Military Review

Castles from medieval miniatures

94
Castles from medieval miniatures
Miniature from the Golden Psalter, 890-900. St. Gallen Abbey Library


It happened on a July day
When the bread began to turn yellow.
Between Earli and Ergyle began
Not for life, but for death struggle.
The Duke of Montrose wrote a letter:
"Terrible Ergail, and don't wait an hour,
Speak in the morning and your people
Airlie Castle, plunder lead!”

Robert Burns "The Fair Castle of Airlie"

Ancient castles and fortresses. We again continue our story about medieval castles, however, before dealing with them history or architecture, it makes sense to get acquainted with castles from medieval miniatures and see how they were depicted by contemporary artists. And then we got acquainted with the images of knights in miniatures in medieval manuscripts, noted a number of interesting artistic features, but, in fact, we have not yet seen “pictures” with medieval castles. Meanwhile, miniatures "with castles and fortresses" are also very interesting for everyone who is attracted by the history of the Middle Ages.

Let's start with the fact that images of "strong places" are found in manuscripts already in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries. In particular, the storming of the fortress can be seen in the "Golden Psalter" of the St. Galensky monastery.

Here we have a real fortress with very beautiful towers. But… which fortress had such towers at that time? Perhaps they have not survived from those years, but what we have today clearly says that this is the artist's fantasy. But the armor and robes of the warriors are depicted quite conscientiously.

A completely typical motte castle is depicted on an embroidery from Bayeux, but since there was already material about this here, we will not repeat ourselves, we only note that this is already 1066.

Before us is a miniature from the "Great Chronicles of France", dating from 1274. Here we see a typical castle with a donjon, and the donjon has four towers at the corners. Narrow vertical loopholes are also typical of this time. Something else is surprising, namely: a mace in the hand of a warrior on the right. One might really think that he took it from our epic Ilya Muromets, or, on the contrary, it was Ilya who took such a mace from him and only added spikes to it for greater lethality.

It is interesting that the finds of such weapons no, but in miniatures and in the paintings of great artists, they are found. By the way, at Gaidar's "School" a "bad cadet", killed by Golikov, cut himself exactly the same ...


Miniature with a lock from the manuscript of 1274 "Great Chronicles of France". Library of St. Genevieve, Paris

In this miniature, the crusader host fights the Muslims against the backdrop of the walls and towers of Antioch. Moreover, it is clearly seen that the architecture of its buildings is clearly not oriental.


Let us turn once again to the miniature from the same manuscript. Before us is a drawing inscribed in a capital letter, that is, an initial, which was a characteristic way of decorating illuminated manuscripts of that time. Miniature from the Song of Antioch, 1275-1300. National Library of France

By the way, there are a lot of scenes in the manuscripts with sieges and assaults on castles and fortresses, while there are, of course, purely peaceful scenes, but they are much smaller.

It is interesting how the medieval artist presented to his contemporaries how the “expeditions” to the East took place - that was how the crusades were called at that time. This miniature shows how, with the help of stone-throwers, the enemy's fortress is thrown with stones, while chess is peacefully played in the camp of the holy host.


"History of the Crusades", 1300-1325 National Library of France, Paris

In the Chronicles of France (and there are many of them in different editions over different years), we, in addition to depicting the castles themselves, can see and therefore learn about the use of artillery against them. That is, according to this miniature in 1375-1400, it was already used ...


Let us turn again to the miniature from the Song of Antioch. Before us is a drawing inscribed in a capital letter, that is, an initial, which was a characteristic way of decorating illuminated manuscripts of that time. Here is shown a scene of an assault on an enemy fortress from a mobile wooden tower on wheels, a very interesting design. Miniature from the Song of Antioch, 1275-1300. National Library of France

One of the first guns.


"Great Chronicles of France", 1375-1400. Bodleian Library, Oxford University

Moreover, the manuscripts of the same time inform us that stone throwers with a counterweight - trebuchet, still continued to be used!


"The Mirror of History" (Volume 1), 1370–1380 National Library of France, Paris

Some thumbnails are extremely informative. For example, let's take this one, again, from the Great Chronicles of France, 1390-1405. Here we see the features of the castle/fortress architecture of those years; the way the knights and the banner of the King of England looked at that time, as well as the samples of polearms used, the characteristic shape of swords according to the typology of Ewart Oakeshott and ... the rondel dagger on two straps!


Miniature from the manuscript "Great Chronicles of France", 1390-1405. National Library of France, Paris

In some cases, the castles depicted in the miniatures were quite recognizable for a contemporary, not to mention the fact that the illustrations were supplemented with text.


Illustration from the Chronicle of France, Saint-Denis, 1380-1400. British Library, London


Alexander and Dindymus Manuscript, 1400 Bodleian Library, Oxford University

Year 1400. We look at one of the miniatures and see what types of weapons are used against the besieged. These are crossbows, stone throwers and cannons! And the besieged treat their enemies with stones.


Look how well in this illustration the artist depicted the traces of cannonballs on the stone wall! René d'Anjou Mortification of Vanity, 1470 Martin Bodmer Foundation, Cologny, Canton of Geneva, Switzerland

Interestingly, although we see the same crossbow on miniatures depicting castle assaults dating back to the 1470th century, bows continue to be found on miniatures from manuscripts as early as the 1480th century. Here, for example, is an illustration depicting the assault on Ribodanus from the Collection of the Chronicles of England, XNUMX-XNUMX.


"Compilation of the Chronicles of England", 1470-1480. from the collection of the British Library

In some miniatures, architecture is very clearly visible, but at the same time, knights in armor are present on them. And since we know the time of writing this or that manuscript, the time of distribution of certain armor, this is an extremely accurate means of dating certain historical events.


Here, for example, which tower and which knightly duel are depicted on the page of the novel "Guiron le Courtois", 1420. National Library of France, Paris

By the way, already at that time there was a “military book” so popular in our time (by the way, so many of these books were directly called!), In which all kinds of instructions were given regarding the conduct of the war and the assault, and the defense of fortresses and castles, in particular.

For example, it was proposed to water the attackers with water, including boiling water, through special weirs!


"Military equipment", 1420-1440 Upper Rhine, Germany. Zurich Central Library

Please note that in the illustration below, the defenders are dropping a red-hot iron cannonball on the warriors who approached the castle wall, covered with wickerwork!


War Book, 1437 National Library of Austria, Vienna


In this illustration, the shooter is holding a red-hot rod in one hand and a brazier with coals in the other. Why is a non-burning wick used? War Book, 1437 National Library of Austria, Vienna

And the thing is that the gunpowder of the XV century was a very fine powder, sticking together into clods. There was no air for combustion in it, so it was not possible to set fire to it in the barrels of guns, where it merged into one dense mass. I had to use a hot rod. From him, the saltpeter, which was part of the gunpowder, began to melt, released oxygen and the gunpowder flared up! Therefore, it was impossible to do without a brazier!


It is unlikely, of course, that at that time anyone was making such machines. But why not offer? War Book, 1437 National Library of Austria, Vienna

Well, in the future, books began to be printed, so this is a completely different story.

From what we saw, we can draw a very funny conclusion: the illuminators tried to very accurately convey the clothes of their time in their illustrations, but castles and fortresses, on the contrary, painted with relative accuracy and practically did not try to depict something specific. Why this is so - you can argue for a long time, but we will most likely never know the exact reason.

Although, yes, other examples are known when it is in the manuscripts that we find very accurate images of medieval buildings. Moreover, there is even such a manuscript in which their appearance is displayed photographically accurately. But we'll talk about that next time...
Author:
94 comments
Ad

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site: https://t.me/topwar_official

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 7 October 2022 05: 39
    +6
    All the good days!
    No time to write - in a word, gorgeous. The miniature with bombards was especially striking in its authenticity.
  2. tlauicol
    tlauicol 7 October 2022 06: 31
    +6
    The details in the pictures are amazing!
    I did not understand only the principle of operation of the machine in the upper left corner in the last picture. Or is it just a warehouse of some kind? request
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 7 October 2022 06: 53
      +7
      A cart with stones is sent down the slope, into the ranks of the attacking enemy. Nearby you can see the same, but broken, with scattered stones. I think the barrels are attached to the tower for the same purpose.
      1. kalibr
        7 October 2022 07: 02
        +4
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        down the slope

        Hey, yes, Anton! Seen everything!!!
      2. tlauicol
        tlauicol 7 October 2022 07: 05
        +5
        hi Flesh and blood of Rutger Hauer, right wink
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        A cart with stones is sent down the slope, into the ranks of the attacking enemy. Nearby you can see the same, but broken, with scattered stones. I think the barrels are attached to the tower for the same purpose.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 7 October 2022 07: 19
          +4
          Alas, Ivan, did not see this film. Was there a similar episode?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 7 October 2022 08: 19
            +6
            Hello Anton! smile

            I saw this movie a hundred years ago and I don't remember if there was just such an episode or not. But the film is online and you can watch it, and Hauer is an excellent actor despite his brutal appearance.


            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 7 October 2022 08: 37
              +4
              Hi Uncle Kostya!
              I think it makes sense to watch, especially since it was directed by Verhoeven.
              1. kalibr
                7 October 2022 08: 46
                +3
                A very good film, Anton, I confirm. There is a little fantasy, but tolerable.
              2. hohol95
                hohol95 7 October 2022 12: 19
                +5
                Good film. And morals are well shown. And the bubonic plague...
                good
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 7 October 2022 12: 28
                  +3
                  And the bubonic plague...


                  This is especially good, even pleasing. bully

                  Hi Aleksey! smile
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 7 October 2022 12: 39
                    +5

                    Good day Konstantin hi
                    In this film, it’s only a pity for a girl who fell ill with the plague and ... and what happened next - you have to watch!
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 7 October 2022 13: 29
                      +2
                      Exactly, I'll reconsider, because I don't remember the details at all.
          2. tlauicol
            tlauicol 7 October 2022 08: 48
            +7
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            Alas, Ivan, did not see this film. Was there a similar episode?

            There was a wheelbarrow with gunpowder
        2. ArchiPhil
          ArchiPhil 7 October 2022 08: 37
          +6
          Quote: Tlauicol
          Flesh and blood of Rutger Hauer, right

          Paul Verhoeven, to be exact. bully The film is superb! good
          Good morning, friends!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 7 October 2022 08: 46
            +6
            Hello Seryozha! smile

            I'll probably reconsider.
            1. ArchiPhil
              ArchiPhil 7 October 2022 08: 52
              +7
              Quote: Sea Cat
              I'll probably reconsider


              And the shooting took place in the castle of the fifteenth century, Belmonte. hi
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 7 October 2022 09: 07
                +6
                And thank God that they did without computer graphics, the living thing is somehow more alive. smile
              2. Konnick
                Konnick 7 October 2022 09: 24
                +8
                And this castle is a little older. Fort la Latte, a castle in the northeast of Brittany.

                This castle was built on a promontory in Fresnay Bay in the 14th century. Many films have been filmed on this site, including the famous Vikings (1958) by Richard Fleischer with Kirk Douglas and Tony Curtis.
    2. sergo1914
      sergo1914 7 October 2022 07: 35
      +5
      Quote: Tlauicol
      The details in the pictures are amazing!
      I did not understand only the principle of operation of the machine in the upper left corner in the last picture. Or is it just a warehouse of some kind? request


      IMHO. Raise this beak up. And then he fell and broke the wall. Limestone could be pecked like that until it was backfilled.
  3. sergo1914
    sergo1914 7 October 2022 07: 31
    +6
    Wonderful miniatures. How old is the profession of a blogger-military commissar.
    1. kalibr
      7 October 2022 07: 48
      +6
      Quote: sergo1914
      How old is the profession of a blogger-military commissar.

      Well, I would say "popularizer of military affairs." After all, all this was written not in a newspaper, but in a book of decent thickness. Not one such book was written, but many at once in order to sell, but still it was piece goods.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 7 October 2022 08: 09
        +5
        Thank you, Vyacheslav! good
        A magnificent selection of old miniatures, some of them look very naive, but, nevertheless, it is immediately clear what exactly the author of the drawing wanted to display. In those days, obviously, these manuscripts with "pictures" were a serious guide to the conduct of hostilities.
        Let me add a couple of favorite "pictures". smile



        1. kalibr
          7 October 2022 08: 45
          +4
          I wanted to insert the middle one, but in the end I chose the one with dents. And your two did not meet. Thank you!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 7 October 2022 08: 55
            +4
            The first drawing is clearly not a medieval miniature. I think I will not be mistaken in dating its creation to the second half of the XNUMXth century.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 7 October 2022 09: 05
              +4
              I don’t argue, but it’s very doubtful that in the XNUMXth century they depicted a similar weapon (second from left to right), after all, then they didn’t drive such a naive. But a later redrawing from an ancient miniature is quite possible, because, yes, the graphic technique corresponds to a later time.
            2. ArchiPhil
              ArchiPhil 7 October 2022 09: 08
              +6
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              I think I will not be mistaken in dating its creation to the second half of the XNUMXth century.

              "I date your manuscript to the year XNUMX ... Holmes stretched out his hand, took the manuscript and spread it on his knees ..." (c) laughing
              Greetings Anton! hi
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 7 October 2022 10: 21
                +4
                "I date your manuscript to XNUMX...




                Actors and characters for all time. good
            3. mihaylov
              mihaylov 7 October 2022 10: 30
              +4
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              The first drawing is clearly not a medieval miniature. I think I will not be mistaken in dating its creation to the second half of the XNUMXth century.

              Good afternoon Anton,
              Yes, the style is strongly knocked out, I looked on the Internet: it is listed as "Wood Engraving, 19th Century." (Wood Engraving, 19Th Century) hi
            4. Nephilim
              Nephilim 7 October 2022 10: 30
              0
              The first drawing is clearly not a medieval miniature. I think I will not be mistaken in dating its creation to the second half of the XNUMXth century.

          2. Catfish
            Catfish 7 October 2022 10: 24
            +5
            I found another miniature - the blood is gushing, the ladies are wringing their hands in experiences. For some reason, it’s not scary, but it’s completely funny, like a child’s drawing - everything is for fun. smile



            And the most terrible villain in the very center. I wonder who instructed him such horns, all three ladies at once, or is it still in turn? bully
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 7 October 2022 10: 59
              +4
              This is not a villain, uncle, but one of the German minnesingers. Miniatures from the Codex Manes cannot be confused with anything.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 7 October 2022 11: 30
                +4
                Khrenase, "singer of love", covered in blood up to his ears and with an original musical instrument. laughing
                Here are some more suitable.


                Miniatures from the Codex Manes cannot be confused with anything.


                "We swam, we know" (c)))) bully
              2. kalibr
                7 October 2022 15: 26
                +2
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Miniatures from the Codex Manes

                Classic!
  4. igordok
    igordok 7 October 2022 08: 34
    +3
    Thanks a lot. There are no words. The selected pictures are beautiful, and the comments are interesting!
  5. mihaylov
    mihaylov 7 October 2022 10: 34
    +4
    This "comrade" pleased:

    "Rise of the Planet of the Apes"? laughing
    1. Edward Vashchenko
      Edward Vashchenko 7 October 2022 10: 57
      +6
      Hello, Sergey,
      while playing basketball wassat
      1. mihaylov
        mihaylov 7 October 2022 11: 06
        +4
        Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
        while playing basketball

        Or American football? laughing his ball is kind of oblong hi
        Greetings Edward!
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 7 October 2022 12: 27
          +4
          Maybe rugby?
          Although there is no "protective armor" in rugby ... what
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 7 October 2022 11: 31
      +5
      Pretty! And I didn't see it. good

      Hello, Sergey! smile
      1. mihaylov
        mihaylov 7 October 2022 11: 37
        +5
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Hello, Sergey!

        Good afternoon Konstantin! hi
        Medieval miniatures are, of course, a special kind of art, but "antiques" are sometimes pleasing:
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 7 October 2022 11: 53
          +5
          M-yes-s... Who is this small one with cropped ears? laughing
          1. mihaylov
            mihaylov 7 October 2022 11: 58
            +4
            Quote: Sea Cat
            This is who we have so small and with cropped ears?

            Elephant pug? wassat
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 7 October 2022 12: 26
              +3
              Elephant pug? wassat


              Yeah, a distant relative of the Heffalump. laughing
              1. depressant
                depressant 7 October 2022 13: 24
                +5
                And this is the very little elephant from the island of Cyprus! I remember that Vyacheslav Olegovich spoke about the dead ecosystem of Cyprus. So, it turns out why the elephants were exterminated! They fell in battles.
                Hi Kostya! )))
                Welcome all!
                And I dare to attend, even though Anton wrote me down as the killer of Mosgorgaz. Yes, I was pinned in my fantasies! And he, naive, believed. I wiped the door, wiped the bell, and the button with the rim fell off, and I had to rummage around behind them. And the gloomy gasman smoked rapaciously... And the article poked me in the face! What is she like there? Reckless homicide? wassat )))
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 7 October 2022 13: 37
                  +4
                  Reckless homicide?


                  What difference does it make if a person were good, as the brick from the old joke said. laughing



                  Good afternoon, Luda! yes
                2. ArchiPhil
                  ArchiPhil 7 October 2022 15: 55
                  +4
                  Quote: depressant
                  . And the gloomy gasman began to smoke rapaciously...

                  Was there a gasman? And was it the gasman?laughing
                  They won't give anything for a "smoking gasman".
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 7 October 2022 17: 34
                    +3
                    Was there a gasman? And was it the gasman?

                    That's it!
                    Greetings, Sergey Vladimirovich! )))
                    Six months ago, gas workers came, changed my wooden plug, still from the previous owners, to a crane and said that I needed to change reliable metal pipes to plastic ones, I announced that I would think, they took advantage of my weakness and, taking money for the crane, forced me to sign an agreement with firm ... And since then they have been scouring our house regularly, looking for earnings. But I know their car, they put it in front of my window, and I just don’t answer calls ...
                    This is how life goes on pleasant adventures winked
                3. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 7 October 2022 17: 04
                  +3
                  Quote: depressant
                  Reckless homicide?

                  Necessary defense in its purest form.
                  Since the time of Ionesyan, Mosgaz has been a brand, and a very ambiguous one at that. smile
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 7 October 2022 17: 38
                    +3
                    By the way, yes. Having heard about this story, I received a strong immunity to the gas service. This is how urban legends like the Texas Chainsaw Massacre are born.
                  2. ArchiPhil
                    ArchiPhil 7 October 2022 18: 33
                    +3
                    Quote: Trilobite Master
                    brand name

                    Greetings Mikhail!
                    There was. There was another "brand" associated with gas workers. True, in a comedic way, but it was very popular! A phrase from the movie "Goodbye pigeons.":
                    Kievgas!

                    A movie from the XNUMXs.
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 7 October 2022 20: 08
                      +2
                      Did not watch. Or I don't remember.
                      The memory is no longer the same. It used to be - just a garbage dump, but now ...
                      I watch TV shows from XNUMX years ago like new. laughing
                4. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 7 October 2022 18: 17
                  +3
                  even though Anton wrote me down as the killer of Mosgorgaz. Yes, I was pinned in my fantasies! And he, naive, believed.
                  Okay, I remember...
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 7 October 2022 18: 39
                    +2
                    However, he turned out to be vindictive ...
                    "Please do not believe the whole truth,
                    what will they tell you about me!" (c)
                    wassat )))
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 7 October 2022 18: 58
                      +3
                      naive
                      You need to be more careful with epithets.
                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 8 October 2022 11: 41
                        +1
                        The brother was adopted out of necessity. If Koknar had not been without legs, he would not have recognized kinship with Porthos.
                        “Yes, we are brothers,” said Porthos, not embarrassed. He did not count on the warm welcome of her husband.
                        - It seems from the wife's side? the prosecutor asked slyly.
                        Porthos did not understand this joke, took it for naivety and laughed at it inwardly. Ms. Koknar knew that a naive prosecutor is a rarity, she smiled and blushed.
                5. kalibr
                  7 October 2022 19: 50
                  +2
                  Actually, you gave me a plot - elephants in miniatures. After all, it is very interesting how they were painted at different times. And - most importantly, I came across such miniatures! And not only in bestiaries!
                  1. Old Michael
                    Old Michael 7 October 2022 22: 36
                    +1
                    Good evening, Vyacheslav Olegovich!

                    I was given a plot - elephants in miniatures.

                    But in the miniatures of your today's publication, one can also see such a storyline: from the end of the XNUMXth century, miniatures begin to acquire volume. Gradually, perspective appears, buildings and structures are depicted either in a rectangular or in an axonometric projection, the roundness of forms, bulges and "bulges" begin to be transmitted by shadows and shades ...
                    About how ingeniously the great painters of the Renaissance used the play of light and shadow, how subtly they mocked the perspective, cars of publications were written - from thick monographs to popularizing essays.
                    But about how obscure illustrators of manuscripts comprehended these levels of skill from century to century, if something is written, it is clearly not for a wide range of interested people.
                    Understanding that for even a cursory digression into this topic, one must be at least a historian, and an art critic, and an enthusiast of this matter, I do not at all urge you to immediately begin research. But, what the hell is not joking, suddenly you already have three-quarters of the material for such an article right at your fingertips?
                    hi
                    1. kalibr
                      8 October 2022 07: 27
                      +2
                      Quote: OldMichael
                      But, what the hell is not joking, suddenly you already have three-quarters of the material for such an article right at your fingertips?

                      No, unfortunately not yet. But the idea to write about the technique of portholes was. And yes. many art books have been written. There is something to read. But this is not a matter of one day. THANK YOU for the idea!
    3. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 7 October 2022 15: 52
      +3
      I like this thumbnail:
      1. kalibr
        7 October 2022 16: 58
        +3
        Quote: Trilobite Master
        I have this miniature

        Now I am preparing a material just on this topic.
        1. depressant
          depressant 7 October 2022 17: 49
          +3
          And here, Vyacheslav Olegovich, I will finally unsubscribe about the fact that shook the imagination. Everyone, of course, heard about Pugacheva's castle, but they showed it on rollers from the inside. So what? Ordinary mansions, suffering from discomfort and not even marked by the usual noisy luxury of the rich. But now, leafing through Zen, I came across - for sale! For a billion rubles. And the front view...
          Well, I'll tell you, it's something! Giant buildings surround the courtyard, one with a side chapel in the form of a round tower, which is crowned with a peaked roof, and so on, and there is even a donjon! A huge multi-storey parallelepiped-type donjon...
          Basically a castle. And I thought that this dwelling was called the castle ironically. So what's wrong with it? Green gates, as in the country, and the view is the same wassat )))
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 7 October 2022 18: 06
            +3
            Green gates, as in the country, and the view is the same
            And red stars on the doors?
            1. depressant
              depressant 7 October 2022 18: 43
              +2
              Well, why distort the vision of the world of your Matrona? Well, or prima donnas - now you can't tell! The wind blows the sails, and the stars will appear.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 7 October 2022 19: 08
                +3
                The wind blows the sails, and the stars will appear.
                How romantic! And I'm just talking about this:
                1. depressant
                  depressant 7 October 2022 19: 52
                  +1
                  How romantic! And I'm just talking about it

                  Anton, what am I talking about? There are people who can see very precisely which way the wind is blowing. Either monograms on the gates, or red stars. Depending on the direction of the wind.
          2. ArchiPhil
            ArchiPhil 7 October 2022 18: 41
            +4
            Quote: depressant
            In general, the castle

            Not a castle, but kitsch! Worthy of an aging singer and a young / relatively /, such as a "parodist". The glass pediment in the center of the building is especially "good"!

            According to the principle - "Schob Bohato!". bully
            1. depressant
              depressant 7 October 2022 20: 04
              +2
              So it's not all of it in the photo! The car gives an idea of ​​the scale. And so I think, how long does it take to quickly go around all the premises of the "dwelling"? Well, of course, the attendance of the "chambers" depends on the functionality. And yet, size. I would be afraid that some homeless person would quietly make his way and begin to live quietly, the hostess would not notice.
              1. kalibr
                8 October 2022 07: 28
                +1
                Quote: depressant
                I would be afraid that some homeless person would quietly make his way and begin to live quietly, the hostess would not notice.

                +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 7 October 2022 21: 47
              +1
              Bad taste and lack of a sense of proportion, a hallmark of Pugacheva. This is noticeable in many who suddenly fell on a lot of money.
              1. kalibr
                8 October 2022 07: 34
                +2
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Bad taste and lack of sense of proportion

                I know one girl... From a village near Penza. Achieved success in the city. Of money. She is getting married ... They say to her - a ticket to Paris, a white wedding suite, an evening in a restaurant in honor of the young, champagne at the expense of the hotel ... Free to the Louvre ... She - 150 guests - "Bab Masha", "Bab Vera" , "Aunt Nina", "Aunt Lisa" ... All the former girlfriends. She - nfig they are for you, they are of no use to you, a waste of money. She - but let them see how I live now! 15 for fireworks, 15 for pigeons (in pants so that the floor is not polluted), 150 for a dress..... Well, why all this? The smart ones twisted their fingers at their temples, and the fools, yes, they were envious, ended with that ...
            3. Korsar4
              Korsar4 8 October 2022 12: 57
              +1
              Did Mitvol want to demolish it because he was in a water protection zone?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 8 October 2022 15: 07
                +2
                It's a pity I didn't take it down! We need to see good things through to the end.
          3. kalibr
            7 October 2022 19: 47
            +2
            Well, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, I saw this "miracle". What to say? There was a voice, but God did not give mind, that's all. By the way, many castles are for sale today. Unable to contain them. You won’t heat up a fig!
            1. depressant
              depressant 7 October 2022 21: 01
              +2
              Vyacheslav Olegovich, in addition to spending on fuel, the real estate tax is huge!
              As for fuel, it is most likely that Pugacheva's castle is connected to the village boiler house. And although the amount is not sickly, but in comparison with firewood, it is probably tolerable. Or not?
              1. kalibr
                7 October 2022 21: 32
                +1
                In his youth, being a married student, he also dreamed of building a 2-storey small castle. Outwardly very beautiful. Now for nothing. No stairs or second floors. Will you have to ride in a wheelchair?
                1. depressant
                  depressant 8 October 2022 08: 00
                  0
                  Good morning, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
                  Here is what Nephilim had in mind when talking about state entomology:

                  Imperial entomology for Samo's birthday

                  When will this all end, people with intelligence and conscience are wondering. Soon?

                  The hopes of the intelligentsia and business for the transit of power in Russia are not justified. And the point is not that Putin is eternal, but that the state in Russia was, is and will be imperial, that is, extremely tough on its citizens and their businesses. And this state, for all its scale, will remain practically brainless, like all social organisms. In this case, taking into account its fundamentally rigid cover, a kind of chitin, our state is an insect. And it's special. We live inside a rhinoceros beetle, and waiting and hoping for the awakening of his soul or intellect, which many Russian people habitually dream of, is simply madness.

                  Other modern states are also insects, and they cannot become pre-imperial, soft worms. But our beetle cannot become a light / nimble British mosquito, nor join the European swarm. All these flying bloodsuckers, including the German fly, look with distrust and apprehension at the too big and slow Russian beetle, especially at its proudly raised horn. And it’s true, we won’t be able to turn into any large, absurdly thin, Lyakh malarial mosquito, the genetics are different.

                  But inside the old, big, decaying beetle, a change is brewing. They dream of turning Russia into a nobler, and even slower stag beetle, even with two horns, Putin's closest service associates, non-nobles. A nimble black cockroach, even more smelly than the old rhinoceros beetle, would like to be made out of Russia by sharp compradors from the closest circle of the President (the “GRU Party”), tired of the slowness and caution of an elderly rhinoceros. The well-deserved neo-nomenklatura (“PSU party”), tired of supporting the shiny, heavy, senseless rhinoceros shell, dreams of the wisdom of the spider, weaving the networks of its organizations, woven into the global network fluctuations of transnational corporations. Stubbornly growing inside the neat beetle, a smart grasshopper/financier locust folded to disguise its long twisted legs, preparing for a “breakthrough” reverse jump into the global financial flock from the decaying body of an alpha rhinoceros.

                  But to everyone who is inside the latter (that is, to all of us), only later it will become clear that there was no sweeter and calmer time than this such an alarming autumn of the patriarch under the covid winds. Take a deep breath, entomologists, without fear of a far from deadly contagion. Pin this amber moment in your memory. And get out inside. Don't confuse your high consciousness with the mechanical fussy movements of giant insects, inside of which we humans live not so badly yet, right?


                  This is the telegram channel of the visionary. Igor Semyonov.
                  1. kalibr
                    8 October 2022 16: 11
                    +1
                    I understand you, but ... let's just say - if they write this, if they don't write, absolutely nothing will change. We have 16 million party collapsed in an instant. Worse than that, what inner shock could be worse?
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 8 October 2022 18: 06
                      0
                      The party did not collapse. She hatched like a butterfly from a chrysalis, transformed into a different quality with a new ideology, for which, as a chrysalis, she prepared for a long time, gradually, carefully and, having hatched, she clearly knew what she wanted. And its ordinary composition, and even more so ordinary citizens, were not ready. Were not informed and even more involved in the process. They could only guess, but due to the optimistic essence of the Soviet person, they did not fully believe in the bad ... Such is the entomology. Only the West, having the most powerful analytical resource and contributing to the transformation of the chrysalis into an imperial butterfly and understanding entomology, knew that the age of the butterfly was short-lived. Will die by winter.
                      1. kalibr
                        8 October 2022 18: 27
                        +1
                        Quote: depressant
                        Were not informed and even more involved in the process. They could only guess, but due to the optimistic nature of the Soviet person, they did not fully believe in the bad ..

                        Well, I also knew something back in 1988, but, yes, I didn’t fully believe it. But... the death of the old is the beginning of the new. I would never have had my own magazine and company in the USSR.
                      2. depressant
                        depressant 9 October 2022 08: 22
                        0
                        But the question would not be about the integrity of the state. If the Union had made the due technological breakthrough in the 60s and 70s, then gradually the outskirts would have drawn up to the general concept of "Soviet people", and the question of disintegration would not have arisen. And, most importantly, the Russians would not be made indebted to everyone and everything. The bias in the national question was deliberate. In those same years, Russians, by making them indebted to everyone, were cleverly led to the notion that they were Europeans, and the suburbs were just as cleverly led to historical origins, tribal relations. In both cases, this generated huge centrifugal forces.
                        If we return to the analogy of Nephilim, that is, to imperial entomology, then the beetle rules with its paws, and not its paws, although the paws also contribute a share, a signal where the beetle should move. This is in addition to the stomach, eyes and chitinous cover. The proportion of paws is small. But conditions were created when the paws were given a decisive voice and they ran in different directions, tearing the beetle apart.
                        If everything was done in a smart way, you would be the editor of some popular technical children's or even adult magazine and would have the same as now, or even more.
                      3. Liam
                        Liam 9 October 2022 08: 30
                        0
                        Amazing ability to generate nonsense on an industrial scale
                      4. depressant
                        depressant 9 October 2022 09: 14
                        +2
                        If I'm not mistaken, your name is Victor? )))
                        The fact is that it was not me who generated the nonsense, but Nephilim, to force me to turn to the theory of imperial entomology. Moreover, he did this with an arrogantly dismissive air, turning not to me, but to Vyacheslav Olegovich, and even with a mysterious air of an expert on what is inaccessible to mortals ...
                        Well, I asked. There is such a model. It's also funny in my opinion. It's like countless maps, on which each of the countries is depicted in the form of animals. We are stable -- bear wassat )))
                        And here we are - a rhinoceros beetle! And the UK is a vicious mosquito. It's funny, isn't it?
                        So I'm trying to understand the model and the way of thinking of its author. View the world from its bell tower. Only and everything.
                        As for you, your remark in relation to me is of a consistently monotonous nature, all the same words filled with the same arrogance, not supported by any reasonable arguments, which indicates a humiliating disregard for the interlocutor)))
                      5. kalibr
                        9 October 2022 09: 56
                        +1
                        Quote: depressant
                        You would be the editor of some popular technical children's or even adult magazine

                        Of course not. I would have defended my doctorate in the history of the CPSU (everything went to this) and would still read it at the university. And everything else would go as a hobby.
                      6. depressant
                        depressant 9 October 2022 15: 10
                        +1
                        And everything else would go as a hobby.

                        This is Shpakovsky speaking today. Already a little tired. Translating the current idea of ​​​​self to the fact that he lived in the past tense.
                        Sometimes... Y-xxx! Closing your eyes and hissing. Time, where are you?!? What's stopping you? A mortal organism... Some have a high resistance to the needs of the body and even its morbidity, for example, like Michelangelo Buonarotti, others like a fly. Imagine if a fly is not allowed to land for 10-15 minutes, it will die.
                        I see myself as something intermediate between the two examples. But unlike the rest, I had to fly in a vacuum for 15 years. Life crossed out.
  6. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 7 October 2022 14: 05
    +6
    In this illustration, the shooter is holding a red-hot rod in one hand and a brazier with coals in the other. Why is a non-burning wick used?

    The gun is an analogue of the Arab modfy - the ancestor of European firearms.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 7 October 2022 21: 53
      +4
      That's right! good

      When the Arabs first used modfu against the crusaders, they fled in horror from the walls of the city, being absolutely sure that the devil himself was throwing shells at them. laughing



      Hi, Nikolay! drinks
  7. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 7 October 2022 14: 40
    +5
    Let's start with the fact that images of "strong places" are found in manuscripts already in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries. In particular, the storming of the fortress can be seen in the "Golden Psalter" of the St. Galensky monastery.
    Here we have a real fortress with very beautiful towers. But… which fortress had such towers at that time? Perhaps they have not survived from those years, but what we have today clearly says that this is the artist's fantasy.

    I would not rush to such a categorical conclusion.
    If the author of the drawing at one time made a pilgrimage to the Holy Sepulcher, during this trip he should have seen a lot of interesting things, for example, the walls of Jerusalem. And if the route of the alleged pilgrimage went through Constantinople, then it too.
    Moreover, the drawing itself depicts, as I understand it, some kind of biblical city - after all, this is a psalter, and not a chronicle of some European lawlessness ...
    1. kalibr
      7 October 2022 15: 41
      +5
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      And if the route of the alleged pilgrimage went through Constantinople, then it too.

      Interesting, yes. But unverifiable, alas.
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 7 October 2022 16: 58
        +4
        I mean, this is hardly the imagination of the artist. Too, in my opinion, a realistic and reliable image.
        He could see something similar, not just anywhere, but in those parts of Europe, Africa or Asia that for a long time were under Roman domination - easily. It was not even necessary to travel to Jerusalem or Constantinople, you could just visit, for example, Dubrovnik (Ragusa) on the Adriatic.
        1. Nephilim
          Nephilim 7 October 2022 21: 26
          +2
          This is a biblical story. Joab (the commander of King David) ravages Idumea - a historical region and kingdom in the south of the Israeli highlands.
  8. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 7 October 2022 17: 38
    +6
    And the thing is that the gunpowder of the XV century was a very fine powder, sticking together into clods.
    Quite right. Grained gunpowder appeared only in the XNUMXth century.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 7 October 2022 19: 06
      +4
      Grained gunpowder appeared only in the XNUMXth century.

      Sergei, correct me if I'm wrong. Bombards of the 15th-16th centuries were therefore charged from the treasury. As soon as they received grained gunpowder, they began to charge from the muzzle. With respect, Nicholai. hi
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 7 October 2022 20: 23
        +3
        Yes, that's right. As I.S. Prochko "History of the Development of Artillery" (1994 reprint of the book of 1945), after the invention of grained gunpowder, detachable chambers were abandoned. Yes, and their sealing was the same, although they were on a screw connection.