Military Review

The defeat of the White Guard nest

56
The defeat of the White Guard nestThe October revolution of 1917 split Russia into two warring camps. The Bolsheviks were forced to wage an implacable struggle against the numerous enemies of the new state.

After the end of the Civil War in Russia, the Soviet government left no serious opponents inside the country. At the same time, a large number of emigre organizations acted abroad, aiming at the overthrow of the Bolshevik regime. The leaders of the defeated white war in the Civil War, being abroad as a result of emigration, tried to continue the struggle with the Soviets by all means and means available to them. The bourgeois governments of a number of foreign states supported them in this.

MAIN OPPONENT

In the 20s of the last century, the number of emigrants who came from Russia in Europe and China amounted to more than 1 million people. Of course, white emigration was not uniform. Some of the people who fled abroad because of fear of the Soviet authorities did not intend to fight this power. Other emigrants who actively fought against the Bolsheviks on the sidelines of the Civil War united abroad in organizations whose main goal was the overthrow of Soviet power in Russia. Among the latter should be noted, in particular, the People’s Labor Union (NTS), the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN), the unification of the Georgian Mensheviks led by Noah Jordania. However, the most active and aggressive organization of white émigrés of that time was the Russian General Military Alliance (EMRO), created by General Peter Wrangel from officers of the defeated Volunteer Army.

The prehistory of the creation of the EMRO is as follows: after the evacuation of the remnants of General Wrangel’s troops from the Crimea and their arrangement in Serbia and Bulgaria, the Russian army ceased to exist as an independent force. In this regard, Wrangel, who lived in the Serbian city of Sremska Karlovitsa, 1 September 1924 of the year issued an order No. 35, according to which the army was transformed into the Russian all-military union under his leadership. 25 April 1928, Peter Nikolaevich, died in Brussels from transient consumption. He was succeeded as chairman of the ROVS by one of his deputies, Lieutenant-General Alexander Kutepov, who transferred the headquarters of the organization, which united about thousand former white officers in 100 to Paris. Among the leaders of this organization, he was an active supporter of terrorist activities. And it is not surprising that under his leadership, terror and sabotage became the main weapons EMRO in the fight against the Soviet state.

In Paris, as well as in Prague, Sofia, Berlin and Warsaw, where there were branches of the Russian All-Union Union, combat groups were preparing to enter Soviet territory with the aim of carrying out terrorist acts and organizing armed actions of the population. The EMRO members forged links with the counter-revolutionary underground in Russia in order to get an opportunity to overthrow the power of the Bolsheviks. The secret instruction for the militants, developed by Kutepov, emphasized: "The plan of the general work is presented in the following form - terror against ... Soviet officials, as well as those who are working on the collapse of emigration."

A well-known publicist and historian Sergey Vyuzhuchanin on this issue, in particular, writes: “At the end of 1929, General Kutepov decided to step up sabotage and terrorist work against the USSR. A group of militant officers began to prepare, whose plans included employing an absolutely tested bacteriologist to equip his laboratory for breeding cultures of infectious diseases (plague, cholera, typhoid, anthrax). The culture of bacilli on the territory of the USSR was supposed to be delivered in packs of perfume, cologne, essences, liqueurs, etc.

The objectives of the attacks were to serve all regional committees of the CPSU (b), provincial committees of the CPSU (b), party schools, troops and organs of the OGPU (the militants had a list of similar 75 institutions in Moscow and Leningrad with the exact address). ”

MOSCOW TAKES ACTION

Naturally, Moscow could not ignore the potential danger posed by the terrorist organizations of the white emigration, and first of all by the EMRO, whose strategic goal of the leadership was an armed uprising against Soviet power. In this regard, the main focus of Soviet foreign intelligence and its residencies was given to work on the EMRO: studying its activities, identifying plans, establishing branches and agents on Soviet territory, decomposing it from the inside and the possible influence on decision-making by the leadership with the help of deployed agents; terrorist activities.

The Regulations on the in-branch department of the Foreign Department of the GPU, approved by 28 June 1922, indicated the following priorities of Soviet foreign intelligence in order of their priority:

- identifying on the territory of foreign countries counter-revolutionary organizations conducting subversive activities against our country;

- the establishment abroad of government and private organizations engaged in military, political and economic espionage;

- coverage of the political line of each state and its government on the main issues of international politics, identifying their intentions in relation to Russia, obtaining information about their economic situation;

- obtaining documentary materials in all areas of work, including such materials that could be used to compromise both leaders of counter-revolutionary groups and entire organizations;

- counterintelligence support of Soviet institutions and citizens abroad.

As can be seen from the above document, the work on penetration into foreign counterrevolutionary organizations that carried out subversive activities against the Soviet state was given primary importance at that time.

In addition, Moscow took into account that in the event of a new war in Europe under the banners of the opponents of the USSR, the regiments of the former Volunteer Army, whose structure remained in emigration, could also come out. White officers considered themselves in military service, underwent retraining, studied the combat capabilities of the Red Army.

Neutralization of Kutepov

The prevailing circumstances related to the intensification of the anti-Soviet activities of the EMRO, have raised with the leadership of the OGPU the question of conducting an operation to neutralize Kutepov.

On the basis of information collected through a reliable agent about the general’s lifestyle, his habits, his personal security measures in Moscow, an operation to kidnap him was developed, the implementation of which was entrusted to a special group under the OGPU chairman and a number of illegal immigrants operating at that time in France. The operation was scheduled for Sunday 26 January 1930 of the year, since according to intelligence data, Kutepov on that day should have attended 11 hours of the morning in 30 hours of the morning to attend the memorial service for Baron Kaulbars in Gallipoli church on Mademoiselle Street in 20 minutes from his house.

On the eve of January 25, one of the members of the task force was given a note to Kutepov in which he was assigned an important short-term meeting on his route to the church. It was taken into account that Kutepov always attended one of the important meetings related to the intelligence and combat activities of the EMRO. After waiting for some time "courier" at the tram stop on the street Sevres, Kutepov continued on his way to the church. On Oudinot Street, he was intercepted by an operation group that introduced itself as officers of the French police, and was taken outside the city by car. However, it was not possible to bring him to Moscow and, as planned, to bring to trial, because on his way Kutepov died of a heart attack.

The operation to abduct Kutepov by the OGPU dealt a heavy blow to the EMRO. Depression, panic, mistrust of leaders, mutual suspicions of cooperation with the USSR state security agencies were characteristic not only of the members of the Russian All-Union Union, but also of the white emigration that supported it for a number of years after Kutepov disappeared.

KUTEPOV'S SUCCESSOR

The successor to Kutepov as chairman of the EMRO was Lieutenant-General Yevgeny Karlovich Miller, a professional soldier who graduated from the General Staff Academy in 1892. From 1898 to 1907, he was in military diplomatic work in Belgium, Holland and Italy. Member of the First World War. From the first days of the war he headed the headquarters of the 5 Army. In the year 1915 was promoted to lieutenant general. In January, 1917 was appointed commander of the 26 Army Corps.

In August, 1917, Miller was sent to Italy by a representative of the General Headquarters of the Italian High Command. Here it was the October Revolution. An active participant in the Civil War in Russia. In January, 1919 arrived in Arkhangelsk occupied by the British and was appointed Commander-in-Chief of the counterrevolutionary "Government of the Northern Region" of Social Revolutionary Tchaikovsky. In February, 1920, parts of it were broken, and their remnants went into exile.

After the evacuation of British troops from Arkhangelsk, Miller went to Finland, from where he moved to Paris, where he first served at the headquarters of Wrangel, and then was at the disposal of Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich. In 1929, he was appointed deputy chairman of the EMRO.

As deputy Kutepov, Miller was not allowed to combat work of the EMRO and was not informed about this side of the organization’s secret activities. Therefore, taking the post of its chairman, the general immediately went on an inspection trip to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria, in order to deal with the EMRO practical work on the spot and to revive reconnaissance work. This was due to the fact that many generals and senior officers of the EMRO considered Miller to be an office worker incapable of decisive struggle with the Soviet authorities. However, as Miller entered the organization’s affairs, calling small pinpricks of various kinds “unsystematic assassinations, attacks on Soviet institutions and arson of warehouses”, he set a strategic task for the EMRO - organizing and preparing major demonstrations against the USSR of all the forces subordinate to him. Without denying the importance of carrying out terrorist acts, he paid special attention to the training of personnel for the deployment of a partisan war in the rear of the Red Army in the event of a war with the USSR. To this end, he created in Paris and Belgrade courses for the retraining of EMRO officers and training for the military-sabotage case of new members of the organization from among the emigrant youth.

COUNTERACTION OF EXPLORATION

It should be emphasized that the plans and practical steps to implement them by General Miller and his associates in a timely manner became the property of Soviet intelligence. Thanks to the data obtained through the agents in 1931 – 1934, 17 of EMRO terrorists abandoned on the territory of the USSR was neutralized and the 11 of their secret points were opened. A great contribution to this work was made by the illegal intelligence officer Leonid Linitsky, as well as by the staff of the Paris and Berlin residencies of the INO OGPU. In particular, they managed to prevent terrorist acts that were prepared by the ROVS against the USSR Commissar for Foreign Affairs Maxim Litvinov in Europe and his deputy Lev Karakhan in Iran.

At the beginning of 30, Soviet intelligence installed the auditory control technique at the EMRO headquarters in Paris, which since May 1930 has been located on the first floor of 29 number on Coliseum Street, which belonged to the family of the reliable Parisian residency agent Sergei Tretyakov.

The Tretyakov family occupied the second and third floors of the house, and his private office was located just above the ground floor premises rented by the EMRO headquarters. This allowed the Parisian residency to install listening microphones in the offices of Miller, the head of the 1 division of Shatilov and the head of the EMRO office of Kusonsky. Information reception equipment was placed in the Tretyakov office. Since January, 1934 has earned a technical channel for receiving information, which has turned for Tretyakov over the years of hardest work. Almost every day, while Miller, Shatilov and Kusonsky were at work, he put on headphones and kept records of conversations that took place in their offices. Information from Tretyakov, which had the codename "Information of our time," allowed the OGPU intelligence and counterintelligence, and then the NKVD to more fully control and stop the subversive activities of the EMRO against the USSR.

Extremely important information on the EMRO was received by the Parisian residency and from Miller’s closest associate in charge of intelligence work, General Nikolai Skoblin, who collaborated with his wife, the famous Russian singer Nadezhda Plevitskaya, with Soviet intelligence from 1930 onwards. According to INO OGPU, Skoblin was one of the best sources, who "quite clearly informed the Center about the relationship in the leadership of the EMRO, reported details about Miller's trips to other countries." The tour of his wife Plevitskaya enabled Skoblin to carry out inspections of peripheral divisions of the EMRO and provide Soviet intelligence with operational information. Ultimately, Skoblin became one of Miller’s closest assistants in the area of ​​intelligence and his charge d'affaires in the central organization of the EMRO. This circumstance was used when the question arose of conducting a sharp Miller operation after receiving information that he, through his representative in Berlin, General Lampe, had established close contacts with the fascist regime in Germany. “The EMRO must turn all its attention to Germany,” said the general. “This is the only country that has declared the fight against communism not for life, but for death.”

MILLER NEUTRALIZATION

22 September 1937 at the invitation of Skoblin Miller went with him to a villa in Saint-Cloud near Paris, where the meeting of the EMRO leader with German representatives was to take place organized by Skoblini. At the Miller's villa, the operations group of the Chekists was waiting, who seized him and sent them across the ship to Le Havre in the USSR.

The action of the security officers ended, seemingly well. However, before going to the meeting organized by Skoblin, General Miller left an envelope with a note for General Kusonsky and asked him to open it if something happened to him. As soon as it became clear to Miller’s entourage that he was gone, Kusonsky opened the envelope with the following note:

“I have an hour today at 12. 30 min. I have a meeting with General Skoblin on the corner of Jasmen and Raffe Street, and he should take me on a date with a German officer, a military agent in the Baltic countries - Colonel Shtroman and Mr. Werner, who is here at the embassy. Both speak good Russian. A date arranged on the initiative Skoblin. Maybe this is a trap, just in case I leave this note. General E. Miller. September 22 1937.

Kusonsky immediately launched his own investigation. Fearing exposure and arrest, Skoblin was forced to hide. The measures taken by the police to search for him did not give a result. The general was illegally transported by a Paris residency on a specially chartered plane to Spain. According to reports, he died in Barcelona during the bombing of the Franco aviation. Plevitskaya was arrested as an accomplice and convicted by a Paris court to 20 years of hard labor. On October 5, 1940, she died in the Central Prison of Rennes.

Sergei Tretyakov continued to cooperate with the Soviet intelligence before the occupation of France by Hitler Germany. In August, the fascist newspaper Lokal-antsiger and the emigrant newspaper Novoe Slovo published a report that Tretyakov was arrested by the Gestapo in August. In 1942, he was executed as a resident of Soviet intelligence in Paris.

Today in the Russian press you can meet all sorts of judgments about the KGB operation to neutralize Miller. Some are trying to present the general, who has become famous for the bloody atrocities in Russia, as the "innocent victim" of the NKVD.

And here is what 24 wrote in the French newspaper Informacion for April 1920 about General Miller's activities in the north of her correspondent in Arkhangelsk, a close friend of Kerensky sser Boris Sokolov:

“I witnessed the last period of existence of the government of the Northern Region, as well as its fall and the flight of General Miller with his headquarters. I could observe various Russian governments, but I had never seen such monstrous and unheard-of acts before. Since the Miller government relied solely on the right elements, it constantly resorted to cruelties and systematic terror in order to stay above. Deaths were carried out in the hundreds, often without any legal proceedings.

Miller founded a convict prison on the Iokang (Kola) Peninsula on the White Sea. I visited this prison and I can certify that such horrors could not be seen even in tsarist times. In the barracks for several hundred people housed over a thousand prisoners. By order of Miller, the prison chief Sudakov brutally flogged those arrested who refused to go to hard labor. Every day, dozens of people died, who were thrown into a common grave and somehow covered with earth.

In mid-February 1920, a few days before his flight, General Miller visited the front and told the officers that he would not leave them. He gave the floor to the officer to take care of their families. But this did not prevent him from completing the preparations for the flight. February 18 he ordered the evacuation of Arkhangelsk 19 February to two o'clock. He himself and his headquarters on the night of February 19 secretly housed on the yacht Yaroslavna and the icebreaker Kozma Minin. General Miller took with him the entire state treasury, about 400 000 pounds sterling (10 million rubles in gold), which belonged to the North region.

On the morning of February 19, the population learned of General Miller’s treason and flight. Many people gathered near the Kozma Minin anchorage site, including soldiers and officers whom Miller deceived. Started a shootout. From the ships fired from guns. There were many dead.

Soon, “Kozma Minin” left Arkhangelsk ... ”

Here is a portrait of General Miller painted Social Revolutionary Boris Sokolov, far from sympathizing with the Bolsheviks. To this we can add that according to the laws of the Russian Empire, the appropriation of state money was considered a grave crime.

Miller’s abduction and his secret transfer to Moscow were first of all associated with the organization of a large-scale lawsuit against him. This process was intended to expose the connection of the Whites with the Nazis. Miller was taken to the inner prison of the NKVD in Lubyanka, where he was held as a prisoner No. 110 under the name of Ivan Vasilyevich Ivanovich until May 1939 of the year. However, by that time, the approach of a new world war was clearly felt. By May 1939, Germany not only made the Anschluss of Austria, the Sudetenland, but also fully occupied Czechoslovakia, despite guarantees of its security from England and France. Intelligence of the NKVD had information that Poland’s next target would be Hitler.

11 of May 1939 of the year Commissar of Internal Affairs Beria signed a decree on the execution of the former EMRO Chairman convicted by the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court to the death penalty. On 23 hours of 05 minutes of the same day, the sentence was carried out.

After the abduction of Miller, General Abramov, who was replaced a year later by General Shatilov, became the head of the EMRO. None of them managed to keep the EMRO as a viable and active organization, its authority in a white environment. The last operation of the Soviet intelligence, associated with the abduction of Miller, contributed to the complete collapse of the EMRO. And although the EMRO as an organization finally ceased to exist with the start of the Second World War, Soviet intelligence, disorganizing and decomposing the EMRO, deprived Hitler’s Germany and its allies of the opportunity to actively use about 20 thousand members of the organization in the war against the USSR.
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  1. gas
    gas 26 October 2012 08: 18
    +2
    To infect your fellow citizens with deadly infections is so patriotic!
    1. revnagan
      revnagan 26 October 2012 11: 13
      0
      Quote: gaz
      To infect your fellow citizens with deadly infections is so patriotic!

      Well, no, not their fellow citizens. Enraged boors and cattle are just ordinary people for them. Why is there such ceremony ... To extort the majority, and the rest again yoke around the neck. Well, then, their dreams come true ..
  2. Dimych
    Dimych 26 October 2012 09: 41
    +5
    Hmm, gentlemen, officers, blue princes ... Innocent victims of the executioners from the NKVD. How much in our history is mixed and turned upside down.
  3. saveall
    saveall 26 October 2012 09: 51
    -5
    Hmm ... Directly a communist agitation ... The author wants to ask only one question: why almost none of the former White Guards supported Germany in the war with the USSR, not counting those units that joined the Vlasov Army, which mainly consisted of immigrants from the USSR .
    Well, talking about the atrocities of the ROVS is generally nonsense ... We hear about them only from the communist agitation. If the White Guards committed such atrocities as the Bolsheviks, the Bolsheviks would probably not exist in nature ...
    In any case, even if some of what is told in this campaign was, the ROVS is very far from the Bolsheviks. In Crimea alone, after its capture, thousands were executed by the Bolsheviks, and after that, as a result of a stupid and brutal policy of government, thousands died of starvation.
    Here is just one episode of what was told by an eyewitness:
    “In Sevastopol at the same time, it was in February, there was a second massacre of officers, but this time it was perfectly organized, they killed according to the plan and not only the naval officers, but in general all the officers and a number of respected citizens of the city. The corpses were collected by specially assigned cargo cars that were serviced by sailors dressed in sanitary gowns ... The dead lay in heaps and, although they were covered with tarpaulins, their heads, arms, legs dangled from the cars ... They were taken to the Grafskaya pier, where they were loaded onto barges and taken to sea ​​... "
    Krishevsky N.
    And this is only in the Crimea. And there were also Petrograd, Moscow, etc., the cities of our vast Motherland.
    1. sq
      sq 26 October 2012 10: 16
      +4
      Name at least one revolution and civil war that went without massacre. It is the easiest way to groan with demerit, but they are different people. Although those who were neutral suffered the most.
      1. saveall
        saveall 26 October 2012 10: 36
        -7
        But did I say somewhere about war or revolution without massacre? I just said that the White Guards are children compared to what the Bolsheviks did. After all, the article is talking about such bad White Guards, forgetting that, for example, the real terror was first organized by revolutionaries, and then their followers by the Bolsheviks. So there is no need to tell tales ...
        1. revnagan
          revnagan 26 October 2012 11: 20
          +5
          Quote: saveall
          So there is no need to tell tales ...

          In-in. Not worth it. The Red Terror was the answer to the White Terror. And you cringe so much ... And about the nobility of your "white knights" - just one word. The cruiser Kornilov. Slahali about this? And how many such institutions had " noble white heroes "? So no la-la. And how can noble nobles, white bone, blue blood, be engaged in such dirty deeds ..?
          1. borisst64
            borisst64 26 October 2012 12: 23
            +5
            And Admiral Kolchak, shot by thousands for intimidation (not himself, but on his orders). And then according to the film, he is directly the archangel Gabriel in the flesh.
            1. revnagan
              revnagan 26 October 2012 15: 38
              +1
              Quote: borisst64
              And Admiral Kolchak, shot by thousands for intimidation

              In-in, and the "wolf squadrons" Skins ..
              1. Azzzwer
                Azzzwer 22 November 2012 13: 38
                +1
                My friend, Shkuro worked in the South of Russia. Ataman Semenov acted in Siberia, who was in a confrontation with Kolchak, and in fact conducted a samoist policy
            2. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 26 October 2012 17: 32
              +5
              borisst64
              with your permission I’ll insert my five cents:
              - I spent my childhood and youth in the Far East, and so in villages and villages, even in the 80's, the most evil male was called Kolchak.
              She does not lie people's memory and she is the best indicator.
              1. Azzzwer
                Azzzwer 22 November 2012 13: 42
                0
                Yes, yes, how evil Admiral Kolchak is, he ate babies and drank the blood of virgins,
                "It does not lie to the people's memory and it is the best indicator." That's for sure! this is well evidenced by the popular proverb: "He lies like Trotsky"!
                so like that ....
        2. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 26 October 2012 15: 07
          +1
          saveall
          Quote: saveall
          almost none of the former White Guards supported Germany in the war with the USSR,

          scat under the bench

          P.N. Krasnov meets the commanders of the 1 Cossack Cavalry Wehrmacht divisions. The far right is Kononov, the far left is von Panwitz. September 1943
    2. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 26 October 2012 10: 56
      +7
      By the way, the bulk of the "Russian" units consisted either of former White Guards or of their children ...
      Look at the sources - it will be useful!
      Hitler did not support literally a few ...
      1. xan
        xan 26 October 2012 14: 34
        0
        link to the studio
        complete nonsense
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 26 October 2012 15: 14
          +4
          Quote: xan
          link to the studio


          Two flags. Which is closer - these are Don Cossacks-collaborators who fought in the Wehrmacht and the SS troops
          ... As Pyotr Nikolayevich later told the Soviet court: “Emigrant circles abroad, including myself, met the attack of Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union rather enthusiastically. Then the opinion prevailed among us: even with the devil, but against the Bolsheviks ... ". [1]

          Krasnov, possessing the talent of a “PR man”, became the “ideological father” of all Cossack emigrants who agreed to fight on the side of Nazi Germany. Under the Germans, Krasnov received the rank of full general of the German Army (Wehrmacht). [10] Pyotr Nikolayevich actively collaborated with German intelligence, led consultations, made reports for the Germans, participated in the Cossack department of the German ministry of the eastern regions, headed by Rosenberg. [1]

          At the request of German intelligence, Krasnov issued an appeal in which he called on all Cossacks to unite with the Germans and fight against the USSR. [1] In 1942, he offered the German command assistance in creating Cossack units within the Wehrmacht to fight against our country. Krasnov discovers that a certain Soviet engineer Pavlov, a former White Guard Cossack, in Novocherkassk, occupied by the Germans, wants to create an anti-partisan Cossack unit. On November 11 on November 1942, Pyotr Nikolayevich sent Pavlov a letter with his “blessing” and recommendations for organizing rebel activities and forming units. [7] ...
    3. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 26 October 2012 15: 05
      +5
      saveall
      skipping school?

      Skin and background Pannwitz

      Quote: saveall
      why practically none of the former White Guards supported Germany in the war with the USSR,

      saveall
      scat under the bench

      P.N. Krasnov meets the commanders of the 1 Cossack Cavalry Wehrmacht divisions. The far right is Kononov, the far left is von Panwitz. September 1943
    4. Oles
      Oles 7 November 2012 12: 57
      0
      Here they instructed you minuses ... but for what? for the truth. "the truth hurts my eyes" (tsy). I gave a request to the administration with a request to establish on the site the obligatory explanation by the user of the reasons for the minus or plus that he puts to someone. saw this on one site. so no answer, no hello. and so unreasonably and with impunity they bring down minus
  4. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 26 October 2012 10: 54
    +5
    Red terror was originally a response to white - do not forget about it!
    1. saveall
      saveall 26 October 2012 11: 03
      -9
      Well, tell us as soon as possible about the white terror, the one that caused the red.
      1. Aleksys2
        Aleksys2 26 October 2012 13: 01
        +6
        Quote: saveall
        Well, tell us as soon as possible about the white terror, the one that caused the red.

        October 28, 1917, when in Moscow the cadets who were liberating from the Kremlin rebels captured the soldiers of the 56th reserve regiment who were there. They were ordered to line up, supposedly for inspection, at the monument to Alexander II, and then machine-gun and rifle fire was suddenly opened against unarmed people. About 300 people were killed.
        The first acts of "white terror" were noted during the anti-Bolshevik Yaroslavl uprising in July 1918. In the same 1918, the first punitive bodies were created by the anti-Bolshevik Committee of the members of the Constituent Assembly and repressive measures were taken: in August, the Extraordinary Court, the Ministry of Public Order and its emergency unit were created, the death penalty was introduced in September, martial law was established in October and the whole the territory introduced military courts. The Ministry of Public Order was headed by E.F. Rogovsky. About 20 thousand people were arrested and imprisoned.
        In the white armies, the death sentences of military courts and the orders of individual commanders were carried out by the commandant departments, which, however, did not exclude the participation of volunteers from the ranks of the military prisoners of war. During the "Ice Campaign" (February 9 (22) - April 30 (May 13) 1918), according to the testimony of N. N. Bogdanov, a participant in this campaign:
        Captured, after receiving information about the actions of the Bolsheviks, were shot by the commandant detachment. The officers of the commandant detachment at the end of the campaign were completely sick people, before that they were nervous. Korvin-Krukovsky had some kind of painful cruelty. Officers of the commandant's squad had a heavy duty to shoot the Bolsheviks, but, unfortunately, I knew many cases when, under the influence of hatred of the Bolsheviks, officers took upon themselves the responsibility of voluntarily shooting prisoners. The executions were necessary. Under the conditions in which the Volunteer Army was moving, it could not take prisoners, there was no one to lead them, and if the prisoners were released, then the next day they would fight again against the detachment.

        In the territories controlled by P.N.Krasnov, the total number of victims in 1918 reached more than 30 thousand people. “I forbid to arrest workers, but I order them to be shot or hanged; I order all the arrested workers to be hanged on the main street and not to be taken off for three days ”- these are the words from the orders of the Krasnovsky Esaul commandant of the Makeyevsky district of November 10, 1918.
        In 1918, under the “white” government in the northern territory with a population of about 400 thousand people, 38 thousand were arrested, of which about 8 thousand were shot, more than a thousand died from beatings and illnesses.
        The total number of victims of Czechoslovakia and educated after they took Samara by former members of the Constituent Assembly of the KOMUCH government dispersed by the Bolsheviks in the summer and autumn of 1918 in the Volga region I.S.Ratkovsky estimates the number of more than 5 thousand people. As the historian notes, their cruelty often knew no bounds. So, out of 37 women arrested, guilty of only burying the bodies that the Volga threw ashore, 16 were shot, and the rest were not executed only due to the escape, during which another 7 women died.
        1. Aleksys2
          Aleksys2 26 October 2012 13: 14
          +3
          In the Urals, Siberia, and the Far East of Russia, troops controlled by various Cossack chieftains were seen in cruelty: B.V. Annenkov, A.I. Dutov, G.M.Semenov, I.P. Kalmykov, I.N. Krasilnikov and others. In the investigation against Ataman Annenkov, which began in May 1926, several thousand testimonies of peasants who had been robbed, relatives of those killed by his detachment under the motto: “We have no prohibitions! God and Ataman Annenkov are with us, chop right and left! ” On September 11, 1918, while suppressing a peasant uprising in the Slavgorod district, “hussars” Annenkov tortured and killed up to 500 people. Among them were 87 delegates to the peasant congress, who, by order of Annenkov, were chopped down in the Slavgorod square against the people's house and buried in a pit there. The village of Cherniy Dol, where the headquarters of the rebels was located, was burned to the ground, even wives and children of peasants were shot, fought and hung on poles. Girls from Slavgorod and its environs were brought to the train of Annenkov, who was at the city station, raped, and then shot. According to eyewitness Blokhin, the executions of the Annenkovites were particularly cruel: the victims had their eyes and tongues torn out, stripes on their backs were cut out, they were buried alive, and tied to horse tails. In Semipalatinsk, Annenkov threatened to shoot every fifth resident of the city in case of refusal to pay indemnities.
          On May 9, 1918, after the Cossacks captured Ataman Dutov, the village of Alexandrov-Gaya, 96 captured Red Army soldiers were buried alive. In total, 675 people were executed in various ways in the village. After the capture by the Cossack detachment of the chieftain Dutov on May 27, 1918, Chelyabinsk and Troitsk, on July 3, Orenburg was established in these cities a terror regime. More than 6 thousand prisoners were kept in one Orenburg prison, of which about 500 were killed during interrogations. In Chelyabinsk, Dutovites shot or transported 9 people to Siberian prisons. In Troitsk, about 700 people were executed by the Dutovites in the first weeks after the capture of the city. In Ilek, they destroyed 400 people. Such mass executions were characteristic of the Cossack troops of Dutov. By an order of August 4, 1918, Dutov imposed the death penalty in the territories under his control for the slightest resistance to the authorities, as well as for evading military service. In the Urals Region alone, in January 1919, 1050 people were killed by the Dutov Cossacks. On April 3, 1919, the Cossack chieftain ordered the shooting and taking of hostages at the slightest unreliability. In the same year, in the village of Sakharnoye, the Dutovtsy burned down a hospital along with 700 typhoid-infected Red Army soldiers there, destroyed the village of Meglius, together with 65 of its inhabitants.

          Enough, or else add?
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 26 October 2012 15: 22
            +3
            Aleksys2
            good this is called - carpet bombing!
            1. Aleksys2
              Aleksys2 26 October 2012 19: 10
              -1
              C'mon, these are just facts. hi
          2. revnagan
            revnagan 26 October 2012 16: 01
            +1
            VS Pikul has a miniature "The City That Was Not", in my opinion, so. I recommend reading. And needless to say that this is a work of fiction. There are documentary evidence of survivors.
        2. Azzzwer
          Azzzwer 22 November 2012 14: 05
          0
          And now let's turn to the works of the unforgettable Vladimir Ilyich

          “Popov should be arrested as counter-revolutionaries and saboteurs, shot mercilessly and everywhere. And as many as possible.
          Churches are to be closed. The premises of the temples should be sealed and turned into warehouses. "
          Lenin

          "To carry out mass terror against the rich Cossacks, exterminating them without exception; to carry out a merciless mass terror against all Cossacks in general who took any direct or indirect part in the struggle against Soviet power."
          Lenin

          "We will destroy nine-tenths of humanity in order for one-tenth to live to see the victory of Bolshevism - murder and revenge are the commandments of the future, which should be built on blood and ruins."
          Lenin.

          "The Cossacks, at least a huge part of them, must be exterminated sooner or later, simply destroyed physically, but here you need tremendous tact, the greatest caution and flirting with the Cossacks: we must not forget for a minute that we are dealing with a warlike people who every village is an armed camp, every farm is a fortress "
          Lenin

          “The greater the number of representatives of the reactionary bourgeoisie and reactionary clergy we succeed in shooting on this occasion, the better”
          The requirement of V.I. Lenin to the Cheka (approx. 1921).

          “Is it possible to mobilize another thousand 20 Petersburg workers plus 10 thousand bourgeois, put machine guns behind them, shoot a few hundred and achieve real mass pressure on Yudenich?”
          Vladimir Lenin, chairman of the Council of People's Commissars

          “Of course, one will have to get their hands dirty, the party is not an institution of noble maidens. It’s precisely because some criminal may turn out to be useful to us because he is a criminal. ”
          “We must accept thieves, footmen, paupers and prostitutes in the party.”
          Lenin

          And now bring me an example of the orders of Denikin, Wrangel, Kolchak, Yudenich, Miller about the need for mass executions
      2. Azzzwer
        Azzzwer 22 November 2012 13: 45
        0
        saveall,
        Well, tell us as soon as possible about the white terror, the one that caused the red.
        Agreed Facts to the Studio
    2. 8 company
      8 company 26 October 2012 16: 10
      -1
      Quote: Brother Sarich
      Red terror was originally a response to white - do not forget about it!


      Yes, yes, it was the White Guards who conducted the Bolshevik agitation on the front with the Germans, demoralized the troops, killed officers, organized the revolution and dispersal of the Constituent Assembly, the legal authority, and opened the front to the Germans. Shameless people! Whether it’s the Bolshevik’s case with angel wings, each behind and has a curly head.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 26 October 2012 17: 48
        +4
        Quote: Company 8
        it is the White Guards who conducted Bolshevik agitation at the front with the Germans, demoralized the troops, killed officers, organized a revolution

        You're lying! The February revolution was not organized by the Bolsheviks! It is called the February bourgeois-democratic revolution.
        All parties were campaigning, and the Bolsheviks were not numerous - 24 000 people, SRs were 800 000 - 1 000 000 people, Mensheviks 50 000 people, Cadets 1 00 000 people and this is not the whole list.
        But of course, in the eyes of the anti-Soviet, the Bolsheviks are to blame for all the troubles. the fact that Kerensky and other odious figures conducted anti-war propaganda of this, as it were, did not exist.

        I have this question:
        - Why constantly lie? Or do you unknowingly confuse everything?
        1. 8 company
          8 company 26 October 2012 18: 15
          -3
          Quote: Karlsonn
          The February revolution was not organized by the Bolsheviks!


          Oh really? Have you heard about Oktyabrskaya? Why did you write about February in general? Oh yes, you urgently needed to accuse me of lying. Sorry, did not immediately guess. laughing

          Quote: Karlsonn
          Kerensky and other odious figures conducted anti-war propaganda of this, as it were.


          But Kerensky just introduced the death penalty for revolutionary agitation in the army. Too bad it's late. Nanny all with the Bolsheviks and sysyukali, in exile they were referred to the village grub and ruddy girls. They will go there and again for their own. They exchanged fire with these revolutionary terrorists.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 26 October 2012 18: 45
            +3
            Quote: Company 8
            Why did you write about February in general?

            because she was the first, warn that jump in chronology from agitation of soldiers to the October Revolution.
            nothing to argue about executions and agitation, demoralization of troops and killings of officers?
            As well as about the anti-war agitation that Kerensky conducted before the overthrow of the king?
            Why are you lying? Not the first time I catch wink .
            1. Aleksys2
              Aleksys2 26 October 2012 19: 20
              +1
              For information:
              The Petrograd Soviet late in the evening on March 1 (March 14) 1917 adopted the famous Order No. 1.
              The original composition of the Executive Committee of the Petrosoviet was 15 people. Leaders: chairman - N. S. Chkheidze, comrades of the chairman - Menshevik M. I. Skobelev and SR A.F. Kerensky (all three members of the IV State Duma).
              1. Karlsonn
                Karlsonn 27 October 2012 01: 10
                +2
                Aleksys2
                You just don’t tell him that the Bolsheviks in St. Petersburg were 2 000.
          2. Aleksys2
            Aleksys2 26 October 2012 19: 05
            +1
            The mass distribution of self-arrows in the Russian Imperial Army and the appearance of the first fraternities dates back to 1915. This year, the “Great Retreat” occurred, which negatively affected the morale of the troops. As early as June 15, 1915, the commander of the 8th Army, General A. Brusilov, by his order for the army, in particular, demanded: “You need to have especially reliable people and machine guns, so that, if necessary, you can make the weak-headed go forward. We should not think about the total execution of whole units for trying to turn back or, even worse, surrender ”[6]. However, Yuri Bakhurin notes that data on the practical application of this order “neither in 1915 nor in 1916. we practically do not have it. ”
            In September 1915, at the Nikolaevsky station in Petrograd, clashes occurred between the next to the front of the warriors of 500 people with the police. The recruits shouted: “Beat the pharaohs and parasites!”, And the escort team accompanying them did not take any part in the riots.
            By the winter of 1916/1917, the situation worsened. General Baron P.N. Wrangel in his memoirs noted that:
            The composition of the army in two years managed to change significantly, most of the staff officers and soldiers, especially in the infantry, dropped out. The new officers ... quickly lost heart, were weighed down by the war and were completely unable to raise and maintain the spirit of their soldiers. The soldiers after 2 years of the war, in large numbers, were also not the same. The few remaining in the ranks of the old soldiers, despite all the hardships and hardships suffered, were drawn into the conditions of combat life; but the rest of the mass, those replenishment that continuously flowed into the military units, carried with them a completely different spirit. Consisting largely of reserve senior periods, family, torn from their households, who managed to forget the school they had once gone through, they were reluctant to go to war, dreamed of returning home and longed for peace. In recent battles, cases of “self-arrows” were observed very often, finger wounds with the aim of sending them to the rear became especially frequent. The weakest in composition were third-ranking divisions.

            In mid-December 1916 there was a rebellion of soldiers of the 12th army who refused to go on the attack during the Mitau operation. On December 25, Lieutenant General I. R. Dovbor-Musnitsky reported to the tsar about the executions of 13 soldiers of the rebel regiments, and in his report Nicholas II wrote a resolution: “A Correct Example”. In total, about a hundred people were shot.
            At the same time, the mood of the soldier mass was heterogeneous: contemporaries noted that cavalry was more reliable than infantry, and the most reliable were Cossacks and artillery: “The last is not surprising - the gunners were far from the front and did not risk their lives in the offensive; on the other hand, the most educated and qualified officers who were most respected by the soldiers served in artillery. It should be noted that the artillery units were used very often as punitive ones - for example, to disperse the “brothers” in a neutral strip with fire. As a result, the infantry’s distrust of the artillerymen reached such proportions that on August 18, 1917, by order of the supreme commander-in-chief, it was prescribed “henceforth ... not to appoint artillery to the units that were supposed to pacify the infantry units of the same corps or division ...” ”.
            Especially unreliable in the winter of 1916/1917 were the reserve battalions. A secret meeting at the Headquarters on March 18, 1917 stated that “Staffing in the coming months cannot be delivered to the front in the required number, because fermentation takes place in all spare parts."
            1. Azzzwer
              Azzzwer 22 November 2012 14: 11
              0
              Aleksys2, General A. Brusilov, by his order for the army, in particular, demanded: “You need to have especially reliable people and machine guns, so that, if necessary, force the weak-minded to go forward. You should not think about the total execution of whole units for trying to turn back or, even worse, surrender
              So this is where Stalin took the example of the detachments
          3. revnagan
            revnagan 28 October 2012 17: 49
            +1
            Quote: Company 8
            But Kerensky just introduced the death penalty for revolutionary agitation in the army.
            And you do not know why the troops gave Kerensky the contemptuous nickname "Chief persuading"?
      2. Aleksys2
        Aleksys2 26 October 2012 18: 10
        0
        Quote: Company 8
        organized a revolution and the dispersal of the Constituent Assembly - the legal authority, opened the front to the Germans.

        Immediately after the February Revolution, the Provisional Government abolished the post of governor-general in the Caucasus and Turkestan and transferred power to committees created from Duma deputies who were local natives.
        The three main political parties of the Caucasus - the Azerbaijani Muslim Democratic Party (Musavat), the Armenian Dashnaktsutyun and the Georgian Social Democratic Party, immediately after the February Revolution, received guarantees of autonomy in the framework of future federal Russia in response to the recognition of the Provisional Government.
      3. Was mammoth
        Was mammoth 26 October 2012 20: 33
        +4
        Quote: Company 8
        Shameless people! Whether it’s the Bolshevik’s case with angel wings, each behind and has a curly head.


        It seems that I have lived a lot in the world, but the reason for the universal betrayal of the party and Soviet elite in the early 90s does not reach me. You studied ideology professionally. Tell me how the "communists" became anti-Soviet. And what do you dislike so much, for example, the moral code of the builder of communism, social achievements in the USSR
    3. Oles
      Oles 7 November 2012 12: 59
      -1
      Brother Sarych,
      and specifically surpassed him
    4. Azzzwer
      Azzzwer 22 November 2012 13: 44
      0
      Well, yes ... well, yes ... who cut shoulder straps on officers?
  5. xan
    xan 26 October 2012 14: 39
    -2
    recently watched photographs of fighters of white color divisions, terrifying the reds. young boys with Russian faces, there are plenty of them on the streets now with a dangling mother between the knees
  6. Ghenxnumx
    Ghenxnumx 26 October 2012 14: 44
    +2
    Yes, and because of the "good" Kolchak, as well as the pogroms sanctioned by him and the seizure of ALL food, the Siberians for the most part took the side of the Bolsheviks
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 26 October 2012 15: 21
      +2
      Quote: Ghen75
      Siberians mostly took the side of the Bolsheviks

      to a point, moreover, even White fled from Kolchak:
      ... Members of the Constituent Assembly, who were in Ufa and Yekaterinburg, headed by Social Revolutionary V.M. Chernov, said that they would not recognize the authorities of Admiral Kolchak, that they would open the front to the Bolsheviks and would use all their forces to oppose the new government. Chernov and his associates were arrested by Siberian troops, but were recaptured by Czechs on their way ...
      1. The centurion
        The centurion 26 October 2012 17: 20
        +2
        Quote: Karlsonn
        to a point, moreover, even White fled from Kolchak:

        The future Marshal of the Victory of Govorov served as a captain for Kolchak until 20, went to the red when his battery was identified in punitive.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 26 October 2012 17: 56
          +1
          The centurion
          If you read the memoirs of the commanders of the Czechoslovak corps, Socialist-Revolutionary Rakov (CSS member) - his memories are here --- http://scepsis.ru/library/id_2812.html, that is, people who do not particularly love the Bolsheviks, everything becomes clear.
          1. Karlsonn
            Karlsonn 26 October 2012 18: 57
            +1
            I found the only contemporary who gave a positive assessment of Kolchak’s activities. I remind Entente I handed over to the Whitehands, they handed over part of the gold reserve to the Irkutsk Political Council (Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks) for the passage and removal of gold reserves, those in turn to Revkoy, who shot him, in general, oil painting - even the enemies of the Bolsheviks did not favor Kolchak; so a positive review by a contemporary about Kolchak:
            Here is the opinion of V.I. Lenin: “Everything that could paralyze the revolution, everything came to the aid of Kolchak. And all this collapsed because the peasants, the Siberian peasants, who are least affected by the influence of communism, because they least observe it, received such a lesson from Kolchak, such a practical comparison (and the peasants like practical comparisons) that we can say: Kolchak gave we have millions of supporters of Soviet power in the areas farthest from industrial centers where it would be difficult for us to conquer them. ”
      2. Azzzwer
        Azzzwer 22 November 2012 14: 14
        0
        what admiral was a fanatic ....
    2. Azzzwer
      Azzzwer 22 November 2012 14: 14
      0
      Ghenxnumx,
      please provide links to documents
  7. Volkhov
    Volkhov 26 October 2012 14: 56
    +3
    The decomposition of patriotic organizations is now used by special services, it acts reliably, immunity has not yet developed. It usually starts with a booze.
    We must try to create a party of non-drinkers - Muslims in the Caucasus can not be decomposed ....
  8. 8 company
    8 company 26 October 2012 16: 05
    +1
    "After the end of the Civil War in Russia, the Soviet government did not have any serious opponents inside the country. "

    The author is wrong. In 1930, more than 2 million peasants took part in 5 thousand uprisings, riots and demonstrations against the regime. The most fierce resistance to collectivization was provided by the population of the national suburbs of the USSR (see Uprising in Altai, Uprising in Chechnya, Uprising in Kazakhstan, Taimyr Uprising, Basmach movement). All these uprisings were suppressed mainly by the OGPU troops, the Red Army tried not to attract, if possible, since the same peasants served there. The largest was still an uprising in the Tambov province in 14-1920. On August 21, 19, in several villages (Kamenka, Tambov Uyezd, Tugolukovo, Borisoglebsky Uyezd), the peasants refused to hand over bread and, with the support of the partisans, destroyed food detachments, local communists and Chekists. On the same day in the village of Afanasyevka, Tambov district, several small rebel groups merged, and the uprising began to spread rapidly. Soon, the uprising spread to the Tambov, Kirsanovsky, Borisoglebsky, Morshansky and Kozlovsky counties of the Tambov province, as well as the neighboring counties of the Saratov and Voronezh provinces. The rebels liquidated the organs of Soviet power, destroyed its representatives and military garrisons, and took power into their own hands ...
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 26 October 2012 17: 32
      +4
      Quote: Company 8
      peasants refused to hand over bread

      Failure to hand over bread is the age-old misfortune of our country. When the German, British, French, Austrian and other peasants patiently fed their armies, and the taxes there were simply draconian, ours hid the grain. The king had to introduce the surplus apportionment in the year 1916. For industrialization in 1928 year increased the tax. They again began to hide grain; collectivization had to be introduced. These peasants (more precisely fists) are the same looters as current representatives of small and medium-sized businesses who do not pay taxes. They will finish the game, they will again be put to meat, then again they will lament the injustice of the people and the state.
      1. 8 company
        8 company 26 October 2012 18: 16
        -3
        Quote: Centurion
        They will finish the game, they will be allowed to eat meat again, then they will again lament the injustice of the people and the state.


        See that they didn’t let you in for meat earlier, the newborn squad.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 26 October 2012 18: 59
          +1
          Quote: Company 8
          newly-minted squadron.

          Who and when introduced the surplus appraisal in the 20 century in Russia?
    2. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 26 October 2012 18: 13
      +1
      And what?
      With the suppression of the uprising in Lyon, a hundred people were tied and fired at them with cannons, canister, and then they were shoved into the river, they blocked the whole river with these ligaments, change the record, and go to the French - tell them what scum they are.
      [
      quote = 8 company] Soon the uprising spread to the territory of Tambov, Kirsanovsky, Borisoglebsk, Morshansk and Kozlovsky districts of Tambov province, as well as neighboring districts of Saratov and Voronezh provinces. The rebels liquidated the organs of Soviet power, destroyed its representatives and military garrisons and took power into their own hands ... [/ quote]

      it’s just that collectivization didn’t begin in the country and there was the power of the Soviets in the villages, where the whole village elected the chairman, and now tell us how the Antonovites hung up their deputies and how it ended.
      1. 8 company
        8 company 26 October 2012 18: 27
        -2
        Quote: Karlsonn
        Yes, go to the French - tell them what bastards they are.


        What for? It’s Dzhugashvili’s fans who are always whining that somewhere in the world someone was mocking, and this, in their opinion, justifies Dzhugashvili’s bullying of the Russian people. Whine further, tell how the American Indians were exterminated, they are more dear to you than their own people.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 26 October 2012 19: 07
          +2
          basically you whine, how bad it was, how terrible it was in your native country.
          Are you really so naive?
          If you look at the whole history of mankind, then this is a series of monstrous crimes, blood and death are everywhere, but it gives you as an anti-adviser just the pleasure of picking a stick in the wounds of our country and God be with him that everything is the same everywhere, your favorite topic is how terrible it was here, I’m not squeamish about fraud and frank lies, you’ll still be talking about bloody ghouls for 30 years.
          Good luck in this hard job.
        2. Aleksys2
          Aleksys2 27 October 2012 03: 41
          -1
          8 company,
          You graduated from the Novosibirsk Higher Military-Political Combined Arms School. That is, you are a political officer. I have a brother, he graduated from Mozhaika and served in Leninsk, so he does not tolerate political leaders, when they are mentioned, he becomes not his own, I often objected to him that not all political scoundrels are political, there are normal people. But here, reading your comments, I began to think, and maybe my brother is right ....
    3. Aleksys2
      Aleksys2 26 October 2012 19: 39
      +3
      October 25, 1922 in Soviet Russia ended the Civil War.
      Quote: Company 8
      The largest was still an uprising in the Tambov province in 1920-21.

      The Tambov uprising is one of the episodes of the Civil War.
      Name the largest and most significant of "In 1930, more than 2 million peasants took part in 5 thousand uprisings, riots and demonstrations against the regime." "Taimyr uprising" - and who rebelled there? Peasants? Samoyeds? Can you imagine where Taimyr is?
      "Basmachic movement" - what is this movement? If you mean the Basmachi, then this is also one of the episodes of the Civil War. The Basmachi are also never peasants, and they did not pose peasant tasks.
      The ideological basis of Basmachism as a political trend was pan-Islamism, pan-Turkism. The Basmach movement was supported by Islamic organizations such as Shura-i-Islam and Shura-i-Ulema. The purpose of the movement was the separation of Turkestan from Soviet Russia and the creation of the Islamic state of Turkestan.
      The struggle against the Soviet regime under the slogans of a holy war provided the Basmachis with support from some of the faithful, national intelligentsia, Islamic leaders and leaders, as well as from the Pan-Islamic circles of Turkey (in particular, Enver Pasha personally participated in the movement) and other Muslim countries.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 27 October 2012 01: 11
        0
        Aleksys2
        like comments began to be deleted, I recommend jumping into the trench.
        1. Aleksys2
          Aleksys2 27 October 2012 03: 43
          -1
          Quote: Karlsonn
          I recommend jumping into the trench.

          And I did not get out of it .... soldier