Military Review

From "Sopki" to "Bastion". Combat use of Russian coastal anti-ship missiles

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The world's first land-based anti-ship missiles (anti-ship missiles) were created in the USSR. At first, they, like all RCCs, were called projectiles. The term "cruise missile" was introduced by order of the USSR Ministry of Defense on October 30 1959 of the year.

At the beginning of the 50-ies of the XX century, the Kometa anti-ship projectile was created, then, at its base, the Strela-ship (KSS) and coastal underground complexes. Based on them, the design of the Sopka mobile coastal complex began. The C-2 (4К-87) missiles of the Strela and Sopka complexes were almost the same, therefore, in the 60's, the Strela complex was often called the Sopka stationary complex.

"Sopka"

The mobile coastal complex was equipped with C-2 (4K-87) projectiles. Targeting - external, from a coastal battery, C-1М station. Control system (SU) - inertial (INS). The homing head (GOS) is semi-active. The combat unit (CU) is a high-explosive, the weight of the explosive is 860 kilograms. Launcher (PU) - mobile, B-163. The minimum range - 15 kilometers, maximum - 95. Marching speed - 300 kilometers per hour. The speed of movement of PU - 35 kilometers per hour. Ready to start - 30 minutes. Control system weapons (SLA) included (data on the Utyos coastal stationary missile system) Cape detection radar with a range of 185 kilometers, a central post combined with C-1M guidance radar and Burun tracking radar.

From "Sopki" to "Bastion". Combat use of Russian coastal anti-ship missilesThe start of the design is December 1 1955. The first launch is 27 Nov. 1957. Adopted on December 19 1958 of the year.

Combat service - 1962 – 1971 years. With 211 start-ups, 107 hits are achieved (SF - 44 / 16, BSF - 93 / 39, BF - 34 / 23, TOF - 40 / 29).

It is curious that the Kamchatka "Sopka" 21-th separate coastal missile regiment (obrp) of the Pacific Fleet had a chance to become anti-submarine weapons. In the autumn of 1959, the American diesel-electric submarine "Tanni" of the "Balo" type, armed with two Regulus-1 cruise missiles, patrolled off the coast of the peninsula. The Yankees boasted that in order to launch their missiles they needed ten minutes of being in a surface position. In fact, this time reached 30 minutes. So our complex had every chance to hit the American diesel-electric submarines. However, immediately after the first launch of the Sopka, the Americans quickly moved away from the shore beyond the hundred-kilometer line.

In 1968, the calculations of the Sopka complexes from the Baltic and Black Sea fleets were sent to Egypt. There 9 October 1973-th held the first combat use. For four Israeli boats approaching the port of Alexandria, five C-2 missiles were launched. According to Egyptian data, one boat sunk, the other was damaged. Israel announced that all the missiles passed by.

"Redoubt"

The coastal missile system (BRK) was equipped with the P-35B and 3М44 Progress missiles. Targeting - external on the radio observation station (RTSN). Guidance scheme: climb - by INS, target detection - by the on-board radar system (BRLS), transfer of the radar image (RLI) to the RTSN operator, after selecting the target operator - by the GOS. SU - INS + radar. GOS - radar (GOS radar). A CU is a cumulative high-explosive or special (20 kT), the weight of the first is 460 kilograms. PU - mobile, SPU-35 (SPU-35B), chassis - ZIL-135К / BAZ-135МБ. Maximum range - 300 kilometers. The working range depended on the selected flight altitude mode: 55 kilometers at 400 meters altitude (B1 mode), 200 - at 4000 meters altitude (B2), 300 - at 7000 meters altitude (B3). Range in exploration mode - 450 kilometers. Marching speed - 500 kilometers per hour. The speed of movement of PU is 40 kilometers per hour (on the highway), the maximum is 65. Power reserve - 500 kilometers. The transition time from marching to martial status - 1,5 hours. The rocket was launched at an angle of 20 degrees. OMS - "The Rock" (4P43).

The beginning of the design is 16 in August 1960 of the year, the Progress rocket is 1974. The beginning of the state tests - 6 November 1961 of the year. Adopted on 11 August 1966 th. Combat service - 1963 - up to the present.

The American battleship "New Jersey" from the end of 1983 began to regularly shell the territory of Lebanon, where there was a civil war. He fired up to three hundred and 406 mm shells a day. The battleship itself was outside the zone of fire of field artillery. It went to the Syrian troops stationed in the Bekaa Valley. The general was killed. In the Cossack bay of Sevastopol, the Redutov regiment’s cargo unit and personnel assembled from the Black Sea missile units were loaded onto the Morflot dry cargo ship fleet. The sailors received an order after arriving in the Lebanese port in three days to march to the position area and strike at New Jersey. However, it is believed that due to the vigilance of US intelligence, the order was not executed. Less than 24 hours after the unloading of the materiel, the battleship at full speed went west and henceforth was not announced in the Eastern Mediterranean.

From 16 July to 2 August 1985 of the year, the 21 th obr of the Pacific Fleet was on duty to prevent violations of the state border of the US Navy nuclear cruiser “Texas”. Estimated for combat duty - excellent.

From 17 May to 11 on June 1987, the regiment worked in the same way on the Arkansas nuclear cruiser. Estimated for combat duty - excellent.

"Frontier"

Equipped with the P-15M “Termite” missiles with a new radio altimeter: the P-21 variant - with active impulse radar (AIRL) GPS, the П-22 variant - with passive thermal (IR) HSN. Targeting - autonomous - radar CG "Harpoon" on self-propelled PU (SPU), the detection range - 120 kilometers. PU - self-propelled 3С-51, chassis - MAZ-543В (543М). Average travel speed - 50 kilometers per hour.

The beginning of the design is 1970. During the tests in 1974 – 1978, more than 20 starts were made. Adopted on October 22 1978 th.

Combat service - 1978 - up to the present. Teachings: 1980 year - two SPU 1267-th separate coastal missile division (obd) BSF (“Brotherhood in arms-80”, GDR), 1981 year - 1267-obd (“West-81”, BF Chmelevka polygon), 1983 year - two SPU 1267-th obd (“Zapad-83”, Cape Taran, 12 km from Svetlogorsk, BF), 1988 year - SPU 1267-go Obd (“Autumn-88”, Cape Tarkhankut - Cape Egorlytsky Kut, BSF) , obd SF in 1988 year (start-up - two, no hits), November 14 1989 - obdd SF (start-ups - more than one, hits - more than one), 17 September 2011 - exercises SPU "Rubezh" and SPU "Redut" 520-th separate coastal rocket artillery Iisko Brigade (obrabr) Tofan (Kamchatka).


In 1980, two SPUs 3С-51 from the 1267 division were sent from the Crimea to the GDR to participate in the Brotherhood in Arms-80 exercise. Since by this time the Baltic had not yet had combat-ready “Frontiers”, the Black Sea people had to play the role of the Balts. Therefore, the SPU was brought not directly to the GDR, but by rail to Baltiysk, and from there by amphibious ships of the 775 project by sea in Swinemünde.

At the Zapad-81 exercises, the SPU of the 1267 Division was already fired at the landing area of ​​the Baltic Fleet Khmelevka.

The Zapad-83 exercise, held at Cape Taran in 12 kilometers from Svetlogorsk, was attended by the Baltic Four Redoubt 27 BF OBF BF, and from the Black Sea Fleet - two Boundary SPU 1267 of the X division. On a tip from the MRST-1 external targeting system from the Ka-25С helicopter, two P-35B missiles were fired, and after 30 seconds - two P-21 missiles with a BRK. Shooting results are considered successful.

In the 1988 year, during the Autumn-88 exercises, the SPN of the 1267 Division was marched from the place of deployment at Cape Tarkhankut to Cape Yegorlytsky Kut in the Kherson region. 320-kilometer march division made with an average speed of 50 kilometers per hour. As you can see, SPU 3С-51 justified the nickname adopted by the specialists among the specialists - the wheeled launch vehicle (all equipment taken from the launch of the 205У project). Radar "Harpoon" found a target at a distance of 120 kilometers. Division two missiles struck her.

In January, 1986 of the Northern Fleet was formed obd with BREC "Rubezh", stationed on the Rybachiy peninsula in the village of Skarbeevka. The first two launches of Termite missiles in 1988 were unsuccessful, and only on November 14 of 1989 was a normal launch.

"Bastion"

Missiles stationary complex "Bastion-S" are placed in the mine launchers (silos). "Bastion-P" - mobile. BRK is equipped with Onyx missiles (Yakhont, P-800, 3М-55). PU "Bastion-P" - self-propelled, chassis - MAZ-543 (three containers with missiles installed) and MZKT-7930.

5 July 1981 of the year issued a decree of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the commencement of work on the supersonic Onyx anti-ship missiles. 10 March 1982-th in OKB-52 passed the protection of the draft design. RCC is made according to the normal aerodynamic scheme with a trapezoid folding wing and tail. The aerodynamics of the airframe, in combination with high thrust-weight ratio, provides the Onyx with high maneuverability (maximum angle of attack - up to 15 degrees), allowing the rocket to perform effective maneuvers of evading enemy air defenses.

The power plant "Onyx" consists of a propulsion ramjet engine (ramjet), working on liquid fuel (kerosene T-6), and a solid fuel accelerator, installed according to the "matryoshka" principle in the combustion chamber of the propulsion engine. A few seconds of his work accelerates the rocket up to speed M = 2. Then the starter is turned off, it is thrown out of the main engine by the oncoming air stream and the Onyx continues to fly at speed M = 2,5, provided by the ramjet propulsion system.

Flight mission is formed according to the data from the autonomous target designation source. The homing head radar can capture a surface cruiser target at a distance of up to 75 kilometers. After the initial capture of the target, the rocket turns off the radar and performs a reduction to extremely small heights (on the order of 5 – 10 meters).

The Bastion-P complex includes up to eight SPUs, a command and control vehicle on the MZKT-65273 chassis, a target designation helicopter complex, and equipment for the head command post.

The range of 3М55 “Onyx” rockets on the combined trajectory is 300 kilometers (in the final segment up to 40 kilometers), and on the low-altitude route - to 120. SU - INS + radio altimeter + RL GOS. Weight of warhead - 200 kilograms.

To find the means for finishing the complex, both options - mobile and stationary - were offered for export. One division of the mobile BRK purchased Vietnam (supply in 2010-m) and two - Syria (delivery in 2011-m).

At the end of 2009 - the beginning of 2010, the two “Bastion” complexes entered service with the 25-th round of 11-th processing (Utash village, Krasnodar region, near Anapa).

The last, third complex (SPU and other machines) was received in the middle of January 2011. Selected in a separate battery.

"Ball"

Equipped with subsonic missiles X-35 "Uranus" (X-35, P-35). Mobile version of the Bal-E BRK was adopted in 2008 year. PU - self-propelled, 3С60 (in the complex four SPU), chassis - MZKT-7930. The Bal-E DBK also includes two self-propelled command and control points and communications, four transport-handling machines, and ground equipment.

From the end of 1977, the Zvezda Design Bureau developed the subsonic anti-ship complex X-35 "Uran". Full-scale work was carried out on the basis of the decisions of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 635-188 of July 5 1981 of the year and No. 222-90 of March 16 of the year 1983.

The tests of the Uranus ship complex began in 1983 at the Black Sea Coast Sandy Beam testing range. Due to a number of delays due to technical, financial and political factors, it was adopted only in 2003. On the basis of the ship complex created BRK "Bal-E" (3K-60, 3М-60).

SPU is made in the form of a welded frame installed on the regular reference points of the automobile chassis. On the frame is placed a block of eight transport and launch containers with missiles. When moving from a traveling position to a combat hydraulic system, it raises the unit by a starting angle of + 35 degrees. The time it takes for the complex to be deployed from a marching to a combat position is no more than ten minutes, the firing range is up to 120 kilometers.

In 2004, the state tests of the prototype SPU 3C60 were completed, after which the installation and the rest of the equipment, although without ammunition, were transferred to the 11 of the Black Sea Fleet stationed in Anapa. At the end of 2011, two SPUs 3C60 entered service with the Caspian Flotilla. 26 April 2012-th on the Adanok training ground in Dagestan, was the first shooting from the Ball "Ball". On the targets, anchored in 56 kilometers from the coast, two P-35E missiles were launched. According to the command, both missiles hit targets.

It should be noted that "Ball" and "Bastion" do not duplicate at all, but complement each other. Onyx missile is three to four times more expensive than X-35. In some ways, this pair is similar to the Redut - Boundary pair. Of course, both "Ball" and "Bastion" require refinement.

Experts believe that first of all the data of the BRK are required for the defense of the Kuril Islands, Sakhalin and Kamchatka. There is an urgent need, naturally, in them both on the Caucasian coast and on the Baltic.
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  1. grizzlir
    grizzlir 25 October 2012 08: 15
    +2
    Weapons are very powerful. Given the length of the sea borders of Russia, modern coastal defense systems are necessary. True, the actual combat use of the complexes was minimal, but let us have them better and never have combat use.
    1. Lucky
      Lucky 27 October 2012 00: 03
      0
      to check their effectiveness on a couple of aircraft carriers))
  2. Kostyanich
    Kostyanich 25 October 2012 09: 37
    +8
    amers of a radish did not allow to test Redoubt in the conditions close to fighting
    Well, they feel sorry for the battleship
    1. Suvorov000
      Suvorov000 25 October 2012 13: 25
      +1
      all the same, the USSR was a force, no one was asked: "can we bring the complex and fuck you", they silently brought only amers, they were afraid, right now this will not work, our people are afraid to push the complex to Syria and try again))
      1. grandfather
        grandfather 25 October 2012 15: 26
        +3
        and in Syria, and so it is, there’s nothing to be brought, they have been waiting for a long time.
      2. papik09
        papik09 27 October 2012 04: 20
        0
        Read carefully - Syria has TWO complexes)))
    2. Retx
      Retx 25 October 2012 16: 16
      +1
      The Iraqis were shooting at the Missouri with the Chinese version of the Termite, unsuccessfully true. I think they would not have sunk, but they would have withdrawn from the Navy ahead of schedule ...
  3. neznayka
    neznayka 25 October 2012 11: 56
    +4
    However, immediately after the first launch of the Sopka, the Americans quickly departed from the coast for a hundred-meter line ............. The sailors received an order after arriving at the Lebanese port in three days to march to the position area and strike at New Jersey"

    That's why I love those good old days of my great Motherland.
  4. Ross
    Ross 25 October 2012 12: 09
    +1
    Kostyanich,
    Yeah, on the example of a battleship, it would be interesting to evaluate the effect of Raman scattering.
    1. Wedmak
      Wedmak 25 October 2012 14: 35
      0
      What is there to evaluate something .... you can guess the same ... or a hole, or a big hole, or a ship in half.
  5. mazdie
    mazdie 25 October 2012 22: 32
    0
    Range!!! The range should be greater than the combat radius of the "partner" carrier-based aircraft, and of course the notorious tomahawks.
    1. sanych
      sanych 26 October 2012 07: 52
      0
      Quote: mazdie
      notorious tomahawks.

      Tomahawk hits at 2500km. for a stationary target, its data (map of the area) are pre-loaded into the missile guidance head. It is problematic to get the carrier onshore, because the target does not stand still. And to compete with the flight range of carrier-based aircraft is generally not really existing systems. So the Chinese are solving this issue by creating ballistic anti-ship missiles. For some reason, we do not take an example from our eastern neighbors. Maybe in vain. An alternative is naval missile-carrying aviation, but now, alas, it is practically eliminated. At the moment, coastal complexes protect only from landing operations, and not as a means of countering the AUG. So about Kamchatka (I would add the Kuril Islands) the author is entitled to all 100 !!!