Nice история fleet Russian originates more than three hundred years ago and is inextricably linked with the name of Peter the Great. Even in his youth, having discovered in 1688 in his barn a boat donated to their family, later called the “Grandfather of the Russian Fleet,” the future head of state forever connected his life with ships. In the same year, he founded a shipyard on Lake Pleshcheyevo, where, thanks to the efforts of local craftsmen, the "amusing" fleet of the sovereign was built. By the summer of 1692, the flotilla consisted of several dozen ships, of which stood out the handsome frigate “Mars” with thirty guns.
In fairness, I note that the first domestic ship was built before the birth of Peter in 1667 year. The Dutch craftsmen, together with local artisans on the Oka River, managed to build a double-decker "Eagle" with three masts and the possibility of traveling by sea. At the same time, a pair of boats and one yacht were created. The wise politician Ordin-Nashchokin from the Moscow boyars led these works. The name, as you might guess, went to the ship in honor of the coat of arms. Peter the Great believed that this event marked the beginning of maritime business in Russia and "worthy of glorification through the ages." However, in the history of the birthday of the military fleet of our country is associated with a completely different date ...
Shel 1695 year. The need to create favorable conditions for the emergence of trade relations with other European countries led our sovereign to a military conflict with the Ottoman Empire at the mouth of the Don and the lower reaches of the Dnieper. Peter the Great, who saw an undeniable force in his newly-made regiments (Semenovsky, Prebrazhensky, Butyrsky and Lefortovo) decides to go on the march under Azov. He writes a close friend in Arkhangelsk: “They were joking around Kozhukhov, and now they are joking around Azov”. The results of this journey, despite the valor and courage shown in the battles by Russian soldiers, turned into terrible losses. It was then that Peter realized that war was not at all child's play. In preparing the next campaign, he takes into account all his past mistakes and decides to create a completely new military force in the country. Peter was truly a genius, thanks to his will and intelligence, he managed to create a whole fleet in just one winter. And he did not spare funds for this. First, he asked for help from his Western allies - the King of Poland and the Emperor of Austria. They sent him knowledgeable engineers, ship masters and gunners. After arriving in Moscow, Peter organized a meeting of his generals to discuss the second campaign to seize Azov. At the meetings it was decided to build a fleet that would fit the 23 galleys, the 4 firefighters and the 2 galleas of the ship. Fleet Admiral was identified Franz Lefort. The commander of the whole Azov army was Generalissimo Shein Alexey Semenovich. For the two main areas of operation — the Don and the Dnieper — two armies, Shein and Sheremetev, were organized. Under Moscow, firefighters and galleys were built in a hurry, in Voronezh, for the first time in Russia, two huge thirty-six-cannon ships were created, called the Apostle Paul and the Apostle Peter. In addition, the prudent sovereign ordered to build more than a thousand planes, several hundred sea boats and ordinary rafts, prepared in support of the land army. They were engaged in their construction in Kozlov, Sokolsk, Voronezh. In early spring, ship units were brought to Voronezh for assembly, and by the end of April the ships were afloat. On April 26, the first galeas, the Apostle Peter, was launched.
The main objective of the fleet was to block the fortress that had not surrendered from the sea, depriving it of support in manpower and provisions. Sheremetev Army was supposed to go to the Dnieper estuary and carry out diversionary maneuvers. At the beginning of the summer all the ships of the Russian fleet were reunited at Azov, and its siege began. 14 June arrived the Turkish fleet from the 17 galleys and 6 ships, but he still stood there indecisive until the end of the month. 28 June Turks plucked up the courage to give a landing. Rowing ship headed for the shore. Then, on the orders of Peter, our fleet immediately withdrew from the anchor. Just seeing this, the Turkish captains unfolded the ships and left for the sea. So without receiving reinforcements, the fortress was forced to declare the surrender of July 18. The first exit of the navy of Peter was a complete success. A week later, the flotilla went to sea to explore the conquered territory. The emperor and his generals chose a place on the coast for the construction of a new naval port. Later, near the Miussky Liman fortress Pavlovskaya and Cherepakhinskaya were founded. Azov winners also waited for a solemn reception in Moscow.
In order to resolve the issues of the defense of the captured territories, Peter the Great decides to convene the Boyar Duma in the village of Preobrazhensky. There he asks to build a “caravan of sea ali fleet”. 20 of October at the next meeting, the Duma decides: “To be ships of the sea!” The next question: “How many?” Decided to “cope with the peasant households, follow the spiritual and different ranks of the people, impose courts in the courtyards, trade people ". And the Russian Imperial Navy began its existence. It was immediately decided to build 52 ships and launch them in Voronezh before the start of April 1698. Moreover, the decision to build ships was made as follows: the clergy gave one ship from every eight thousand courtyards, the nobility from ten thousand. Merchants, townspeople and foreign merchants pledged to ship 12 ships. On taxes from the population the remaining ships were built by the state. It was a serious matter. Carpenters were searched all over the country, soldiers were given to help them. More than fifty foreign specialists worked in shipyards, and hundreds of talented young people went abroad to learn the basics of shipbuilding. Among them, in the post of an ordinary contractor was Peter. In addition to Voronezh, the shipyards were built in Stupin, Tavrov, Chizhovka, Bryansk and Pavlovsk. Those wishing to take accelerated courses on ship masters and assistants. In Voronezh, the Admiralty was established in 1697. The first in the history of the naval document of the Russian state was the “Charter on galleys,” written by Peter I even during the second Azov march to the command gallery “Principium”.
At the Voronezh shipyard of 27 on April 1700, the Goto Predestination, the first battleship of Russia, was not completed. According to the European classification of ships of the beginning of the XVII century, it deserved IV rank. Russia could rightly be proud of its offspring, since the construction took place without the participation of specialists from abroad. By the 1700, the Azov fleet already numbered more than forty sailing ships, and by 1711 - around 215 (including rowboats), of which forty-four ships were armed with 58-guns. Thanks to this formidable argument, it was possible to sign a peace treaty with Turkey and start a war with the Swedes. The invaluable experience gained in the construction of new ships allowed later to succeed on the Baltic Sea and played an important (if not decisive) role in the great Northern War. The Baltic fleet was built at the shipyards of St. Petersburg, Arkhangelsk, Novgorod, Uglich and Tver. In 1712, the St. Andrew’s flag was established - a white cloth with a blue cross diagonally. Fought under him, won and died for many generations of sailors of the Russian fleet, who glorified our Motherland for their exploits.
In just thirty years (from 1696 to 1725), the regular Azov, Baltic and Caspian fleets appeared in Russia. During this time, 111 battleships and 38 frigates, six dozen brigantines and even more large galleys, scamps and bombing ships, Shmakov and firefighters, more than three hundred transport ships and a huge number of small boats were built. And, which is especially remarkable, in their military and seaworthy qualities, the Russian ships were not at all inferior to the ships of the great maritime powers, like France or England. However, since there was an urgent need to protect the conquered coastal territories and at the same time carry out military operations, and in the country did not have time to build and repair ships, they were often bought abroad.
Of course, all the main orders and decrees came from Peter I, but such prominent historical figures as F. A. Golovin, K. I. Cruys, F. M. Apraksin, Franz Timmerman, and S. I. Yazykov helped him in shipbuilding. Over the centuries, shipwright masters Richard Cosenz and Sklyaev, Saltykov and Vasily Shipilov glorified their names. By 1725, naval officers and shipbuilders were trained in special schools and naval academies. By this time, the center of shipbuilding and training of specialists for the domestic fleet moved from Voronezh to St. Petersburg. Our sailors won brilliant and convincing first victories in the battles of the island of Kotlin, the Gangut peninsula, the islands of Ezel and Grengam, seized the primacy on the Baltic and Caspian seas. Also, Russian navigators made many significant geographical discoveries. Chirikov and Bering founded Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky in 1740. A year later, a new strait was discovered that allowed access to the western coast of North America. Sea voyages were carried out by V.M. Golovnin, F.F. Bellingshausen, E.V. Putyatin, M.P. Lazarev.
By the year 1745, for the most part, naval officers left a noble family, and the sailors were recruits from the common people. Their service life was for life. Often, for the passage of the naval service hired foreigners. An example was the commander of the port of Kronstadt - Thomas Gordon.
Admiral Spiridov in 1770, during the Battle of Chesmen, defeated the Turkish fleet and established the rule of Russia in the Aegean Sea. Also, the Russian Empire won the war with the Turks in 1768-1774. In 1778, the port of Kherson was founded, and in 1783, the first ship of the Black Sea Fleet was launched. Our country took the third place in the world after France and Great Britain in the number and quality of ships at the end of 18 and the beginning of 19 centuries.
In 1802, the Ministry of the Navy began its existence. For the first time in 1826, a military ship was built, equipped with eight guns, which was called Izhora. And in 10 years, a steam-frigate was built, called the “Athlete”. This vessel had a steam engine and paddle wheels to move. From 1805 to 1855, the Russian navigators mastered the Far East. During these years, the brave sailors made forty round-the-world and long voyages.
In 1856, Russia was forced to sign the Paris Peace Treaty and eventually lost the Black Sea fleet. In 1860, the steam fleet finally took the place of the sailing that was outdated and lost its former meaning. After the Crimean War, Russia was actively building steam warships. These were slow-moving ships, on which it is impossible to make long-range military campaigns. In 1861, the first gunboat named "Experience" is launched. The warship was equipped with armor protection and served until the 1922 of the year, having been the proving ground for the first experiments of A.S. Popova on the radio on the water.
The end of the 19 century was marked by the expansion of the fleet. At that time, Tsar Nicholas II was in power. Industry was developing at a high rate, but even it could not keep up with the constantly increasing needs of the fleet. Therefore, there was a tendency to order ships in Germany, USA, France and Denmark. The Russo-Japanese war was characterized by the humiliating defeat of the navy of Russia. Almost all warships were scuttled, some surrendered, only a few managed to escape. After the failure in the war in the east, the Russian imperial fleet lost its third place among the countries-owners of the largest flotilla of the world, immediately finding itself on the sixth.
1906 year is characterized by a revival of naval forces. The decision is made to have submarines in service. 19 March 10 submarines are being commissioned by decree of Emperor Nicholas II. Therefore, this day in the country is a holiday, Day of the submariner. From 1906 to 1913, the Russian Empire spent 519 million dollars on the needs of the navy. But this was clearly not enough, since the naval forces of other leading powers were developing rapidly.
During the First World War, the fleet of Germany was significantly ahead of Russia in all respects. In 1918, the entire Baltic Sea was under absolute German control. The German fleet transported troops to support independent Finland. Their troops controlled the occupied Ukraine, Poland and the western part of Russia.
The main opponent of the Russians on the Black Sea has long been the Ottoman Empire. The main base of the Black Sea Fleet was in Sevastopol. The commander of all naval forces in this region was Andrei Avgustovich Ebergard. But in 1916, the king removed him from his post and replaced him with Admiral Kolchak. Despite the successful fighting of the Black Sea sailors, in October 1916 in the parking area exploded the battleship "Empress Maria". It was the largest loss of the Black Sea fleet. He served only a year. To this day, the cause of the explosion is unknown. But there is a perception that this is the result of a successful sabotage.
Revolution and civil war became the most complete collapse and catastrophe for the entire Russian fleet. In 1918, the ships of the Black Sea Fleet were partially captured by the Germans, partially withdrawn and flooded in Novorossiysk. The Germans later transferred some ships to Ukraine. In December, the Entente seized ships in Sevastopol, which were given to the Armed Forces of Southern Russia (the grouping of the white troops of General Denikin). They participated in the war against the Bolsheviks. After the destruction of the white armies, the remnant of the fleet was spotted in Tunisia. The sailors of the Baltic Fleet rebelled against the Soviet government in 1921. At the end of all the above events, the Soviet authorities have very few ships left. These ships and formed the Navy of the USSR.
During the years of the Great Patriotic War, the Soviet fleet was severely tested, defending the flanks of the fronts. The flotilla helped the rest of the armed forces smash the fascists. Russian sailors showed heroism unprecedented until now, despite the considerable numerical and technical superiority of Germany. During these years, Admirals AG Golovko, I.S. Isakov, V.F. Tributs, L.A. Vladimirsky.
In the 1896 year, in parallel with the celebration of the 200-anniversary of the birth of St. Petersburg, the founding day of the fleet was also celebrated. He turned 200 years. But the biggest celebration was held in 1996, when the 300 anniversary was celebrated. The Navy has been and is the pride of many generations. The fleet of Russia is hard work and heroism of the Russians for the glory of the country. This is the combat power of Russia, which guarantees the safety of the inhabitants of a great country. But first of all, they are inflexible people, strong in spirit and body. Russia will always be proud of Ushakov, Nakhimov, Kornilov and many, many other naval commanders who faithfully served their homeland. And, of course, Peter I - a truly great sovereign, who managed to create a strong empire with a powerful and invincible fleet.
Russian fleet - to be! October 30 1696 - the founding day of the Russian Navy
- Igor Sulimov