Military Review

Sociological professor: "The prospect of the union state" Russia-Belarus-Tatarstan "has appeared

Sociological professor: "The prospect of the union state" Russia-Belarus-Tatarstan "has appearedA well-known scientist from Kazan - sociology professor Alexander Salagayev prepared a report "Accelerated Socio-Economic Modernization of the Republic of Tatarstan: Achievements and Contradictions", which will be presented at the IV All-Russian Congress of Sociologists in Ufa on October 20. Some of the provisions of this work that have social and political significance, he proposed for the publication of the REGNUM news agency.

"The Republic of Tatarstan (hereinafter RT) is one of the most developed subjects of the Russian Federation. The share of the urban population is constantly growing in the republic, in 2011, it reached 75,4%. The petrochemical and chemical complex, large machine-building enterprises, and developed electrical and radio engineering are determining the industrial profile.

According to the indicators of primary modernization, the republic reached the 2008 index by 100 (2000 year - 93, 2005 - 96). GRP per capita in 2010 amounted to $ 8,9 thousand per capita, and in terms of parity purchasing power in 2011, it amounted to $ 22,5 thousand.

In terms of GRP, Tatarstan ranks 8 among the subjects of the Russian Federation. In 2011, the republic occupied leading positions in Russia in the main sectors of the economy: 2 place - in agricultural production, 4 place - in housing supply and in terms of investment in fixed capital, 5 place - in industrial output, 6 place - in volume works performed by the type of activity "Construction", 9 place by retail turnover. In the Volga Federal District, Tatarstan ranks first in terms of these indicators, in terms of retail trade turnover - 2.

Modernization of agriculture is taking place, large agricultural holdings are being created, due to which the share of people employed in agriculture tends to decrease, in 2010 it was 10,2%, the share of value added in agriculture was 7,3%. Republic, using 2,2% of farmland in Russia, produces about 5% of agricultural products of the country. At the same time, the share of value added in the service sector is growing, which in 2010 amounted to 54,5% in relation to GRP. In the structure of GRP in 2011, the share of industry was 44,1%, construction - 8,6%, transport and communications - 7,7%, agriculture - 7,1%. About 25% in the GRP of Tatarstan is the share of small and medium businesses

Social indicators are also at a fairly high level. For the first time in the last 19 years, Tatarstan achieved a steady natural population growth (+ 0,9) per 1000 population (2010 year - (-) 0,2). The mortality rate in the 2011 year is the lowest in the last 11 years, it was 12,4 per 1000 population. Life expectancy in RT is 72 of the year, which exceeds the national average (69,7). These indicators were achieved due to a broad program of modernization of the healthcare system in the republic.

The capital of Tatarstan - Kazan, which has more than 1,1 million inhabitants, in the 2013 year should take the international student sports games (Universiade). The development of the Kazan infrastructure for the Universiade-2013 will also contribute to improving the quality of life of the population. In general, 64 sports facilities will be involved, of which 36 was built again. The Universiade Village was built in the 2010 year, before and after the Universiade, it is used as a student campus of the Kazan Federal University, as well as a federal center for the preparation of summer sports teams of Russia. Reconstructed international airport, railway stations, built interchanges and pedestrian crossings.

Only in 2012, Tatarstan attracted 9,1 billion rubles from the federal budget. In total, Tatarstan’s debt to the federal budget amounts to 85,855 billion rubles, which is comparable to the republican annual budget (for comparison, the debt of Tula and Kursk regions is 1 billion rubles, Smolensk - 2 billion, next to Tatarstan Bashkiria - 10 billion rubles).

In general, for such a comprehensive indicator, such as the human development index (HDI), calculated by experts of the UN Development Program both for individual countries and for the regions of Russia, Tatarstan firmly holds the third place - right after Moscow and the Tyumen region. The image of Tatarstan as a rich and prosperous region is strongly supported by the ruling elite of the republic.

According to the system of indicators developed by the Center for the Study of Socio-Cultural Changes (CISN) of the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences under the guidance of prof. N.I. Lapina's level of secondary modernization in Tatarstan can be assessed at the level of 67 points, including the innovation knowledge index is 40 points, the knowledge translation index is 84, the quality of life index is 100, the economy quality index is 46.

A special place among the documents of strategic planning in the Republic of Tatarstan is occupied by the “Program of the social and economic development of the republic for 2011-2015 years”. According to it, by 2015, the GRP per capita at purchasing power parity should reach $ 35 thousand, the share of manufacturing sectors in the structure of the economy from the current 17-18% should increase to 25%, the share of exports of non-primary products - to 30%, the share of innovative products - up to 30%, the share of small and medium-sized businesses in GRP - up to 34%.

The average life expectancy of the republic’s population in 2015 should be 74 of the year, the average salary is 40 thousand rubles, the provision of living space is 26,5 square meters. meters per resident. Foreign direct investment per capita must exceed $ 1500 per year. All settlements of the republic should be provided with paved roads.

Along with the recognition of successes in socio-economic modernization due to multi-billion federal investments, it should be noted that Tatarstan is not de jure and more and more de facto a subject of the Russian Federation.

For several years, the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation has unsuccessfully tried to force Tatarstan to bring the constitution of the republic into line with the Constitution of the Russian Federation, demanding to remove from the Tatarstan document the provisions on state sovereignty. However, in Tatarstan they are in no hurry to execute the Decree No. 10-P (from 7.06.2000) and Definition No. 92-0 (from 27.06.2000) of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, inventing various prepositions, including creating a special group of scientists to clarify the semantics of the word sovereignty.

According to the Definition of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation from 27 June 2000, the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan, according to which:

The Republic of Tatarstan is a sovereign democratic state expressing the will and interests of the entire multinational people of the republic; the sovereignty and powers of the state come from the people;

state sovereignty is the inherent qualitative state of the Republic of Tatarstan (article 1);

The Republic of Tatarstan independently determines its state and legal status, resolves issues of political, economic, socio-cultural construction (article 59);

The Republic of Tatarstan is a sovereign state, a subject of international law, associated with the Russian Federation - Russia on the basis of the Treaty on the mutual delegation of powers and jurisdictions (article 61);

enters as a sovereign state, a subject of international law associated with the Russian Federation on the basis of the Agreement on Mutual Delegation of Powers and Terms of Reference, in relations with other states, concludes international treaties, exchanges diplomatic, consular, trade and other representations, participates in the activities of international organizations guided by the principles of international law (articles 61 and 62).

In 2008, Tatarstan completed the initial socio-economic modernization and achieved significant success along the path of secondary modernization. At the same time, rapid socio-economic development and political contradictions with the federal center (existence of the agreement “On the delimitation of competencies between the state authorities of the Russian Federation and the state authorities of the Republic of Tatarstan” approved by the Federal Law No. XXUMX 199 July 24 of the year and the provisions of the Republic of Tatarstan as a sovereign state in the Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, they strengthen the centrifugal trends in the development of the region with the prospect of creating a union state "Russia-Belarus-Tatarstan".

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  1. Tatanka Yotanka
    Tatanka Yotanka 20 October 2012 06: 53
    and for what reason the author considers Tatarstan as a separate state, that he does not obey federal laws
    1. Alexander Romanov
      Alexander Romanov 20 October 2012 07: 00
      Quote: Tatanka Yotanka
      and for what reason the author considers Tatarstan as a separate state

      Yes, this is a rulebook, everyone dreams of his state, it’s high time to transplant them and do not snuggle with them.
      1. wolverine7778
        wolverine7778 20 October 2012 07: 18
        Yes, this is a rulebook. Everything dreams of his state.
        You think these are his thoughts. Like all cautious Tatars, Minikhanov skillfully threw the idea of ​​equality with Russia and Belarus through professors, so he encourages peaceful and cunning separatism, and sets an example for activating the separatism of other subjects of the federation)
        1. sergey32
          sergey32 20 October 2012 08: 15
          He studied in Tatarstan from 90 to 95. He witnessed a parade of sovereignty. At that time, ethnocracy came to power with the tacit consent of Moscow. Nationalism was felt clearly. Federal laws were in force if they did not contradict local ones. Tatarstan strongly emphasized its exclusivity. Federal taxes were simply not transferred to Moscow, while federal subsidies, pensions, the contents of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the republican KGB (and there was one), the center paid all federal structures on its territory. At 94, they managed to agree and signed a separate agreement, and the republic began to transfer some money for national needs. But the millennium of Kazan and the Universiade turned up very opportune, and gold showers spilled from Moscow. I had the opportunity to stay in Kazan at the civil service, but friends of the Tatars enlightened that I wouldn’t get anywhere else, at all key posts with rare exceptions, there will always be national staff. In any normal region where there is a developed industry since the time of the Union, pour in such money and the result will be no worse. But nationalists are always few. We also have such people here, now they are explaining that small peoples in the Russian Federation live poorly. And now nobody will build a union state with its subject, not those times.
        2. Kaa
          Kaa 20 October 2012 12: 57
          Quote: wolverine7778
          You think these are his thoughts.

          No, we do not think so, the "sociolukh" only voiced the innermost desires of the United States, which have already been published many times even in the form of maps.
          1. romb
            romb 20 October 2012 14: 15
            The Americans from this kind of card, straight salivating. The population beyond the Urals is catastrophically small, the natural resources in bulk.
            They see now biting their elbows, that in the nineties they didn’t have time to do this, or couldn’t.
            1. late
              late 20 October 2012 18: 44
              The thing is that the collapse of the country was stopped at the very edge, in 98-99. Remember the then government? It was bought by the United States in the bud. The West was ready to roll away billions of dollars to Putin for letting Russia know that America would print these pieces of paper. Yes, only Putin did not take it.
              1. late
                late 20 October 2012 19: 32
                Less gentlemen liberals! And here’s how I answer, tell me that everything and everything is being sold, and everyone who will offer it will grab me and I will pay everyone who wants the services of a denture office, but only after a good blow of your face on the table.
      2. bask
        bask 20 October 2012 08: 25
        Greetings to Alexander. What a nonsense, not an article))))) Tatarstan is one of the subjects of the Russian Federation. Just a point !!! Absolutely oh ........ and the Union can be only one RUSSIA + UKRAINE + BELARUS .. perspective Kazakhstan ... All ....
      3. Kostyar
        Kostyar 20 October 2012 13: 14
        And better to the wall as in 37, for treason to the Motherland !!!
      4. Anti
        Anti 20 October 2012 14: 26
        Quote: Alexander Romanov
        Yes, this is a copybook

        Shura, you are right at all 109%, I propose to dismiss this type, without the right to teach anywhere. winked
    2. YARY
      YARY 20 October 2012 09: 27
      If the laws of the Russian Federation do not apply on the territory of Tatarstan, then yes, the state is separate.
      If they are acting, then this ch.m.u.r. already sitting IVS!
      1. bask
        bask 20 October 2012 11: 53
        Furious that laws are in force throughout the territory of the Russian Federation, we have a ,,, guarantor of the constitution ,,,, For this he was chosen. That would be a single legal field. All questions are to GDP.
    3. Sasha 19871987
      Sasha 19871987 20 October 2012 10: 11
      well, they had one madame in the 90s, she screamed about the independence of Tatarstan, against the background of Chechnya she was just put in prison ... and yes, we are an integral state ... there are no more words ... glory to Russia
      1. esaul
        esaul 20 October 2012 10: 36
        Greetings to all of you guys!
        I'm terribly glad that I'm not the only one who truncated these cunningly ... tugged arguments of this national professor! In the Russian language there is a wonderful proverb - "Do not wash, do it by rolling!" Everything that can be explained in the article by this proverb, you have expressed and I am very proud of our members of the forum! Hello! Good afternoon everyone! drinks
        1. olegyurjewitch
          olegyurjewitch 21 October 2012 16: 07
          Quote: esaul
          What a terrible thing I am glad that I was not the only one to truncate these cunningly ... jerky arguments of this national professor!

          You don’t need to truncate it, from the first lines it is clear. But as they say, you want a lot, you will receive a little.
    4. ughhh
      ughhh 20 October 2012 11: 43
      separatists must immediately face the battery
    5. dimanf
      dimanf 20 October 2012 12: 50
      for a long time we will disentangle the burps of the drunkard fight.
      for he suggested that everyone take sovereignty.
      1. Simon bolivar
        Simon bolivar 20 October 2012 17: 05
        How many idiots can you do?
        1. red 015
          red 015 20 October 2012 17: 31
          Tatatrstan did not create all this industry at home, but by order of Moscow, and those who want freedom and independence, let them scratch in the "freest country in the world" -USA
          1. Simon bolivar
            Simon bolivar 20 October 2012 18: 14
            lol, the whole industry was MOVED to Tatarstan during the Second World War, and TATARSTAN RETAINED MOST OF ITS ENTERPRISES FROM BANKRUPTCY IN 90E. DIFFERENTLY FROM THE OTHER RUSSIA. And what did your Moscow authorities do? miserable boy. That's why Tatarstan now lives many times better than the rest of Russia, deserved by the people who inhabited it.
            Right now, I’ll get a warning again, but how else can you prove anything to stubborn rams who hear the ringing, but neither understand where it is, nor its meaning.
            1. Simon bolivar
              Simon bolivar 20 October 2012 22: 00
              Go, go cons dumb herd.
          2. Simon bolivar
            Simon bolivar 21 October 2012 21: 29
            Hmm, admins get into disputes and rub posts. It's fun.
  2. Oleg14774
    Oleg14774 20 October 2012 07: 05
    Here is Judah! Armenians, Georgians, Azeibarbaidazhe have separated, now they bite their elbows. This is gov .... again a wave of turbidity. But why do they allow it. If such things had happened in the USA, they would have long been dead. Or overdose or auto accident. How did they get it. Just think that the country is starting to live stably, Jews appear! To count them! And so that others are not habituated. And for some reason he did not write that the Federation invested a lot of money in the development of Tatarstan.

    It was not common knowledge that an attempt to destroy the country should be stopped and here, for prevention, it is necessary to put a hunchback on a stake, and say that he is old and sick, and where is your humanity, if you please. Just as Tymoshenko is not a woman, so hump is not an old man, he is a former "president" and an eternal criminal who has no statute of limitations. After all, even in the West, they admit that he destroyed the USSR during his "perestroika", the planned collapse of the USSR continued. About the KGB, which pretended to pass ... I won't believe the situation, but this is a separate conversation, it's too dark there. And the visible part of the hump iceberg must be borne by the well-deserved, and the Yeltsin family, who continue to work miracles. Chubais is a spy, as in that joke about Stirlitz. Everyone is busy, but nobody touches him "Hero of the Soviet Union" just the opposite.

    Erysipelas like a toad, that’s the science of physiognomy in a visual aid.
  3. zz2003_1974
    zz2003_1974 20 October 2012 07: 44
    Another liberalist, the fifth column, as they got ......
    1. dimanf
      dimanf 20 October 2012 13: 16
      Quote: zz2003_1974

      Another liberalist, the fifth column, as they got ...

      change the first letter in the word liberalist to P. and it will be even more accurate!
  4. Averias
    Averias 20 October 2012 07: 49
    Awesome article title, unlike the article itself. This is necessary, the state of Tatarstan, and screwed it up so beautifully and veiled - “There is a prospect of a union state“ Russia-Belarus-Tatarstan. ”Heather you will not say anything, only now the article let us down, another laudatory ode to the“ Prosperous Republic. ”The question is whose money is flourishing? who encourages "writers" that they write about Russia, what to do with the clannishness which is developed exorbitantly, slowly radical Islamism begins to raise its head. Yes, there are many questions. Or that it was decided that the roads were made, you can bend your fingers and look high. well, no matter how it turns out sideways.
  5. PatriotizTAT
    PatriotizTAT 20 October 2012 10: 53
    Now is not the 14th century ... don’t you post such articles .... well, why the hell do we need them, you would still write out guys from the entrance with their conclusions)
    1. Brother Sarych
      Brother Sarych 20 October 2012 14: 37
      Why not spread it? These same "national cadres" will not go anywhere, if you keep silent about their views ...
      The idea of ​​separatism has not gone anywhere in Tatarstan, it flourished under the old bogeyman, continues to bloom under his young successor ...
      The Russian leadership prefers not to get involved, and often supports this policy ...
  6. Gorchakov
    Gorchakov 20 October 2012 11: 30
    Another provocateur is preparing the Russian Republic for its own sovereignty ... It must be stopped in the bud ... !!!
    1. 1976AG
      1976AG 20 October 2012 11: 51
      Let them remember the story of Chechnya - they also wanted something ...
      1. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 20 October 2012 14: 38
        So what about Chechnya? Say that now does not fatten? And in fact did not achieve their?
        1. 1976AG
          1976AG 20 October 2012 17: 49
          Well, if you remember what goals they set for themselves, then of course you did not achieve it! What could be the questions?
  7. AK-74-1
    AK-74-1 20 October 2012 11: 31
    It is necessary to introduce an article in the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation with a life sentence for calling for the collapse of Russia as a state. The author - "professor" is the first candidate for felling.
      FATEMOGAN 21 October 2012 23: 32
      AK-74-1 - there would be an opportunity, I would plus you three times, you need to introduce an article for such speeches, it’s not in the kitchen that he is reasoning with himself, but will officially make this report.
  8. dimanf
    dimanf 20 October 2012 13: 07
    something he looks like a pig, this professor of balabolny sciences.
  9. afire
    afire 20 October 2012 13: 43
    moderators minus for such things soon and sites will be closed. What are you dear doing that? ruin the resource because of some kind of nerd professor
  10. anfreezer
    anfreezer 20 October 2012 14: 20
    What a nice picture! I’m just touching .... I live in Bashkiria, the echoes of a real war in Tatarstan reach us ... Let us first sort things out with our Wahhabis .. Here are just the words of a young and well-known Tatar Islamic political scientist Rinat Mukhametov: “Unfortunately, the situation that has developed in the religious sphere of Tatarstan in the past 2 years has long alarmed many. During this time, destabilization was artificially provoked in many respects. Leapfrog in the spiritual administration, the dismissal of some imams and the appointment of others, provoking ideological schisms, etc. . motives, "witch hunt", imbalance in the balance of interests of the center-region, the intervention of various external forces both from Moscow and from abroad, uncertainty in the alignment of forces in the Tatarstan ruling elite ... I do not exclude the fact that there are powerful the forces that would like to get a springboard in Tatarstan for their activities, like the ones in the North Caucasus.There have long been trying to present RT as a kind of hotbed of instability, the Volga region of Ichkeria.
    Unfortunately, extremism, terrorism, instability and the struggle against all this have long and firmly become a huge business in our country, a kind of another "national project". It is sad. Until we put things in order, it will be impossible to solve anything. "
    And the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation in general surprises me, what does it mean "unsuccessfully" ... for k .... th such a court is needed ... change the composition of the court, because the powers are: According to Art. 125 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation The Constitutional Court is authorized to exercise constitutional justice in disputes on competence between the bodies of state power of Russia and the bodies of state power of its subjects... Not a court, but a cemetery of "honorable" lawyers ..
  11. Lesorub
    Lesorub 20 October 2012 17: 28
    Russia is a secular state!
    seminarian Stalin "bent" all obscurantism - HARD! because he knew the wrong side of such mass schizophrenia and the fooling of "workers" ... Putin is quite capable of gently putting them in their place, but they will not understand .... "softness"

    and sociology IT - science or pseudo-scientific nonsense ???
  12. red 015
    red 015 20 October 2012 17: 32
    Stupidly arrest and sentenced to capital punishment.
  13. Nick
    Nick 20 October 2012 18: 01
    The dog barks, and the caravan goes ... But seriously, the author is violating several articles of the Criminal Code. It's time for him and the power to use ...
  14. KCC
    KCC 20 October 2012 18: 12
    I would like to know the opinion of the Tatars themselves. How do they relate to such statements.
  15. 26vova06
    26vova06 20 October 2012 18: 16
    article provocative. regarding economic indicators, I will say that this is due to federal investment. without them, everything was much worse. and finally. Tatarstan should not be independent. I don’t think that anyone will allow it, and the inhabitants of this region do not need independence. current a few nationalists are torn to power, that’s what provokes the people
    1. olegyurjewitch
      olegyurjewitch 21 October 2012 16: 17
      Quote: 26vova06
      regarding economic indicators, I will say that this is due to federal investment. without them, everything was much worse.

      That's it, yes, and any subject of the federation is half, or maybe even more, alive and developing due to this.
  16. wolk71
    wolk71 20 October 2012 18: 39
    Of course, due to the built-up capacities in the USSR period, a developed region is now, but now it receives not a small amount of money from the federal budget. Another extremist article aimed at internal discord and the division of Russia.
  17. ATATA
    ATATA 20 October 2012 20: 08
    This article is an offset throwing shit on a fan!
  18. Igoranama
    Igoranama 21 October 2012 03: 23
    Yeah ... When I put a provocative topic on the site two days ago in order to show and expose separatism in Tatarstan, I called it Dreams of secession ... but here it is generally a "difficult case" ...
    The state independence of Tatarstan is IN ANY WAY unacceptable for the Russian Federation, because the consequences of this independence will be catastrophic for Russia, for the People, and the subsequent problems in this case will be incomparably more serious than even those that arose during the collapse of the USSR. And still it would be necessary to close and abolish the institutions of the presidency in the republics, with all sorts of services and departments, with huge state. costs and a bunch of parasites and parasites unnecessary to the people. The higher teaching staff is not the first year in Kazan, Shamiev already gave them a hat at one time ... I live nearby, only in Bashkiria, on the border ... so I read, saw enough and heard enough here ...
    1. Alexander
      Alexander 21 October 2012 19: 41
      As far as I remember, the President of the Chechen Republic Ramzan Kadyrov proposed abolishing republics in our country so that there would be no confusion.
      1. Igoranama
        Igoranama 21 October 2012 21: 27
        And here in Bashkiria this question was raised by Murzik (Murtaza Gubaidulovich), before his penultimate elections, to transfer to parliamentary rule, but I think that this is because of the fear that it will not "pass", and then they just quietly "chew" this the question is thrown into the media every time before the next elections, leaflets are distributed, there are enough of their own nationalists "sick and flying" ..., presented under a different "sauce", but so far there is silence. This is a topic of presidential candidates and a sore spot for the authorities. Now the truth is the hand of the Kremlin is felt and felt more than ever. Almost everything is under the control or is already managed by St. Petersburg and Moscow ...
  19. keylogger
    keylogger 21 October 2012 05: 19
    why do all rats on the face write about this?
    It seems that over the past few years enough "every Mr. Vna" has been lit up on the horizon, it's time to mix them up. Everyone !!!
  20. serge
    serge 21 October 2012 10: 07
    If you do not destroy the republics within Russia, they will destroy Russia. Or or.
  21. dark_65
    dark_65 21 October 2012 15: 39
    And I think, in the face, of any nationality ... and not lingering. To the professor this first, oh .. not really.
    To immediately stifle such statehood in the bud.,_%

    This is a link from Wikipedia., To the author, complete.
  22. toguns
    toguns 21 October 2012 17: 09
    wassat Professor, my advice to you, teach geography !!!
  23. Voin sveta82
    Voin sveta82 21 October 2012 21: 21
    I’m pushing his subject to this professor. I’m pushing the anus ... instead of an enema ...))) I lost my mind ... in Tatarstan ... I saw the second Chechnya ... - bastard ..))) This is pure water - separatism. ..this still was not enough for our Russia ...)))
  24. alex86
    alex86 22 October 2012 22: 58
    Allow comment "from within". Many have the illusion that Shaimiev was holding back the nationalists - Shaimiev created nationalists and skillfully played this card while blackmailing Moscow, which, due to weakness and stupidity, was used to it. By way of illustration, the main nationalist of that time, Talgat Abdullin, first got the Ak Bars bank under his control, and then it was pushed into the housing stock of the Republic of Tatarstan (there is also a lot of money), now he speaks Russian without coaching, does not remember sovereignty. The main nationalist of that time - Fauzia Bayramova - (no one planted her) left for Cyprus and lives there well. Today's people will pull out the card of nationalism when money is not enough. The millennium did not turn up (as in one of the posts), but was invented and falsified, again for the sake of money, like the Universiade and the football championship and the metro a little earlier (who does not know, Kazan has the most expensive metro in the world per kilometer tunneling and still a very small proportion of passenger traffic). If anyone does not know - Kazan is in first place in Russia in terms of the amount of debt (mostly, however, to the republic). In addition, since the local oil is high-sulfur, and in the pipe it was mixed with the Siberian oil (in the past, anyway), our oilmen received more for it than it could have cost. However, one should not confuse the desire to fill the pockets at the top with the mutual tolerance of our peoples, worked out for centuries. I myself am Russian, but my grandfather (Tatar) was imprisoned (in 41st) and shot (in 43rd) for calling for the sovereignty of Tatarstan