically this board - the Su-17M2


          The perspective is probably a little wrong
          Su-17 (product "S32") - The first Soviet aircraft with a wing variable geometry. [/ b

          Su-17M2 (airborne designation “54”) “558th Aircraft Repair Plant” BARANOVICHI
      2. romanru4
        romanru4 25 October 2012 15: 53
        0
        I did not see the Su-7B on the pedestal. Place him in the Kalashny row. None of the pilots forgot the saying "If you want to be in a coffin, then fly on the Su-7B".
        1. postman
          postman 26 October 2012 21: 40
          0
          Quote: romanru4
          I didn’t see the Su-7B on the pedestal

          and who said that this is 7B?
          Me not.
  6. mar.tira
    mar.tira 24 October 2012 10: 23
    +15
    Not long ago I found my airbase in Google (American). I looked and was horrified. 2 helicopters, An-26, An-2, and that's it !!!!! On the sides ruined and overgrown with grass and bushes hangars, and rem. 20 years ago, life was in full swing there, aircraft of all modifications, starting with the "strategists", landed at short intervals, the dispatcher was all covered in soap. And along the edge of the main and spare runways there was a regiment of "dryers". Our people have not yet fully understood the losses that we have suffered, and how many titanic labors have been ruined and sold for scrap by new nouveau riches, to China, and other "bosom" friends of Russia. Sawed and more modern (SU-27) aircraft, undermined in the quarries all the ammunition of the regiments from the artillery depots. (winged, and NURS, aerial bombs, and cannon bombs). Moreover, on the border with China! Having arrived in those shameful years on vacation, my brother told me all this with tears in his eyes! Who is to be judged for this now?
    1. DIMS
      DIMS 24 October 2012 10: 44
      0
      There you need to look at the date of the picture
  7. Aleks60
    Aleks60 24 October 2012 10: 43
    +6
    SU-17M3 is a very beautiful aircraft. Both on earth and in heaven. All in neat patches. Judging by the darn, a very reliable plane. Eternal memory forever remaining in the sky.
  8. black_eagle
    black_eagle 24 October 2012 12: 49
    +1
    Now, if all the Su-17s were immediately in the modification of the M4, and the MiG-27K, then many wars would end without starting, it’s sad to read about the losses, especially when these losses are not due to technology, but to illiterate use, which does not depend on pilot skill but from a misconception about the role of aviation in battle
    1. wow
      wow 24 October 2012 21: 52
      +4
      MiG-27K ("Kaira") were not used in the DRA !!! In August-September 88th we -134 apib, reinforced l / s and a / t 129 apib, 24th ADIB (Taldy Kurgan, Zhangiz-tobe, SAVO), relocated to the air. Shindad, DRA. The armament was equipped with MiG-27D and MiG-27M planes, on both of them a hole was used in the PRNK. sist. "Maple". We worked on them until our entry into the Union at the end of January 89. These were the first and last aircraft of this type to take part in the Afghan war. I remember when we just sat down in Shindad, all the "friendly" radio voices squealed: ... the newest attack aircraft MiG-27 landed at the airbase, and then about the heroic struggle of the "heroic mujahideen" against .... The 27th proved its high combat effectiveness and operational reliability. We returned home without loss of AT and l / s.
  9. 8 company
    8 company 24 October 2012 16: 01
    +5
    A sensible article, without "water", only facts and specifics. The author is a plus.
  10. tambu
    tambu 24 October 2012 19: 45
    +1
    a great machine, an amazing car of its time, like most weapons tips ...
  11. derk365
    derk365 24 October 2012 21: 15
    +2
    Alas, the strategic airfield "Bagerovsky" in the Crimea was dismantled into slabs, but it was one of the best .....
  12. Santa Fe
    24 October 2012 23: 19
    0
    23 February 2011 Air Force Libya lost two Su-22. Instead of attacking the rebel positions in the Ajedabya region, the pilot of the Su-22UM-ZK Colonel Abdul Salom al-Abdadi himself ejected himself and forcibly ejected the pilot Ali Omar al-Gaddafi who was in the back cockpit. Al-Abdadi was slightly injured while bailing, al-Gaddafi was not injured. The pilot, the pilot of the single-seat Su-22M-ZK, Colonel Sapam Atiy Moussa, repeated the “maneuver” of the commander, his Su-22 crashed into the sea.
  13. gregor6549
    gregor6549 25 October 2012 00: 46
    +1
    Both the MIG 27 and the SU 17 were excellent machines that received serious weapons systems (guided air-to-ground missiles, guided bombs and modern sighting and navigation systems. Their combat effectiveness in Afghanistan was higher than the MIG21, but much lower than the Su25's, since in the mountains, both MiG27 and SU17 were rocket "whistles" from which it was difficult to detect the firing positions of the Mujahideen and to accurately aim at the detected targets. In addition, the SU25 had two engines, and not one, like the SU or the MiG, and a very decent reservation, which greatly increased the combat stability of the SU25. (By the way, precisely because of the low combat stability of single-engine aircraft, both the MiG27 and the SU17 were withdrawn from service in favor of twin-engine aircraft). Unfortunately, with the appearance of the Stingers and Sushka among the mujahideen, and Migi were driven to great heights from where their actions on stealthy targets were very difficult. Therefore, at the last stage of the Afghan war, the Air Force command began to give preference was given to bombers of the SU24 and TU22M type, which at high altitudes could carry a more solid combat load than the SU 17 and MIG27, and could be based on Soviet territory. And this removed many of the problems with the delivery of fuel ammunition to the airfields.
  14. Alex 241
    Alex 241 25 October 2012 00: 50
    +1
    Gregory, I would call this plane, the plane of a soldier. And to fulfill their tasks, both Su and MiG were excellent aircraft in good hands.
  15. evrisco
    evrisco 25 October 2012 11: 23
    0
    Our Russian lack of care is to blame
  16. romanru4
    romanru4 25 October 2012 16: 04
    +4
    Handsome man! Gross Döln, Germany. The end of the 70s - the beginning of the 80s.
    1. s1н7т
      s1н7т 25 October 2012 21: 35
      0
      Really handsome!
      But in the picture I can’t make out - is it M3?
      1. flanker7
        flanker7 25 October 2012 22: 22
        0
        this is M4 ...
        Many thanks to the author of the article!
        1. s1н7т
          s1н7т 26 October 2012 09: 29
          0
          A, ext. I didn’t see the air / intake. Thank!)
  17. tracer
    tracer 25 October 2012 17: 18
    0
    Yes, the inglorious end of the glorious technology .... The works of hundreds of thousands of our people were thrown out to rust in the open air. I have only a relation to the "military sky" as a former paratrooper, and I had only a glimpse of combat aviation at airfields and in the sky.
  18. Kibb
    Kibb 25 October 2012 20: 26
    +1
    Great article, thanks (+)
  19. s1н7т
    s1н7т 25 October 2012 22: 17
    +3
    He served as an urgent service near S32M2 and M3. About - because he did not serve, he served in the AFS and PDS. Since I worked with SSH-45 films, every flight I saw the results of "air battles", "use" at the range - bombs, guns, missiles. Not everything is "chocolate", of course, but how the pilots tried! They brought the cassettes themselves. Some are standing, waiting - well, what is there? Nothing. Rushed off somewhere) Or - full of chocolate. Guys, I have a pack of "Tu"! ... The apotheosis of combat training is Luninets. Before us were the MiG-27 (they said from the GSVG). The marks are the same - "good". This means that in capable hands the Su-17 was not inferior to more modern machines). The article is a plus !!!
  20. Oles
    Oles 14 November 2012 16: 07
    0
    "With the increase in the number of anti-aircraft artillery barrels and large-caliber machine guns in the hands of the mujahideen, each combat mission turned into a dance with death - by the mid-80s, losses amounted to 20-30" dry "per year"

    kabzdets .. macaques with machine guns shoot down so many planes .. so why the heck is he needed ????
  21. kopar
    kopar 30 November 2012 12: 59
    0
    Article "+". Such articles lift the veil from many things that I did not pay attention to before.