Carlisle and Maria

In the old castle Jane Wilmore
A little night - ballads sound,
A string sings, a reproach arises,
Somewhere there are waterfalls
And the rumble of the surrounding mountains is long,
Communities are responsible.

Reader by stories Middle Ages (grade 6), part 2. M., 1998, p. 282–283

Carlisle and Maria
The Execution of Queen Mary of Scotland" by Abel de Puy (1785-1861). Museum of Fine Arts in Valenciennes, France

people and castles

“I would like to learn more about people whose names are associated with these or those castles. How did they live there, what did they do ... "

Here is what one of the readers of our site wrote to me about. And really - who's to say that it's not interesting? That's just because of the antiquity of years, the names of many inhabitants of the castles were forgotten, and if the names were preserved, then the details of their lives were erased. Or there are details, but the very figure of the inhabitant is interesting to the same British or French, but not attractive to our readers. Therefore, it was not so easy to choose both the castle and the person in the castle.

It was easier with the castle - this is Carlisle - the very castle that we just told you about, and there were plenty of famous people who visited it. However, perhaps the most interesting figure that ever lived in it was a woman ... Queen Mary of Scotland! Today we will tell you about her difficult fate.

Queen by destiny!

Mary was born in 1542 and became Queen of Scots when she was only six days old. While she was a child, Scotland was ruled by regents. In 1558 she married Francis, heir to the French crown, and when he became king in July 1559, a very important event took place: the thrones of France and Scotland were united. But eight months before this event, Mary's cousin Elizabeth became Queen of England.

"Mary Stuart in her youth". Painter François Clouet, c. 1555–1559 Lubomirski Museum, Wroclaw, Poland

However, Francis died suddenly in 1560, and Mary, who had lived in France for most of her life, was no longer welcome there. She decided to return to Scotland to rule the country personally.

"Mary Stuart in white mourning after returning to Scotland". Artist Francois Clouet. Royal Collection of the United Kingdom

A difficult balancing act followed. As a Catholic queen, Mary struggled to govern a country that was officially Protestant and, to top it off, an ally of her former enemy, England.

Lord Darnley on the left, Queen Mary on the right. Unknown artist. Hardwick Hall, Derbyshire, in the care of the National Trust

The balance was upset in 1565 when Mary married her cousin Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, who was a Roman Catholic. The following year, their son James was born, but the marriage soon fell apart. And not only did it break up, it is important how it happened.

It was said that the queen was very much carried away by her secretary David Rizzio (or Riccio), and Darnley did not like this at all, like the coldness of his wife. A conspiracy was formed, as a result of which Rizzio was killed right in front of the pregnant Maria, who tried to protect him, again, in front of Darnley himself.

"The Assassination of David Riccio". Painting by Sir William Allen (1782–1850), 1833 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

And a year later, early in the morning of February 10, 1567, under mysterious circumstances, a house exploded in Kirk-o'Field, a suburb of Edinburgh, where Lord Darnley was recovering from illness at that time. The body of Maria's husband, along with the body of his servant, was found in a nearby garden. At first it was believed that they died in the explosion. However, upon closer examination, it turned out that they had been strangled and killed before the explosion.

The topic of Riccio's assassination excited many artists, so paintings with this scene hang in various museums. "The Assassination of David Riccio" (1868) by Jean Lulvet (1833–1889). National Museum in Warsaw

Although this has not been proven, many believed that in this way Queen Mary avenged the murder of her favorite. According to another theory, the fourth Earl of Bothwell, James Hepburn, was involved in the murder of her husband. And this hypothesis also has a right to exist, since Mary and James got married shortly after the death of the unfortunate Darnley, and death is the surest way to eliminate a rival!

Three months of grief for the queen and then again in the bed of voluptuousness - by that time they were considered the height of immorality, and as a result, many Scottish nobles rebelled against Mary.

"Portrait of Mary, Queen of Scots (1542-1587)". Unknown artist. St Mary's College Blairs Museum - Scottish Catholic Heritage Museum

Both she and Bothwell lacked strength, and on June 15, 1567, Mary surrendered to the rebels and was imprisoned on the condition that her husband would be allowed to go into exile. In July, she was forced to abdicate in favor of her young son.

This, apparently, was considered sufficient by her enemies. But Mary turned out to be cunning and already in May of the following year she escaped from her prison, Lochleven Castle, again gathered the troops of her adherents (and they are always found even with fallen monarchs!), And was again defeated in Langside, not far from Glasgow.

Outer gatehouse (left) and keep (right) of Carlisle Castle

Arrival in England

It was at this point that Mary decided to seek asylum in England. Her supporters begged her to stay in Scotland or go to Catholic France. But she was convinced that Elizabeth - her cousin and, like her, God's anointed - would help her raise an army to return in triumph to Scotland. Before leaving Scotland, she wrote a letter to Elizabeth asking for a meeting and sent a diamond ring as a token of her friendship.

Mary Stuart in England, c. 1578 Nicholas Hilliard is believed to be the author of the portrait. National Portrait Gallery, London

Without waiting for an answer, she and 16 of her supporters made a four-hour passage through the Solway Firth (a strait that is part of the border between England and Scotland). They arrived at the port of Workington in Cumberland (modern Cumbria) in the early evening.
The next morning, Richard Lowther, Deputy Governor of Cumberland, provided an honorary escort to take Mary to nearby Carlisle Castle.

At this point, Mary's status was uncertain. She came of her own free will and was neither a prisoner nor a hostage. But from the moment she arrived at Carlisle Castle, she was surrounded by armed guards, which, however, given the proximity of the warlike Scots, did not arouse her suspicions. So, on May 20, she wrote to one of her supporters that she was "well received, accompanied and treated with respect."

This octagonal stair tower once gave access to where Mary lived at Carlisle Castle.
Maria in Carlisle

Elizabeth sent Sir Francis Knollys, one of her trusted courtiers, to Carlisle to look after Mary. The watchman, however, was soon simply fascinated by her:

“She was a noble woman, because she did not care about ceremonies, except for the recognition of her royal class; then she spoke freely with everyone, regardless of their rank, and showed a tendency to talk a lot, be bold, pleasant and very familiar.

True, his life could not be called calm, since he had to live in constant fear that Maria would run away. He allowed her to walk on the grass in front of the castle, and this place was later even called "ladies' walk" and marked on the plan of the castle. Twice he let her watch the members of her entourage play football against each other. But when she went on horseback to hunt hares, "she rode so fast on every occasion" that he decided that this would not happen again.

Plan of Carlisle Castle with the "lady's walk" against the wall and the places inside the castle where she was also allowed to walk

Arriving with only a handful of escorts, Maria was allowed to send for many of her old co-workers, as well as her own clothes—she refused to wear anything else. Soon carts arrived from Lochleven with clothes and personal effects. Among her many attendants was Mary Seton, a lady-in-waiting who helped her escape captivity in Scotland. The Queen cut off most of her hair after the Battle of Langside to avoid being recognized. But Mary Seton styled her hair so skillfully that "every day at dawn ... she had something new on her head."

To maintain a proper royal lifestyle, Mary borrowed money from city merchants. However, the cost of maintaining her small court fell mainly on Queen Elizabeth. The Queen of England paid an average of £56 a week for goods such as meat, fish, spices, biscuits, butter, heating peat and wine.

Mary was placed in what was then called the Watcher's Tower, in the southeast corner of the courtyard. It later became known as Queen Mary's Tower.

This two-storey building was added to the castle in 1308 in order to have excellent housing in it. It is said to have had a window from which Mary could look over Scotland. This is supported by an 1830s description of "a spacious room called the queen's bedchamber, lighted by two windows facing south and one facing north" on the ground floor. The description of the tower emphasizes that it had "richer architecture than other parts of the castle".

In 1835, the tower was demolished when it was on the verge of collapse. All that remains today is an octagonal tower with a staircase that once gave access to this tower.

Mistake at the cost of death

Whatever Mary hoped for, her decision to seek asylum in England proved to be a disastrous mistake. The fact is that it put Elizabeth in a difficult position. In private, she sympathized with Mary as a fellow monarch who had been imprisoned and deposed. However, both she and her advisers, especially her chief adviser William Cecil, considered Mary to be very dangerous.

As a Catholic with a claim to the English throne in addition, Mary on English soil was both a potential rallying point for all Catholic rebels and a possible reason for the invasion of Catholic forces from abroad. And if she were restored to the Scottish throne, then England would be alone surrounded by Catholic countries. It was convenient for the English to leave the Earl of Moray, Mary's half-brother and Protestant, as regent in Scotland.

Fortunately for Elizabeth, Mary was under suspicion of involvement in the murder of her second husband, Darnley. It was a sin not to use such a pretext to discredit her, which was soon done.

Although Mary hoped for a speedy return to the throne, Knollys told her in late May that this was not possible until she was acquitted of Darnley's murder. Mary pleaded not guilty, but refused to stand trial, insisting that only God could judge the sovereign. Despite her passionate letters to the queen asking for a personal meeting, Elizabeth did not give her an audience.

Detail from a needlework panel (now in Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk), one of many made by Mary, Queen of Scots and Bess of Hardwick during Mary's imprisonment. By the way, in the same Scotland, lace craftsmanship reached its peak during the reign of Mary Stuart. The queen loved needlework, knew how to embroider, and she herself composed various patterns: images of birds, animals, plants. The National Trust Photolibrary/Alamy Stock Photo

queen in captivity

As a result, Mary reluctantly agreed to the investigation of the charges against her. At the end of July 1568, before it began, she was transferred south to Bolton Castle in Yorkshire. Moreover, in order to transport the queen, her retinue and her property, it took four crews, 20 pack and 23 riding horses.

The investigation began in October. Even though the Scots presented incriminating evidence against Mary (which was almost certainly falsified), Elizabeth stated in January 1569 that there was no evidence in any case. Nevertheless, although she was no longer accused of any crime, Mary remained in England. Legally justified, she de facto became a prisoner, and her own relative.

Bolton Castle was the first of many places where she would be in later years. From the beginning of 1569, the Earl of Shrewsbury, a prominent nobleman, became her guardian, and Mary now traveled with him between his several castles and estates.

Despite the fact that she was under house arrest, she was treated as an exiled ruler and guest - she had her own household, she could receive visitors, she was granted privileges and luxury.

This hit Shrewsbury's finances hard, as well as his marriage. Mary initially spent much time with the Countess of Shrewsbury, Bess of Hardwick. But in the end, as is often the case with women, they quarreled, in addition, Bess began to suspect Mary of having an affair with her husband.

Plan of Fotheringhay Castle

During Mary's many years in captivity, her presence on English soil provoked a number of Catholic plots to assassinate Elizabeth and place Mary on the throne of England. However, there was no evidence of her involvement in them, and Elizabeth had no choice but to endure this “time bomb” next to her.

However, in 1586, Mary became involved in a plot to assassinate Elizabeth. She was found guilty of treason. Elizabeth, finally convinced that she would always pose a threat to her while she was alive, signed her death warrant.

On February 8, 1587, Mary Stuart was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle. Interestingly, she went to the execution with a dog named Geddon under her dress. And when the executioner cut off her head, the body was lifted, in the folds of her long dress a dog was found, clinging to the feet of the dead Mary.

And here is what remains of Fotheringhay Castle. Only hill. As if fate itself punished its walls for the crime committed in them ...

At first she was buried in Peterborough Cathedral, but in 1612 her son James, who became King of England after the death of Elizabeth I, ordered her remains to be transferred to Westminster Abbey, where they were buried a second time in the immediate vicinity of the grave of Queen Elizabeth, her more fortunate rival.

On the other hand, it was the tragic death of Mary Stuart that for many centuries inspired poets, artists, composers, writers, and then filmmakers to create works based on her image!


Photos of the site were used for design
Our news channels

Subscribe and stay up to date with the latest news and the most important events of the day.

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. +9
    21 September 2022 06: 10
    The hobbies of the queens and the subjects and himself are costly.
    1. +5
      21 September 2022 10: 02
      Quote from Korsar4
      queens hobbies

      Hello, Sergey!
      So after all, hobbies ... are not encouraged. To put it mildly. Complicity / participation / in the murder of a spouse, a conspiracy. So not a positive image of a lady. Not a positive one at all.
      1. +7
        21 September 2022 11: 05
        Hello Seryozha!

        By no means do I approve.
        Where is it seen-spouses to kill?
        It is not lightly attached with a frying pan, for educational purposes.

        And in general, who should be "afraid" of whom?!
        1. +5
          21 September 2022 11: 17
          Quote from Korsar4
          kill spouses?

          But the main thing is, of course, a conspiracy. Was he? Was he not, but a woman set herself up in full.
  2. +7
    21 September 2022 07: 35
    Very interesting story. While reading the article, an old song sounded in my head:
    "There is a magical castle in multi-colored clouds, with good deeds all in smiles and flowers. There is no night there, the fun of the day reigns there. And the castle is open to everyone, but not to me.
    There is a sad castle of doubts and anxieties, stone walls, a cobweb ceiling. Twilight of the subconscious, dark and damp basement. It's not easy to get there, but I've been there.
    And there is only one road between them, through fire and water I always see it. And from morning to night, like a cursed messenger, I must go through it from end to end"
  3. Fat
    21 September 2022 08: 35
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich. Everything is very balanced and, paradoxically, relevant in a timely manner fellow
  4. +4
    21 September 2022 08: 53
    I had a book from the series "The Lives of Remarkable People", and in it is a portrait of Mary, created by Clouet. It appeared that the Queen of Scots was a terrible sufferer in the walls of a cold castle, rejected by France and the soulless Elizabeth. A weak woman, a toy of an unpredictable fate-villain.
    And it's like it turns out!
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich! )))
    1. +6
      21 September 2022 14: 30
      Quote: depressant
      it contains a portrait of Mary, created by Clouet.

      But would you like ... the death mask of Mary?
      1. +3
        21 September 2022 15: 56
        A frightening sight!
        But Mary really cut off her head. What the...
        And I did not imagine her execution as it really was. For some reason, dark, gloomy walls, stone vaults, icy cold, linen rags, bare feet, loose matted hair, vague figures of executioners, everything is not so!...
        A Catholic priest was not allowed to see her...
        Instead of the queen's confessor, Dr. Fletcher, a Protestant priest from Petersborough, appeared at the scaffold. He began to speak a long and boring sermon, which the queen interrupted every now and then. “Three or four times,” wrote Stefan Zweig, “she asks the doctor not to bother himself, but you know, he mumbles his own, and then, unable to stop this vile ranting. Mary Stuart resorts to the last resort: in one hand, as if a weapon, she takes a crucifix, in the other - a prayer book and, falling on her knees, prays loudly in Latin in order to drown out the unctuous words with sacred words.

        Earl of Kent tried to interrupt the prayer of the royal martyr, demanding that she leave these "popish trumperies" (papist tricks). But the dying woman was already far from all earthly strife, she did not honor him with a single look, not a single word, and only spoke publicly that with all her heart she forgave the enemies who had long been coveting her blood, and asks the Lord to lead her to the truth. Silence reigns. Mary Stuart knows what's next. Once again she kisses the crucifix, makes the sign of the cross over herself and says: “O merciful Jesus, your hands, outstretched here on the cross, are turned to all living things, fall over me with your loving hand and forgive me my sins. Amen".

        And further:
        And so the farewell begins. The queen hugs the servants, asks them not to lament and not to cry uncontrollably. And only then does she kneel on the pillow and read the psalm loudly, aloud: “In te, domine, confido, ne cofundar in acternum” (In you, Lord, I trust, but I will not be ashamed forever).

        Not a single movement, not a single word of her shows fear. The daughter of the Tudors, Stuarts and Gases prepared to die worthily. But what does all human dignity and all inherited and acquired self-control mean in the face of that monstrous that is inseparable from any murder!

        What is most striking, the canonization of Mary Stuart was talked about immediately after the execution and is still being talked about. Why? And there is a different way of behavior of the executed. Apparently, the queen's behavior shocked contemporaries. Who can do it like her? Those who could, remained in history, but were also not canonized. Although, how to look. Memory is also a kind of canonization.
  5. +5
    21 September 2022 10: 13
    Fotheringhay Castle, where Mary Stuart was executed, was not destroyed by time. Not far from the site of the former Fotheringhay Castle is the small town of Oundle. So, just a few decades after the execution of Mary Stuart, the wooden building of the Talbot Hotel in the city of Oundle was rebuilt from the stones of the nearby Fotheringey Castle. The castle was actually dismantled, since the castles themselves do not turn into ruins in forty years. What's more, this Talbot Hotel in Oundle has an Oak Staircase from Fotheringhay Castle that Mary Stuart used to walk on. Naturally, such a place as a magnet attracts "admirers" of ghosts, and many believe in the ghost of Mary Stuart appearing at the Talbot Hotel in Oundle.
    But in the majestic Church of St. Mary and All Saints belonging to the parish of Fotherengein, there is a mausoleum-necropolis of the leading representatives of the York Rose Warriors. But the war of the Scarlet and White Roses was a hundred years before Mary Stuart, and this is a completely different story ... Although, the author, whom I thank for his two articles regarding Mary Stuart, in the future could tell us about the war of the Scarlet and White Roses ..
    1. +3
      21 September 2022 12: 51
      Quote: north 2
      could tell us about the war of the Scarlet and White Roses ..

      Dear Vidas! I had a series of articles here about the war of the Scarlet and White Roses, but for a long time, and, it seems, mostly in a military format - battles, armor ... this. You can find these materials on my profile or by asking a question in a search engine. I'll take a look and maybe rewrite this topic in a different way.
      1. +4
        21 September 2022 13: 51
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, good afternoon. hi
        If we start walking around British castles, what's next in line?
        Pontefract and Richard II?
        Maybe Middleham and the Earl of Warwick, the "kingmaker"?
        Or Alnwick and the Percy family?
        Or maybe it's worth taking a swing at the Tower itself and all the Plantagenets at once?
        1. +3
          21 September 2022 17: 30
          Good question. And the answer will be this - first, a little "general theory" for centuries with individual examples ... probably articles 3. Then ... what you write about. What are you personally more interested in? I can make you happy...
          1. +1
            21 September 2022 20: 53
            Thank you.
            Then something else is better, some other castle. Of course, it’s interesting about the Nevilles, Percy, Plantagenets, but what do we know, for example, about the Stafford, Beauchamp or Stanley family ... Maybe other aristocratic families will come across ... What possessions did they have, castles, how did they survive, what with these locks now?
            And why limit yourself to Britain?
            Childbirth, for example, Clermont or Montmorency in France is also interesting ...
            With such an approach - "castle-owners-history" the scope of work is limited only by the word "tired". smile
            1. +2
              22 September 2022 07: 50
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              limited to

              Also, the safety of the castle and information available about it. Not everyone has it all in the complex!
              1. +1
                22 September 2022 11: 42
                Well, I don’t know... There are so many castles... You can first choose those that are better preserved, then move on to those of which only ruins have survived, and then to those of which only green hills remain... smile
                In my opinion, it’s very poetic - where lutes used to sound, women’s dresses rustled, toasts were loudly proclaimed for the king, and, maybe in honor of the king, intrigues and all sorts of feudal sedition were woven at the same time, where the powerful of this world were born and died, now green grass grows... smile
                1. +1
                  22 September 2022 14: 14
                  So many castles...
                  4969, in varying degrees of preservation, on the territory of France alone.
          2. +1
            22 September 2022 12: 12
            Quote: kalibr
            What are you personally more interested in?

            I chose Vyacheslav Olegovich. smile hi
            Let it be Warwick Castle. He probably meets all the requirements. smile
            1. +2
              22 September 2022 15: 54
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Let it be Warwick Castle. He probably meets all the requirements

              So be it!
              1. 0
                22 September 2022 17: 30
                Thank you in advance. hi smile
                I think it will be possible to talk about many things under this topic. smile
                1. +1
                  22 September 2022 17: 40
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  talk about this topic

                  Now I looked at the British Historical Heritage funds - you have chosen a very interesting place. And enough material. It was very interesting for me to work. Learned a lot of interesting things for myself. So it's time for me to thank you. But a lot of work!
  6. +4
    21 September 2022 11: 22
    I believe that Mary Stuart, by the way, who immediately pushed the architectural merits of Carlisle Castle behind her back with her personality, is positioned by many historians as the standard-bearer of active resistance to the English crown. Obviously, in view of the popularity of the theme of all kinds of resistance, and especially to the English crown. For the crown tried.
    Here is what the historian Nikolsky writes, for example:
    Holiness can be achieved in two ways - either by a holy life or by a holy death. And the heroism of Queen Mary Stuart is not that she was just a good queen and a wonderful, loving woman, but that she accepted death for her faith and commitment to the Catholic Church. It was Mary Stuart who was the hope of all Catholics for the restoration of Catholicism in England and Scotland.

    About how!
    That means holiness...
    Somehow this inspired the simplicity of the people, and Mary was the queen.
    1. +3
      21 September 2022 12: 53
      Quote: depressant
      Somehow from this breathed folk simplicity,

      How well did you write...
      1. +4
        21 September 2022 13: 16
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, the situation whispers!)))
        Being queen at 6 days old means something. Royal dignity in behavior is forged by life as a queen. But not only.
        Well, imagine, the little girl slipped away from guardianship, not yet fully realizing who she is, outside the castle. Or someone maliciously stole a foolish child. And here she is in a peasant family, grazing geese. Who would she be? Peasant! And yet, a peasant woman with character. Because on the mother's side - the blood of the Guises and the Bourbons, and on the line of the grandmother, the father's mother - the blood of the English Tudor dynasty. So where to go from this? From genes? I believe in this very much, although I am condemned for "belief".
        1. +1
          21 September 2022 17: 26
          Quote: depressant
          So where to go from this? From genes?

          Recently, my granddaughter was with her father and when she returned she said: And when I looked at how he was holding a fork, I realized whose daughter I was. But she didn’t communicate closely with him and couldn’t learn this characteristic manner, as well as the manner without learning to skate well - she got up and went as a baby! Although it is said everywhere: "Culture, that is, the highest skills, are not inherited!". And I'm not talking about character. Copy!
          1. +5
            21 September 2022 17: 37
            The fork can also be held in a fist, self-esteem does not negate this, but it is not inherited. Ax and sword, sword and ax!
    2. +3
      21 September 2022 18: 38
      Quote: depressant
      as the standard-bearer of active resistance to the English crown.

      And William Wallace? wink
      1. +1
        21 September 2022 20: 01
        Brave heart?
        Here he is, like a knight, probably wielding a sword. I'm not sure about the axe. Although everything could be in those days. It is unlikely that the Scottish knights in the 13th century were marked by glamor and adhered to a certain code of conduct.
        1. +2
          21 September 2022 20: 10
          Quote: depressant
          It is unlikely that the Scottish knights in the 13th century were marked by glamor and adhered to a certain code of conduct.

          This is for our esteemed expert on the Middle Ages. To Anton. But as a banner of struggle against English expansion? hi
          True, he also finished ... unsuccessfully.
          1. +1
            21 September 2022 20: 34
            I remember there was an article on VO about Wallace. The Scottish kings took pity on their impoverished subjects and took a low tax. Edward I of England showed no mercy, and Wallace arose. He finished unsuccessfully, but he was regent.
          2. 0
            22 September 2022 07: 03
            This is for our respected expert on the Middle Ages. To Anton.
            Anton is not an expert, he just knows a little more than everyone else, which makes the picture clearer and brighter. Better to be than to seem.
  7. +8
    21 September 2022 13: 29
    Author, as always, thanks.
    I want to draw the attention of my colleagues to some circumstances from the life of Mary Stuart, which are not emphasized in the article, but to me personally they seem significant.
    Mary fled to England in 1568 when she was 26 years old.
    She was executed in 1587, when she was 44 years old, that is, after a little over 18 years.
    In other words, Mary lived in England at the expense of the English queen for 18 years and during this time did not even bother to officially renounce her rights to the English throne. Let me remind you that Mary was the legitimate "porphyrogenic" granddaughter of the first Tudor - Henry VII of England, while the legitimacy of Elizabeth's birth was in doubt - the dubiousness of her mother's marriage to Anne Boleyn with King Henry VIII, the subsequent accusation of Anna of treason, which was to be followed atincture, that is, the deprivation of all rights and titles, first of all, royal, with all the consequences for the heirs (it was no longer possible to claim the crown) made Elizabeth's legitimacy, let's say, not one hundred percent.
    In this regard, I am simply amazed at the long-suffering of Elizabeth and the stupidity of Mary herself.
    1. +5
      21 September 2022 14: 14
      Quote: Trilobite Master
      Author, as always, thanks.

      Good afternoon Mikhail,
      I took a photo the other day especially for you:

      How do you feel about the Old Russian Cossacks? wassat
      And then they will soon perform in the BKZ, you can see them in the "original" hi
      1. +6
        21 September 2022 15: 41
        My respect, Sergey.
        We don't have enough idiots?
        Let them fly at least on Vimanas. Clowns. I'm purple. There was not enough to respond to such dolboslavs. laughing
  8. +3
    21 September 2022 15: 28
    However, the cost of maintaining her small court fell mainly on Queen Elizabeth. The Queen of England paid an average of £56 a week
    I now figured out that this money could have supported the garrison of Carlisle.
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
  9. +3
    21 September 2022 17: 41
    Reader on the history of the Middle Ages (grade 6), part 2. M., 1998, p. 282–283

    This is Konstantin Balmont's ballad "Castle Jan Valmor" from the collection "Burning Buildings". A beautiful ballad, romantic, but not very suitable for the plot of the article.
    1. +3
      21 September 2022 18: 06
      For that, it belongs to the textbook of the history of the Middle Ages.)))
      1. +2
        21 September 2022 18: 16
        It is even less suitable for a textbook on the history of the Middle Ages, especially for the sixth grade.
        If the author had tensed up and risen above the level of the middle classes, then as an epigraph he would have used something from the poetry of Mary Stuart herself, for example, a poem that she wrote on the morning of her own execution. It would not be the work of a boy, but of a husband.
        Que suis-je helas? Et de quoi sert ma vie?
        Je ne suis fors qu'un corps privé de coeur,
        Une ombre vaine, un objet de malheur
        Qui n'a plus rien que de mourir en vie.
        Plus ne me portez, O ennemis, d'envie
        A qui n'a plus l'esprit à la grandeur.
        J'ai consommé d'excessive douleur
        Votre ire en bref de voir assouvie.
        Et vous, amis, qui m'avez tenue chere,
        Souvenez vous que sans coeur et sans sante
        Je ne saurais aucune bonne oeuvre faire,
        Souhaitez donc fin de calamite
        Et que, ici-bas étant assez punie,
        J'aie ma part en la joie infinie.

        Or at least something from Brodsky's sonnets to Mary Stuart.
        The number of your lovers, Marie,
        exceeded the number three
        four, ten, twenty, twenty-five.
        There is no more damage for the crown,
        than accidentally sleeping with someone.
        (That's why the crown is doomed;
        the republic can survive
        like some ancient column).
        And from this point of view, not an inch
        don't move a Scottish baron.
        Your Scots didn't understand
        How is a bunk different from a throne?
        In its century, a white crow,
        for contemporaries was you ...

        1. +3
          21 September 2022 18: 30
          Her poetry needs to be translated. There is no special meaning in this, but labor is above the head. And the second poem is about Mary, yes... but personally, the castle was more important to me... Therefore, the epigraph is about it. This is, let's put it this way: one of the chapters of another book. About castles. About Maria there will be casual, therefore the emphasis is shifted to the castle.
          1. 0
            21 September 2022 18: 34
            Her poetry needs to be translated. There is no special meaning in this, but labor is above the head

            Alas, who am I? And what is my life to me?
            I'm just a body with a heart torn away
            A vain shadow, an unfortunate creature,
            Having only mortification-life.
            My enemies, leave your envy;
            I no longer aspire to high palaces;
            I carried my pain for too long
            To quench your anger at once.
            And you, friends, who loved me so sacredly,
            Remember, losing health, and soul, and peace,
            There is nothing worthy that I could do;
            I only ask for the end of my misfortune
            And so that, being punished by the world that is around,
            I received a share of eternal bliss.
        2. +4
          21 September 2022 18: 30
          Brodsky has always been sober in his assessments.
        3. +3
          21 September 2022 18: 42
          And as for the work of Maria-light-Stuartovna, it painfully reminds me of the replicas of one of the "best commentators".
          1. +2
            21 September 2022 18: 52
            Recently I somehow whistled with verses
            And gave them out without my signature;
            The magazine jester wrote an article about them,
            Letting her go without a signature, villain.
            But what? Neither me nor the public jester
            Failed to cover up their leprosy:
            He recognized me by claws in a minute,
            I just recognized him by ear.

            Some kind of poor fellow with minuses dragged himself from the "news", apparently.
        4. +4
          21 September 2022 19: 22
          Continuing the theme of Brodsky:

          What makes history? - Bodies.
          Art? - Decapitated body.
          Get Schiller: Stories flew in
          from Schiller. Marie, you didn't expect
          that the German, biting the bit,
          will raise the old, in fact, case:
          what does he care, anyway?
          to whom did you give or not give?
  10. +3
    21 September 2022 18: 44
    Detail from a needlework panel (now in Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk), one of many made by Mary, Queen of Scots and Bess of Hardwick during Mary's imprisonment.

    Nu-nu, I thought, reading the caption under the photograph of a panel fragment. Bess embroidered, and Maria was added. An, no!
    It turns out that young Mary
    studied history, music, classical and modern languages ​​- Latin, Greek, Italian, Spanish, English. The training revealed the queen's natural abilities: she played music and wrote poetry, was distinguished by the ability to gracefully move and gracefully dance, conduct an exquisite conversation and show oratorical abilities.

    And one must think, according to the custom of that time, they taught her needlework.
    By the way, about poetry.
    Mary Stuart, after 10 years in prison:

    My hope, the Lord is all-good!
    Grant me freedom, be meek with me.
    Tormented in captivity, weakening from pain,
    I'm in thoughts with you.
    Falling to my knees, through tears and foam
    I pray you for freedom, Omnipotent.

    And yet about yourself. Her legs hurt. And then miracles happened at her grave.

"Right Sector" (banned in Russia), "Ukrainian Insurgent Army" (UPA) (banned in Russia), ISIS (banned in Russia), "Jabhat Fatah al-Sham" formerly "Jabhat al-Nusra" (banned in Russia) , Taliban (banned in Russia), Al-Qaeda (banned in Russia), Anti-Corruption Foundation (banned in Russia), Navalny Headquarters (banned in Russia), Facebook (banned in Russia), Instagram (banned in Russia), Meta (banned in Russia), Misanthropic Division (banned in Russia), Azov (banned in Russia), Muslim Brotherhood (banned in Russia), Aum Shinrikyo (banned in Russia), AUE (banned in Russia), UNA-UNSO (banned in Russia), Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar People (banned in Russia), Legion “Freedom of Russia” (armed formation, recognized as terrorist in the Russian Federation and banned)

“Non-profit organizations, unregistered public associations or individuals performing the functions of a foreign agent,” as well as media outlets performing the functions of a foreign agent: “Medusa”; "Voice of America"; "Realities"; "Present time"; "Radio Freedom"; Ponomarev; Savitskaya; Markelov; Kamalyagin; Apakhonchich; Makarevich; Dud; Gordon; Zhdanov; Medvedev; Fedorov; "Owl"; "Alliance of Doctors"; "RKK" "Levada Center"; "Memorial"; "Voice"; "Person and law"; "Rain"; "Mediazone"; "Deutsche Welle"; QMS "Caucasian Knot"; "Insider"; "New Newspaper"