Military Review

Thermobaric munitions in a special military operation

45
Thermobaric munitions in a special military operation
KAB-500OD. Source: wikipedia.org


Volumetric explosion in one beat


Push-pull ammunition, or volumetric detonating bombs, which were discussed in the previous material, have a number of undeniable advantages. First of all, this is a huge power with a relatively small size. For example, ODAB-500 contains only 193 kg of liquid fuel, but produces a TNT equivalent of one ton. In addition, the bomb contains practically no fragments, which means that it does not spread its deadly influence outside the affected area. At the same time, it is impossible to hide from the ODAB - the shock wave flows into all the cracks of the shelters, guaranteeing severe barotrauma to the unfortunate. Along the way, it also burns out oxygen, causing asphyxia in miraculously surviving.

With such significant advantages, volumetric detonating ammunition has a number of disadvantages. First of all, this is the complexity of the design with two fuses (the second is necessary to undermine the aerosol), a leader and a stabilizing parachute. Some authors point to the “weather dependence” of ODABs - ammunition may not work in squally winds, rain and snow. It is impossible to use such equipment underwater and underground. It is also impractical to design small-caliber ammunition - bombs less than 50 kg and shells with a caliber of less than 220 mm.


The debut of "Bumblebees" in Afghanistan. Source: en.wikipedia.org

To eliminate some of these shortcomings, thermobaric projectiles, or single-stroke volume explosion ammunition, were developed. From the name it is clear that in this case there is no preliminary procedure for spraying the aerosol, but the detonation does not become less voluminous. Americans call it weapon very aptly - "ammunition with an increased impulse in terms of pressure and thermal radiation." The mechanics of the explosion is very similar to the usual detonation of high explosive ammunition. In the first milliseconds of detonation, the products scatter in all directions and react with atmospheric oxygen. Additional burnout provides more ammunition power and a volumetric detonating effect. If it’s completely primitive, then thermobaric ammunition is a land mine that uses atmospheric oxygen as an additional oxidizing agent. Scientifically speaking, thermobaric projectile explosives have a negative oxygen balance, that is, an external oxidizer is required for complete fuel burnout. It has become a rule of good manners among gunsmiths to equip explosives with particles of combustible material, usually aluminum or magnesium powder.

Soviet priority


The most successful thermobaric ammunition was the Soviet RPO-A Shmel flamethrower, which made its debut in Afghanistan. Prior to that, the army used the reusable flamethrower RPO "Lynx", which was put into service in 1975. With similar weight and size parameters, the "Lynx" was less long-range and powerful. But the "Bumblebee" turned out to be so successful that the Americans, having received such a trophy from the Mujahideen, created a similar weapon branch at home. Prior to this, the Pentagon's priority was push-pull volumetric detonating systems, in which, it should be noted, they have achieved great success. Unlike Russia, the Americans at different times were armed with several dozen different ODABs.


Ukrainian "Lynxes" from Soviet stocks. Source: livejournal.com

If you look at RPO-A, then he is not a flamethrower. Simply because there is no throwing fire in the usual sense - the weapon fires a grenade from a carbon-fiber barrel-container. Already at the target, due to the main damaging factors - the shock wave and high temperature - a fire can break out. Or maybe not flare up. "Bumblebee" is the next step in the evolution of flamethrowers, one might say, forced. As the experience of the World War showed, walking at the enemy with a jet flamethrower is, of course, spectacular, but completely ineffective. First of all, due to the loss of part of the incendiary mixture on the flight path, as well as a decrease in temperature at the target. And, of course, no one ever captured flamethrowers. And the one-time infantry RPO-A "Bumblebee" does not require special skills to use, which blurs the line between an ordinary fighter and a flamethrower. A little about the performance characteristics of the "Bumblebee". It aims at a maximum of 600 meters, weight - 12 kg, weight of thermobaric explosives - 2,3 kg, caliber - 93 mm. Three variants of warhead equipment. The classic RPO-A with thermobaric filling, the incendiary RPO-Z filled with a mixture of red phosphorus, and the smoke RPO-D. The Shmel-M flamethrower is 4,3 kg lighter, but equipped with a more powerful warhead.


"Shmel-M". Source: en.wikipedia.org

Domestic infantry flamethrowers, for all their sinister glory, are typical urban weapons. Or to ammunition with reduced side effects. The thin-walled aluminum shell of the ammunition does not produce fragments, which allows the weapon to be used in close proximity to civilians. The flamethrower is great for getting the enemy out of buildings. One rocket that hits the building creates unbearable conditions for survivors in an area of ​​​​up to 620 square meters. meters. Even a gas mask does not save, primarily due to the burnout of oxygen in the affected area. In a closed room with a volume of 90 cubic meters, a grenade detonation causes a short-term pressure surge of up to 4 atm. and more. Many call the "Bumblebee" the deadliest infantry weapon, and some compare its effectiveness with 152-mm shells. Of course, taking into account the fact that the flamethrower is not even able to break through a brick wall. Structurally, this drawback is solved in the RMG "Zanos" multi-purpose rocket-propelled grenade. On the one hand, this is a grenade launcher, since a cumulative grenade is located in the bow, and on the other hand, a flamethrower - in the center of a thermobaric warhead. Such a tandem ammunition, the developers from NPO Bazalt diplomatically called multi-purpose. The principle of operation is simple and elegant at the same time - a cumulative jet breaks through a brick wall or light armor and "brings" a thermobaric charge inside with all the ensuing consequences.


RMG "Zanos". Source: en.wikipedia.org


MPO-A "Borodach". Source: arsenal-info.ru

In the caliber of 72,5 mm, the most compact thermobaric disposable grenade launcher MRO-A "Borodach" is made. The length of the weapon is 900 mm, weight - 4,6 kg, of which 1 kg is explosive. Sighting range - 300 m, maximum - up to 450 m. Also made in incendiary design under the letter Z and smoke - D. In the description of the latter, the purpose of the weapon is of particular interest:

"to create unbearable conditions for enemy manpower."


Shot TBG-7V for RPG-7 Source: zonawars.ru

The TBG-7V shot for the RPG-7 also belongs to the type of thermobaric weapon. This is the younger brother of an infantry flamethrower, which, nevertheless, is comparable in terms of lethal force to a 120-mm mine. Except for the splinter effect, of course. The next in the ranking table is the RSHG-1 (reactive assault grenade), created on the basis of the RPG-27. Caliber - 105 mm, weight - 8 kg.

At another level is guided missile weapons. For example, the 9M133F-2 thermobaric rocket for the Kornet, which, in terms of volumetric explosion power, reaches 10 kg of TNT equivalent, which is three times more than that of the Bumblebee.

Thermobaric kings


The main thermobaric players on the fronts of Ukraine are the heavy flamethrower systems TOS-1 "Pinocchio" and TOS-1A "Solntsepek". The first has 24 guides, the second has 30. This weapon can be called an assault MLRS of the front edge, capable of working under enemy fire. Range - up to 3,5 km, minimum - from 400 meters. The network has enough video evidence of the use of heavy flamethrowers precisely from minimal distances, almost point-blank. Until now, there is no consensus in specialized military-technical sources which principle of a volumetric explosion is used in TOS ammunition - single-stroke or two. Judging by the frames of the chronicle, this is still a single-stroke thermobaric ammunition.


KAB-500OD. Source: wikipedia.org

The gunners have some thermobaric ammunition. Barrel systems require thick-walled hulls, otherwise they cannot withstand overloads when fired. Therefore, volumetric detonating weapons remain with multiple launch rocket systems. The 9M55S ammunition for the Smerch system with a caliber of 300 mm is equipped with a 280-kilogram warhead and is capable of hitting the enemy at a distance of up to 90 km.

The Aerospace Forces also have thermobaric ammunition. Corrected aerial bomb KAB-500Kr-OD, which can be used on targets from a height of 0,5 to 5 km. Weight - 370 kg, of which 250 kg fall on the warhead. This is a serious weapon for weakly armored, but important targets. Guided bomb targeting television. For larger targets such as "railway and highway bridges, military-industrial complex facilities, ships, warehouses of BC and railway nodes”, you can work KAB-1500Kr-OD. The bomb carries 650 kg of thermobaric mixture to the target, which makes it the most powerful ammunition of this type in the Russian army.
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  1. Vladimir_2U
    Vladimir_2U 3 October 2022 06: 04
    -9
    Along the way, it also burns out oxygen, causing asphyxia in miraculously surviving.
    Well, at least the vacuum does not spray! So any land mine can be brought under the definition of ODBP. The products of the explosion, combustion and dust - that's what creates unbearable conditions!
    1. Chrysophylax
      Chrysophylax 3 October 2022 06: 19
      -8
      As is known, a vacuum bomb is used to spray a vacuum.
      1. Tester
        Tester 3 October 2022 06: 35
        +20
        Vacuum spray? This is something new in physics
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 3 October 2022 07: 01
          +4
          Quote: Tartar 174
          Well, expressed! How can a vacuum be sprayed? Spray what is practically non-existent.

          I keep forgetting that for people like you, for the slightest reason, either JOKE or SARKASM should be added.
      2. Tester
        Tester 3 October 2022 06: 39
        +4
        And the term vacuum bomb appeared during the first use of OD bombs, when in Vietnam, on the periphery of the explosion area, bamboo folded to the center of the explosion
        1. garri-lin
          garri-lin 3 October 2022 09: 02
          0
          Vietnamese soldiers dug numerous tunnels. Quite deep. And the Americans often used carpet bombing. As a result, Vietnamese soldiers hiding in deep tunnels died without external damage. suffocated
          A huge area of ​​the earth's surface actually turned out to be without oxygen. Massive explosions burned out
          1. huntsman650
            huntsman650 3 October 2022 09: 17
            +1
            The Armed Forces of Ukraine use the same tactics as the Vietnamese, they burrow in holes. Info from Kherson direction. And the holes are deep.
            1. garri-lin
              garri-lin 3 October 2022 14: 16
              +3
              Well, it's a proven tactic. Whoever wants to live hides deep.
      3. Tatar 174
        Tatar 174 3 October 2022 06: 47
        -2
        Quote: Chrysophylax
        For spraying vacuum...

        Well, expressed! How can a vacuum be sprayed? Spray what is practically non-existent.
        1. Vladimir_2U
          Vladimir_2U 3 October 2022 07: 01
          0
          Quote: Tatar 174
          Well, expressed! How can a vacuum be sprayed? Spray what is practically non-existent.

          I keep forgetting that for people like you, for the slightest reason, either JOKE or SARKASM should be added.
  2. Paul Siebert
    Paul Siebert 3 October 2022 06: 25
    +6
    A small correction to the last paragraph.
    Not VSK, but VKS. "Aerospace Forces".
    I liked the article itself. Very lively, atmospheric Russian language.
    I read it with pleasure.
  3. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 3 October 2022 06: 26
    +3
    It is stated briefly, intelligibly, simply ... It remains only to mention one "nuance": when I "studied" (once!) Volumetric detonating ammunition (ODB), the article said that it makes no sense to make ODB less than 100 kg and 220 mm ... (Author's: less than 50 kg and 220 mm ...) recourse
    1. Romario_Argo
      Romario_Argo 3 October 2022 11: 11
      0
      well, in rain and squally wind - FAB-500, KAB-500 work flawlessly
      for specially protected purposes BETAB-500
      well, if you want to bring a nix to FAB-1500, KAB-1500
    2. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 3 October 2022 12: 05
      +1
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      the article said that it makes no sense to make ODB less than 100 kg and 220 mm ... (Author: less than 50 kg and 220 mm ...)
      But they do:
      VG-40TB
      40 mm thermobaric shot
      A shot with a VG-40TB thermobaric grenade is designed to incapacitate and destroy enemy manpower with a shock wave in open areas and in shelters of various types, in natural terrain and obstacles, in closed volumes of buildings and engineering structures.

      By the way, there was a video on YouTube where the Zanos RMG was shooting at an armored personnel carrier. The armored personnel carrier shattered into tatters.
      1. garri-lin
        garri-lin 3 October 2022 14: 18
        +1
        From the Skid Dota small scatter. Not like armored personnel carriers. Good thing.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 3 October 2022 15: 08
        +1
        You can also recall the GM-93, GM-94 and LPO-97 caliber 43 mm.
        In the video from the CTO sites in the North Caucasus, there are shots of "dismantling" firing points in brick houses in the private sector with thermobaric grenades made from these products.
      3. tlauicol
        tlauicol 3 October 2022 18: 10
        0
        The author just explained the difference between odb and tb. But you didn't understand
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 3 October 2022 18: 55
          0
          Quote: Tlauicol
          The author just explained the difference between odb and tb. But you didn't understand
          Specifically, what did I not understand?
      4. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 3 October 2022 18: 54
        +1
        You are confusing Volumetric Detonating Ammunition (two-stroke) and Thermobaric Ammunition (single-cycle)!
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 3 October 2022 19: 48
          0
          Quote: Nikolaevich I
          You are confusing Volumetric Detonating Ammunition (two-stroke) and Thermobaric Ammunition (single-cycle)!
          From the text of the article, I realized that the other type of ammunition loses its effectiveness greatly with relatively small calibers, which is why I paid attention to ammunition in 40mm caliber, which is very far from 220mm.
  4. Tester
    Tester 3 October 2022 06: 34
    +3
    TOS-1 Pinocchio and TOS-1A Solntsepek a small inaccuracy in the text
  5. FoBoss_V
    FoBoss_V 3 October 2022 06: 37
    +11
    A Tu22m3 unit equipped with odabs could resolve the issue with the Kharkov offensive in half an hour to the level of "everything, no one is going anywhere anymore ....". The question is why was this not done? It was not done then, and it is not being done now, when the Kherson catastrophe is already brewing, and behind it the Zaporozhye one.
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 3 October 2022 07: 13
      +3
      Air defense has not been canceled. Yes, and there is not enough link, they are not concentrated in front boxes
      1. FoBoss_V
        FoBoss_V 3 October 2022 07: 26
        +8
        Oh, stop with air defense, it’s already worn like with banners, rooks and drying fly there. There are countermeasures, there are su35 escorts, air defense can be opened and suppressed in advance, UAVs can be launched by the first echelon, but there are a lot of ways to crush them wisely, by a trained army .. There would be a desire to achieve a result
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 3 October 2022 07: 41
          +1
          Well, yes, business is ... Only they are still knocking Sushka down. And you want to drive Tu22m3 over them at low altitude. And be warned ahead of time.
    2. SincerityX
      SincerityX 3 October 2022 09: 30
      +1
      ODABK 3000, which is "Head 'n' Shouldrs" 5in1. There, dispersal after a couple of these will not help.
  6. tlauicol
    tlauicol 3 October 2022 07: 15
    +2
    I would have heard about hand-held TB grenades. How did they show themselves?
  7. Vyacheslav Dokuchaev
    Vyacheslav Dokuchaev 3 October 2022 07: 27
    +1
    the perfect weapon to destroy enemy manpower!
  8. Whowhy
    Whowhy 3 October 2022 08: 24
    0
    If it’s completely primitive, then thermobaric ammunition is a land mine that uses atmospheric oxygen as an additional oxidizing agent.

    And if it’s not quite primitive, then in most fuel tanks, ammonium perchlorate is used as an oxidizing agent, and only the miserable remnants of an unburned mixture fall to the share of air. Only in small TBs (grenades and grenade launchers) are metal powders used, so to speak, in their pure form.
  9. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 3 October 2022 14: 59
    +2
    The TBG-7V shot for the RPG-7 also belongs to the type of thermobaric weapon. This is the younger brother of an infantry flamethrower, which, nevertheless, is comparable in terms of lethal force to a 120-mm mine. Except for the splinter effect, of course.

    This is not a younger brother, but the result of "close" interaction between the military branches. All temobaric BPs, as the heirs of flamethrowers, were originally given to the RKhBZ. And it turned out to be easier for motorized riflemen to order their own thermobaric ammunition for themselves than to wait for flamethrowers from the "neighboring department".
    By the way, the gunners have the same picture: their own thermobaric RS, duplicating TOS, and in particular - TOS-2. Particularly "pleasant" is the situation in the 220-mm caliber, in which we have two MLRS with two types of thermobaric RS - one for chemists, and the other for artillerymen.
  10. Sedoy
    Sedoy 3 October 2022 19: 57
    0
    One rocket that hits the building creates unbearable conditions for survivors in an area of ​​​​up to 620 square meters. meters

    some kind of bastard...
    where you saw rooms of 600 squares in an ordinary building ...
    and 600 km - this is a radius of about 14 meters - such a defeat ...
    and even less outdoors...
    because "power" there is greatly extinguished with every meter from the center ...
    that is why all these "thermobars" are not effective in a conventional field war ...
    1. Ros 56
      Ros 56 4 October 2022 09: 16
      0
      This is in the case of a single application, and a battery salvo is very good.
      1. Sedoy
        Sedoy 4 October 2022 17: 11
        0
        where was that volley when, in the Kherson region, the Zhidobanders went in an open field up to 100 tanks on the attack?
        stop talking nonsense about prodigies ...
        dill has no aircraft, no missiles - one artillery, tanks and arrows ...
        + pin-to-intelligence...
        out pin-up-exploration do all the weather?
        oh yes, there is still western art of the 80s + rszo zero
        and the maximum that can be done is to bring down to more advantageous positions ...
        that's what ... they "accepted" what was not yet "yours" - now they managed to do it by handing over Russian cities ...
        are they sitting there in the tops without brains at all?
        no - there are "competent people, but they do not serve Russia" ©
        1. Ros 56
          Ros 56 4 October 2022 17: 18
          +1
          It is not necessary to draw far-reaching conclusions from individual facts. Everyone makes mistakes, only the mistakes of generals are paid for with the blood of soldiers. You can't do anything, this is life. negative
          1. Sedoy
            Sedoy 4 October 2022 18: 16
            0
            this is not life...
            it is a crime...
            1. Ros 56
              Ros 56 5 October 2022 07: 51
              0
              Crime is also life, is it really unclear, otherwise why the courts, judges, lawyers, prosecutors and so on. Be realistic about life.
              1. Sedoy
                Sedoy 5 October 2022 10: 04
                -1
                there are no errors...
                all according to plan...
  11. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 3 October 2022 23: 39
    0
    What prevents the use of 404kg bombs on 500 corr?
    1. Sergei Kazarin
      Sergei Kazarin 6 October 2022 02: 19
      0
      their absence interferes with their application
  12. YOUR
    YOUR 4 October 2022 01: 52
    +1
    If you look at RPO-A, then he is not a flamethrower. ................... "Bumblebee" is the next step in the evolution of flamethrowers

    So flamethrower or no flamethrower?
  13. megavolt823
    megavolt823 4 October 2022 08: 14
    -1
    ODAB. A series of Soviet-made aerosol bombs. You need to joke around the warehouses, and have the eggs to apply them. And all these farts, leave for later.
  14. Dmitry Karabanov
    Dmitry Karabanov 4 October 2022 08: 22
    0
    Again, everything is interesting, but where is the massive use of these weapons in the NWO? Some kind of war is very strange: having so many deadly "toys" to stomp near Avdiivka for 8 months ...
  15. Ros 56
    Ros 56 4 October 2022 09: 14
    +1
    So we need to use more of them against the Nazis, Banderastan must be destroyed as a phenomenon.
  16. aversun
    aversun 7 October 2022 04: 05
    0
    "Scientifically speaking, thermobaric explosives have a negative oxygen balance." For example, ordinary TNT has a negative oxygen balance, but no one considers ammunition filled with TNT to be thermobaric. It's all about the special device of the ammunition, which consists of a conventional explosive and a special solid thermobaric mixture sprayed by it, which is initiated by the explosion of the same explosive ...
  17. garik77
    garik77 12 November 2022 15: 26
    0
    I wonder where our "father of all bombs" is? A charge of a volumetric explosion with a capacity of 50 tons of TNT?