Geography of northern Russian epics

39
Geography of northern Russian epics
Illustration by I. Moshkin

В previous article was told about the geography of Russian epics of the Kyiv cycle. Today we will continue this story.

"Special" epics of the Kyiv cycle


Among the epics of the Kyiv cycle, two stand apart, which are traditionally included in it, but most likely written in Novgorod. The first of them is an epic about Nightingale Budimirovich, who sailed to woo the daughter of a Kyiv prince, who is now considered by many to be an “old man” of northern origin.




Nightingale Budimirovich illustrated by N. Kochergin

Firstly, the groom arrived in Kyiv from somewhere in the north, passing by Smolensk, perhaps even from the lands of the Western Slavs living on the coast of the Baltic Sea.

Secondly, the path of the protagonist is indicated in sufficient detail and reliably, which is typical for Novgorod epics. The nightingale sails from the city of "Ledenets" located in the land of "Vedenetskaya":

"Because of the glorious blue of the Volyn Sea,
Because of that Kodolsky island,
Because of that lukomorya green.

Almost all researchers agree to consider the "Land of Vedenets" as "the land of Veneds". Even Caesar in his Notes on the Gallic War wrote about the Wends (Veneti):

“This tribe enjoys the greatest influence along the entire sea coast, since the Veneti have the largest number of ships on which they go to Britain, and also surpass the rest of the Gauls in knowledge of maritime affairs and experience in it. With a strong and unobstructed sea surf and a small number of harbors, which, in addition, are in the hands of the Veneti, they made all those sailing on this sea their tributaries.

In the writings of Claudius Ptolemy of Alexandria (XNUMXnd century AD), the Baltic Sea is called the Venedian Gulf, and the Carpathians are called the Venedian Mountains. And the Volyn Sea of ​​Russian epics, including the one we are considering, is actually Volinsky: from the name of the island of Volin, on which the city of the same name was located, also known as Vineta, Yumna, and in Russia - as Vedenets (hence one step to Ledenets) .


Wolin Island on the map

However, others see in Ledenets the Swedish trading city of Löddecöping, located not far from the Slavic (at that time) island of Ruyan (Rügen). The “Green Lukomorye” refers to the Baltic Sea, they argue only about localization: the Zeeland Lukomorye or the closer coast of the island of Ruyan between the Vittov peninsulas (where Arkona was located) and Jasmund, which had an arched shape. In this case, Gotland is most suitable for the role of Kodolsky Island, where in Visby (the main city of the island) the Novgorodians had not only houses and warehouses, but also the church of St. Nicholas.

And some believe that the name Ledenets could come from the city of Lindanissa, near which Revel later grew up (now Tallinn). Here, too, there was a permanent Novgorod colony. Kodolsky Island in this case will be Kotlin.

Still others even believe that Lollipop is Gle'den, a city that was located on the spot where Veliky Ustyug later grew up.

However, it is the first version that still looks the most logical and harmonious.

Everything seems completely incomprehensible and strange in the epic about Duke Stepanovich and his journey to Kyiv.

Duke Stepanovich - one of the snake fighters of Russian epics:


And he is also a skilled musician on a 1905 postcard:


Duke arrived:

“From that rich Turkey,
Yes, from that cursed Galicia,
From that glorious Volyngorod.

At the same time, the distance from Kyiv to the Galician land

"by a roundabout way - for six months, but by a direct road - for three months."

It seems logical to assume that the Duke arrived from the Galicia-Volyn principality - the northern storytellers of geography simply did not know. But what about India? And why is Volyn a glorious city, and Galich a cursed one?

Many researchers believe that this epic, like the "old" about Nightingale Budimirovich, was written in Novgorod, and traces of Duke must be sought in the north. It removes almost all issues. We again meet with the Baltic Wends or Wends, whom the Germans called Winds (Inds - Wenden). And the Finns still call Russia the word Venaja, in which the name of the Slavic association of Wends is clearly heard. The same root in the Estonian word "vein", which the inhabitants of this country call Russians.

The fact is that the neighbors of the Finns and Estonians - the Novgorodians, unlike the Kyivans, originated from the Western Slavs-Vends, and not from the Eastern Slavs-Antes. That is, India may well be Vendia, Galicia - the land of the hostile Wends (and therefore cursed) Baltic tribe of the Galindai (Galindai), also known as the golyad, and under the name Volyn, Volin, already familiar to us, is probably hiding. In Scandinavia and Northern Germany, Wolin (Vineta, Volynets) was known as Yumna or Yom. At the peak of its power, this city was indeed very rich, Duke Stepanovich says about him:

“Do we have in the Indians in the Rich
Our churches are all stone,
And they are whitewashed with lime,
On the churches, there are semi-precious domes,
There are gilded lids on the houses,
Pavements are covered with ore-yellow sand,
You won’t get your green morocco boots dirty here.”

Adam Bremensky, a highly respected and serious author, agrees with Duke:

“Beyond the country of the Lyutichs, otherwise called the Wilts, the Oder River flows ... At its mouth ... the most glorious city of Yumne ... This is truly the largest of all cities that are in Europe. It is inhabited by Slavs and other peoples, Greeks and barbarians… This city, rich in goods of all northern peoples, has everything that is pleasant and rare.”

In Novgorod, as we have already said, Wends settled. Thus, the Novgorod author of the epic, talking about how a visiting hero shames the Kyiv dandies and the prince himself, who decided to compete with him in wealth, and easily wins three competitions, apparently emphasizes the superiority of Volin and Novgorod over Kyiv.

Novgorod epics



The epics of the Novgorod cycle are characterized by quite reliable geographical information. The same Vasily Buslaev does not come across fantastic rivers or cities on his journey to Jerusalem. He sails up the Lovat, then down the Dnieper to the Black Sea and visits Tsargrad (Constantinople) on the way. But the epics of the Kyiv cycle, the river "Yerdan" and the "city of Yersalim" are placed immediately after the Clean Field and the Holy Mountains - and no sea needs to be crossed.


Novgorod earpieces, a miniature from the Illuminated Chronicle. This is what Vasily Buslaev's squad could look like

It is curious that in 1118 in Constantinople a certain “Scythian Basil, a merchant from Neapolis” (“New City”) committed a series of brawls and two massacres in the markets. At first, he managed to pay off, but when the number of local residents crippled by him exceeded fifty, this “Scythian” was still put in prison, from which he managed to escape by breaking the bars. Was this violent "merchant from the New City" one of the prototypes of the epic Vasily Buslaev? It is unlikely that the Byzantines would have called a "Scythian" a native of Italian Naples.


Vasily Buslaev as presented by A. Ryabushkin

Let us return to Vasily Buslaev, who in the Holy Land, contrary to the ban, bathed in the “Jordan River”, and then died upon returning to his homeland. Recorded epics offer two places of death of this hero.

According to the first version, this happened on Mount Zion - quite real, it is currently located on the territory of Jerusalem.

But other versions of the epic speak of Sorochinsky Mountain. In the epics of the Kyiv cycle, the Sorochinsky mountains (that is, the Saracens) are mentioned as the place where the Serpent Gorynych lives - the same one that Dobrynya Nikitich fought with.

In other later epics, the Sorochinsky mountains already serve as the border of Russian lands. According to the ideas of the storytellers, they were located in the southeast - in contrast to the Holy Mountains, which were in the southwest. And therefore, the heroic outpost on Sorochinsky Mountain in the epic "Ilya Muromets and Zhidovin" was probably not on the border with the epic Judea, but with Khazaria.

However, in the Novgorod epics, Sorochinskaya Mountain is located where it is supposed to be - on the Volga at the confluence of the Tsaritsa River - within the boundaries of modern Volgograd. This mountain was known in Novgorod - local merchants and ushkuyniki sailed to this place. That is, Vasily Buslaev returned through the Caspian and the Volga.

The route “to foreign countries” and another epic hero, Sadko, is also very accurately conveyed:

“And he went, but along the Volkhov,
Ai from Volkhov, he is in Ladoga (lake).
And from Ladoga he sailed to the Neva River,
Ah, as from the Neva River, as I left for the blue sea.

It was in this way that Novgorod merchants and ushkuiniki got into the Baltic Sea, and India, which the hero visited, may turn out to be the Vendia we know.


Andrei Ryabushkin. Sadko, a wealthy Novgorod guest, 1895

True, Sadko also visited the Golden Horde - it turns out that he went around Europe and returned through the Black Sea. Where, by the way, there are two constantly rotating whirlpools, forming a current from east to west in the northern part of the sea. And in the Sea of ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXbAzov, the Don arranges a whirlpool. It was here, according to some historians, that the ships of Sadko's squadron could "get stuck", who eventually had to jump overboard and go "on a visit" to the sea king. Being released by him, the hero wakes up on the banks of the real river Chernava.

But in such a trip around Europe is still not very hard to believe. Therefore, some researchers believe that Sadko's ships returned to Lake Ilmen, from where they passed through Msta to Vyshny Volok (Volochka) and dragged the ships to Tvertsa.


Shipwreck

Already from this river they could go down to the Volga and swim to Saray.

Other researchers believe that under the Golden Horde, the narrators understood the Russian principalities located to the south, which, unlike Novgorod, were actually one of the Horde uluses, and the Grand Duke received a label for rule from the Khan.

In addition, it must be remembered that in 1397, after the defeat from Timur-Kutlug and Edigey, Tokhtamysh left for the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, who still remained the great khan of the Jochi ulus. He even issued a label for the reign of the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vitovt. And therefore the Belarusian city of Lida, where Tokhtamysh's headquarters was temporarily located, could also be called the Golden Horde at that time.

By the way, the epic about Sadko ends with the promise of the hero to build a "cathedral church" in Novgorod. And at 25 historical Sources state that a certain Sotko (Sytko, Sotka) Sytinich (Sytinits, Stanich, Sotich), saved by Saint Nicholas, built the Church of Saints Boris and Gleb in the Novgorod citadel.

This is stated, in particular, in the Novgorod First Chronicle of both editions, the Novgorod Second, Novgorod Third, Fourth and Fifth Chronicles, in the Novgorod Karamzin, Novgorod Bolshakovskaya, Novgorod Uvarovskaya, Novgorod Zabelinskaya, Novgorodskaya Pogodinskaya Chronicles. And also in the Chronicler of the Novgorod rulers, the Pskov First Chronicle, the First Sofia, Perm, Tver, Resurrection and Nikon Chronicles. And also in the Moscow chronicle of the end of the XNUMXth century, Rogozhsky and Vladimir chroniclers.

14 sources speak of the laying of this church in 1167 on the site of the first wooden St. Sophia Cathedral, which burned down in 1049. Then you can find reports about the consecration of this church in 1173, about its restoration after a fire in 1441, and finally about its dismantling due to dilapidation in 1682. This church can be seen on the Khutyn icon of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries:


The Novgorod Detinets is depicted here, the Church of Boris and Gleb seems larger and taller than St. Sophia Cathedral

Such conscientiousness of the narrators brings the Novgorod epics closer to the Scandinavian sagas, which were composed by skalds only on the basis of personal impressions or stories of trustworthy people. Close trade and cultural ties between Novgorodians and their northern neighbors are also noted in Russian chronicles. The author of "The Tale of Bygone Years" directly says that the Novgorodians "came out" due to the increased influx of newcomers from across the sea:

“Novgorodians are those people from the Varangian family, but before they were Slovenes.”

Apparently, acquaintance with the northern literary tradition also influenced the Novgorod writers of epics.
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  1. +7
    October 4 2022
    Apparently, acquaintance with the northern literary tradition also influenced the Novgorod writers of epics.
    It is not excluded.
  2. +6
    October 4 2022
    Good morning! hi
    On this site there are quite a lot of articles devoted to Russian epics, which is not surprising.
    This is our epic.
    It is important to decide, first of all for yourself, the origin of the epics, i.e. where did they come from in Russian culture.
    And secondly, not unimportant, in what environment they spread and circulated.
    And then talk about their historical, geographical authenticity and identify any epic hero with a real historical character.
    It's like arguing whether Vasilisa the Beautiful (or was it the Wise? Or is it different Vasilisa?) The daughter or granddaughter of Koshchei the Immortal!
    And who is its historical prototype laughing drinks
    1. +3
      October 4 2022
      Vasilisa the Beautiful and Vasilisa the Wise. This eternal conflict. Beautiful, but stupid, smart, but not beautiful. laughing
      1. 0
        October 5 2022
        There was Vasilisa the Beautiful, she married Ivan the Fool, became Vasilisa the Wise :)
        1. 0
          October 6 2022
          B7 greetings from Argentina.
          My maternal grandmother's name was Vasilisa.
          She was smart and beautiful.
          1. 0
            December 5 2022
            Quote: stroybat ZABVO
            My maternal grandmother's name was Vasilisa.
            She was smart and beautiful.

            Vasilisa the Wise and Vasilisa the Beautiful entered the institutes and share their impressions.
            Vasilisa the Beautiful: "I'm not the most beautiful in textile, but the smartest!"
            Vasilisa the Wise "I'm not the smartest in Phystech, but the most beautiful!"
    2. +8
      October 4 2022
      Vasilisa the Beautiful (or is it the Wise? Or is it different Vasilisa?
      This is the Russian version of Athena.)))
      Hi Sasha!
      1. +4
        October 4 2022
        Hello Anton!
        So we touched on the sources of our epics! Legs from Greece are growing!
        Joke. But as you know in every joke...
        It is clear that the epics of the European peoples had common roots and were supplemented, and the plots were essentially the same.
        1. +5
          October 4 2022
          And there are only three plots in world literature.
          1. +7
            October 4 2022
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            And there are only three plots in world literature.

            Drinking, fighting, sobering-up station? wassat drinks
            Good afternoon Anton hi
            1. +2
              October 4 2022
              Siege fortress
              treasure hunt
              Homecoming
              Hello, Sergey!
              1. +2
                October 4 2022
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Homecoming

                Remembering Odysseus, I thought about the famous Russian proverb that "the road home is always shorter" hi
                1. +2
                  October 4 2022
                  Yeah, he didn't seem to be in much of a hurry. What was waiting for him there?
                  "Years have passed. Odysseus is wise,
                  Nobly decrepit in insignificant Ithaca. "(C)
                  1. +2
                    October 4 2022
                    Quote: 3x3zsave
                    Yeah, he didn't seem to be in much of a hurry. What was waiting for him there?

                    According to the official version ("Odyssey"), he rushed straight home, but something kept getting in the way... laughing
                    1. +2
                      October 4 2022
                      he went straight home
                      Yes, yes, walk through your native village with the medal "For the Capture of Troy" on your chest.
                      1. +2
                        October 4 2022
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        walk through the native village

                        Village! Kingdom after all! acres 10 size ... laughing
                      2. +2
                        October 4 2022
                        Wow! That is, while he is wandering around the Mediterranean - he is a war hero, Starinov's level. And as soon as he settles in his native outback, he becomes the chairman of the village council.
              2. +3
                October 4 2022
                Siege fortress

                treasure hunt

                Homecoming


                Hello Anton! drinks
          2. +3
            October 4 2022
            In Russian epics, the bride is in second place, the first thing is "airplanes" laughing
    3. +6
      October 4 2022
      Alexander welcome!
      It is important to decide, first of all for yourself, the origin of the epics, i.e. where did they come from in Russian culture.
      And secondly, not unimportant, in what environment they spread and circulated.

      I absolutely support.
      This is a key issue in considering epics.
      Layering, etc...more questions.
      hi
    4. +4
      October 4 2022
      Quote: ee2100
      And then talk about their historical, geographical authenticity and identify any epic hero with a real historical character.

      To me, this is a very dubious occupation.
      Good afternoon, Alexander! hi
      1. +5
        October 4 2022
        Good day, Sergey!
        Both you and Edward supported me. Who has the same thoughts?
        In short, we are on the right track!
  3. +5
    October 4 2022
    Special thanks for the adventures of "Scythian Basil" from the "New City" in Constantinople. Well, it’s immediately obvious that our tourist in Turkey from the 90s went a little too far with “all inclusive” (now you can’t find such characters anymore, they have gone down in history, like “businessmen” in raspberry jackets).
    And India, which is actually Vendia, is very interesting and logical.
  4. +6
    October 4 2022
    Ledenets or Lindanissa is not a fortress near present-day Tallinn, but a fortress in Tallinn itself, which, first of all, after landing on the coast, was built by the Danes to conquer the Estonians. That's what the Danes called it. And the Estonians called it the Danish fortress, the Danish city "taani linn", which gradually grew into the word "Tallinn". On the site of the Lindanissa fortress, which was badly destroyed when the Estonians attacked the Danes but were defeated, the Danes built the Toompea fortress, which still stands today. But this is the very center of the old Lollipop, aka Kolyvan, aka Revel, aka Tallinn .. By the way, a red flag fell from the sky on Toompea, and a white cross on it. This is how the Danes explain the appearance of the Danish flag in order to justify the aggression of Catholicism against the pagan Estonians.
    So, if Nightingale Budimirovich arrived in Kyiv from Ledenets, then he arrived from the very center of the old city of modern Tallinn, since on the site of the Lindanissa fortress there is still Toompea fortress, in the Vyshgorod of old Tallinn, from where the city developed further.
    And thanks to the author for an interesting article.
    1. +3
      October 4 2022
      "Lindanissa is not a fortress near present-day Tallinn, but a fortress in Tallinn itself, which, first of all, after landing on the coast, was built by the Danes to conquer the Estonians. That's what the Danes called it." (c)
      Lindanise is not a fortress, it is a cape on which the Danes landed, which means "Linda's breast nipple".
      Linda is the mythical wife of Kalev (the hero of the Estonian epic).
      "Toompea (Toompea) is a fortress built by dachas." (c)
      Toompea is a hill, not a fortress, which means "head of Toom" in Russian.
      Now there is Toompea Castle (Toompea loss) or Vyshgorod Castle.
      On the hill is the "Garden of the Danish King" where, as expected, the future flag of Denmark fell. In summer, a feast is organized here in honor of the Dannebrog.
      A strange Estonian holiday - to celebrate the day when you broke into a lyuley!
  5. +1
    October 4 2022
    Yes, there are many different places and structures of interest that have not yet been unraveled: North Africa, Hyperborea Siberia. Lemuria; snake shaft,
    Walls starting with Chinese.
  6. +5
    October 4 2022
    I was also interested in "Scythian Vasily" and I tried to find a source from where our Valery could get this "Scythian".
    Apparently, the primary source of this information was the publication of May 15, 2013 on the REX news agency in the blog of a certain Lev Vershinin. This author is unknown to me, but judging by the titles of his publications, he specializes mainly in the Ukrainian topic.
    The publication is called "Vasily Buslaev and Constantinople".
    https://iarex.ru/articles/36652.html
    Here is the beginning of this article.
    It’s hard to surprise me, but now I’m not just surprised, I’m in shock. An old Moscow historian, a friend of my teacher, rest in peace, a major Soviet antique, in his declining years, purely for the soul, carried away by Byzantology, sent me his letter, sharing his impressions of work on the corpus of official correspondence of Constantinople bureaucrats at the beginning of the XNUMXth century. Topic: criminality in Tsargrad, the reform of law enforcement agencies carried out by Alexei Komnin, and its results, which, as you know, turned out to be very effective. The topic for a historian is a treasure, all the more so since these documents have not been translated from Katarevus either into Russian or even into English...
    But it's not that. And the thing is...

    And then comes the story retold by Valery.
    That is, the anonymous "old Moscow historian" sends Vershinin a "letter" in which he shares his research on the topic of criminality in Byzantium in the XNUMXth century, including this story, allegedly taken from the report of the head of the Constantinople police, which report has not yet been translated. into Russian or into English. smile
    As specifically so that, well, there was no way to verify the reliability of the information - neither the name of the historian, nor the text of the report, nor links to it ... smile
    What do you think, colleagues, how many such stories can I write in one day? laughing
    But I still want to ask Valery - dear, if you use materials from such sources for your articles - make some reservations that this is quite possibly a bike, otherwise some people
    Quote: vet
    Special thanks for the adventures of "Scythian Vasily"

    they believe you...
    1. +4
      October 4 2022
      Mikhail, I don’t know where the information about the “Scythian Vasily” came from, but I just know Vershinin. Candidate of historical sciences, a native of Odessa and a critic of the current Kyiv regime. And a well-known writer. The "Gopakiada" is very interesting - a real real, but polemically pointed history of Ukraine and the relationship between Ukrainians and Russians. It looks like the books of Oles Buzina, who was killed in Kyiv. And a very interesting novel "The Return of the King" about the progressor a / la Strugatsky, only better - the fantasy Middle Ages of an alien planet, although the allusions to real earthly history are obvious. I recommend both books to everyone. Very easy to read and not blank.
      1. +3
        October 4 2022
        Quote: vet
        fantasy medieval alien planet

        Ah... Then it's understandable.
        Then it is strange that Vershinin kept silent about one significant detail contained in this report, to which he, or rather, some "old Moscow historian" refers. And it says that at the trial, after the announcement of the results of the forensic gynecological examination of the wife of "Siklitik Stavros" "virtuous Zoya", with whom "Scythian Vasily" spent the night "sinfully and disgustingly" three times, and according to which "virtuous Zoya" turned out to be a virgin, indicated The Scythian jumped up from the dock and shouted: "It can't be! Keep everyone silent! Chapai will think!" And he sat in silence for twelve seconds.
        So that Scythian was not Buslaev at all, but quite a Chapaev, known to us as Vasily Ivanovich.
        An anonymous chronicler writes about this in Piers Gaveston's Royal Annals. Provide a quote?
        Verify, refute or believe. wassat laughing
    2. +5
      October 4 2022
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      allegedly taken from the report of the head of the Constantinople police, which report has not yet been translated into either Russian or English.

      So everything looks more / less reliable, but I would like to see the documentary ... hi
      1. +5
        October 4 2022
        And to take a word, as is usual with gentlemen, is it weak? smile
        Personally, I am practically convinced that the information about the "Scythian Vasily" is just a hoax. All the signs of this are there: an anonymous source, unique information, the inability to verify. At the same time, Vershinin himself cites only the name of this supposedly "head of police", which is on the net only in connection with this article. Well, "Scythian Vasily" too, supposedly from a natural text. Everything else is pure gag in pure Russian, and with the use of modern turns.
        In short, I sit down to write history. That's what I'll call the book: "A story for gentlemen who take their word for it." And whoever does not believe is not a gentleman and is his own enemy. laughing
        About how many wonderful discoveries
        Prepares enlightenment spirit
        1. +4
          October 4 2022
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Personally, I am practically convinced that the information about the "Scythian Vasily" is just a hoax.

          It is very likely that in any case, without the publication of the document (if it exists), this cannot be treated differently. hi
          1. +4
            October 4 2022
            There, only the tone of Vershinin's article suggests a joke. Well, Ph.D. write seriously.
            It reminded me of the Veles book or Anna Yaroslavna's letter to her father from France. There, however, they tried to reproduce the source texts, here the author did not bother with this.
  7. BAI
    +3
    October 4 2022
    Galicia - the land of the hostile Wends (and therefore cursed) Baltic tribe of the Galinds (Galindai), also known as golyad,

    Does the author know that in the current Kostroma region there is the city of Galich (founded in 1159)?
    Very close in time to
    that in 1118 in Constantinople a certain “Scythian Basil, a merchant from Neapolis” committed a series of brawls and two battles in the markets
  8. +4
    October 4 2022
    Almost all researchers agree to consider the "Land of Vedenets" as "the land of Veneds". Even Caesar in his Notes on the Gallic War wrote about the Wends (Veneti)

    Well, you can’t mix the Armorica venets described by Caesar and the Baltic Venets-Venedi. Generally it is impossible. This is a classic of the historical genre - the Venetian triangle - Brittany-Baltic-Adriatic. No connection was found between them. In addition to the Indo-European root veins- How no connection was found between Caucasian Albania and Albania-Scotland except for the Indo-European root alb- white.
  9. +1
    October 4 2022
    Quote: ee2100
    And then talk about their historical, geographical authenticity

    For example, the Scandinavians thoroughly study their sagas and do not classify them as fairy tales, and some of them are even confirmed. Others are still waiting for such confirmation ...
  10. +1
    October 5 2022
    Thanks for continuing!
    Northern epics seemed to me more interesting. Maybe because they are more tied to geographic points? And yes, I have not heard about some heroes and characters. For this - the same many thanks, there will be something to look for and read.

    It also seemed to me that the northern epics, in their geographic references, are very similar to Scandinavian songs ... There are also a lot of geographical places and marks ...
  11. -1
    October 6 2022
    In fact, the history of the ancient Slavic western lands is little considered. For example, Berlin was originally a completely Russian word, of course, then a little Germanized. In this regard, of course, it is doubly sad that Russian troops left Berlin.
    1. 0
      December 9 2022
      Quote from Bioorganism
      In fact, the history of the ancient Slavic western lands is little considered. For example, Berlin was originally a completely Russian word, of course, then a little Germanized. In this regard, of course, it is doubly sad that Russian troops left Berlin.
      Looked up the meaning of the word "Berlin" in Slavonic...
      There is a variant of the Old Polabian language - swampy place - birl-, berl- swamp or bog.
      This refers to the swampy lowland of the Spree River.
      hi

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