How to increase the power of the gas turbine engine of the T-80 tank: plain water will do

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Water, as you know, is far from nitrous oxide, but it can quite successfully help in boosting various types of power plants. A striking example here are turbofan and turbojet aviation engines for which the afterburner used the injection of water or a water-alcohol mixture at the inlet to the compressor. Is it possible to do something similar with a gas turbine power plant tanks T-80? You can, and the results are impressive.

In this material, we will consider the most straightforward method for increasing the power of tank gas turbine engines, which has been proposed for use since the 70s.



And why is it needed?


First you need to explain why water can generally help increase the power of a tank gas turbine engine (GTE). The fact is that one of the main components of this type of power plant is a two-stage turbocharger. Its main function is to compress the air coming from outside to working pressure and direct it into the combustion chamber of the turbine. But, as you know, compression leads to an increase in temperature, so a simple relationship begins to manifest itself here.

How to increase the power of the gas turbine engine of the T-80 tank: plain water will do
Structural diagram of a gas turbine engine. Source: otvaga2004.ru

The compressor compresses the incoming air, and as a result of compression, it heats up and expands. As a result, the compressor needs to spend a lot of energy to bring the air to the desired pressure. At the same time, the operation of the unit directly affects the engine power, reducing the number of "horses". Under normal conditions, this practically does not affect the traction performance of power plants, and they differ little from those stated in the documentation, but it would be a good idea to reduce the parasitic effect of the compressor.

By the way, this parasitic influence is exacerbated by an increase in air temperature. Based on statistics, gas turbines without heat exchangers, which are the engines of our T-80s of various modifications, lose about 0,6% of their power with an increase in air temperature by 1 degree Celsius only due to the “eating” compressor. At the same time, the specific fuel consumption does not fall, but, on the contrary, increases - up to 0,5% per degree.

It is not difficult to imagine how the engines will behave in extreme heat. However, you don't even need to imagine. With all the temperature restrictions, the traction characteristics of the T-80 tanks sometimes fall so much that they drop to the level of the weaker T-72 diesels. Tests conducted in the 80s of the last century in the desert regions of Central Asia show that tanks of the T-80B / BV type, equipped with 1100-horsepower engines, actually became equal to their Tagil counterparts with 780-horsepower piston engines. With.


The T-80U is one of the galaxy of "eighties", the engine power of which is limited not only by air temperature, but also by the dustiness of the combat area. Source: vitalykuzmin.net

In this regard, the question arises: is it possible to boost tank gas turbine power plants and at the same time maintain their power characteristics in adverse hot climate conditions? A simple increase in horsepower is clearly not enough here, as evidenced by the 1250-horsepower GTD-1250 engines of the T-80U tanks - the power has increased, but in the heat it also falls. In addition to this, in dusty areas, the machines are forced to work in the "desert" mode in order to protect the engines from increased dust wear, which also reduces the number of "horses" due to the low temperature of the gases.

The answer seems to be really there: use ordinary water.

How does it work?


As mentioned earlier, water is not nitrous oxide. It does not burn, the combustibility and energy release of the fuel does not directly increase either. But she can cool, and does it quite successfully.

Here comes to mind the very compressor that fights against the increase in the temperature of the compressed air, eating away the power of the turbine. But what if you inject an evaporating liquid into it? The evaporation process significantly cools the air, including compressed air. And here some volatile substances, such as methyl or ethyl alcohol and others, would be ideal, but their flammability, price and availability predetermined the choice in the direction of ordinary water.

For an example of how it generally works, you can take the GTD-1000T engine with a capacity of 1000 horsepower, used on T-80 tanks. In its design - before entering the compressor of the first stage - nozzles for water injection with a total capacity of more than 400 kg per hour were introduced.


Source: thesovietarmourblog.blogspot.com

Entering inside, water is scattered along the walls of the compressor by working blades that pump air. In the future, it, forming a film on the inner surfaces, flows along the air path and partially evaporates. This is what causes cooling. The temperature of the compressed air drops and, as a result, its expansion and the energy of the compressor spent on compression are reduced. Hence the increase in engine power.

However, one should not think that a few liters, or tens of liters of water, will be enough for a high-quality afterburner of a gas turbine. Zhor here is almost comparable to fuel consumption, which is quite justified by the gigantic volumes of air that the engine consumes during its operation - here, of course, it will overtake any diesel engine.

So, to increase the power of a gas turbine engine by only 50 horsepower, about 100 kilograms of water per hour is required. Here it’s really at least fill the stern fuel tanks with water. But these 50 "horses" will not make any weather - such an afterburner will practically not affect the mobility of the car in any way. But no one will dwell on such a trifle.

A more significant result, expressed in an increase of 200 or more horsepower, is achieved with water consumption up to 400-odd kilograms per hour, depending on conditions. In this case, we can expect significant improvements in the mobility of the tank, since the engine will be in fact comparable to the GTD-1250 from the T-80U. Accordingly, if the GTD-1250 itself is subjected to such forcing, then its traction performance will come close to the engine of the American Abrams tank with a capacity of 1500 horsepower.

It is noteworthy that in hot conditions the possibilities of afterburner with the help of water are somewhat expanded. So, at an air temperature of + 35-45 degrees Celsius, engine power increases by an average of 25%, that is, we are talking not only about maintaining the characteristics of the power plant in a hot climate, but also about their significant increase, which cannot be achieved by classical forcing methods.

To a large extent, such an increase in power can also help in overcoming water obstacles by a tank along the bottom. The fact is that the gas turbine engines of the T-80 tanks are very sensitive to resistance to the release of exhaust gases, therefore, without a pipe that ensures their removal to the surface, a deep reservoir cannot be overcome. The use of "water afterburner" in this case completely changes the situation: the exhaust gases acquire sufficient pressure to release them directly into the water without a gas outlet pipe at depths of up to 8 meters.


T-80U with the underwater driving kit installed. The exhaust pipe is visible above the surface of the water. Source: vpk-news.ru

Conclusions


Forcing by injecting water into an air compressor turned out to be a truly radical method of increasing the power of a gas turbine engine in almost all temperature conditions, with the exception of frosty conditions, when water simply froze in storage tanks. And, noteworthy, this method of increasing power did not reduce the resource of the power plant, but, on the contrary, increased it.


Stern fuel tanks T-80BV. One of them was to be replaced by a barrel for cooling water. Source: vitalykuzmin.net

However, there were also significant disadvantages associated with increased fuel consumption and the installation of at least one water barrel instead of the aft fuel tank, as well as a pump for pumping water into the nozzles. More detailed studies of this afterburner method could lead to some results in terms of its implementation in mass production, but the need to refine the engines, make changes to the material and technical part and documentation, and so on. made their own adjustments. In the end, the projects on this topic, which somehow made themselves felt since the end of the 70s, were completely closed with the collapse of the USSR.
56 comments
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  1. +6
    5 September 2022 05: 38
    Water is not combustible, you can carry it outside of armor, especially not all year round.

    In the end, the projects on this topic, which somehow made themselves felt since the end of the 70s, were completely closed with the collapse of the USSR.

    And then the spotted one was noted ...
    1. -2
      5 September 2022 11: 04
      Well, or develop a new engine, of the 21st century, and not squeeze the remnants of the Soviet backlog.
      1. +4
        5 September 2022 12: 37
        everything is much easier
        add a special additive of 5% of the fuel volume
        increases power by 20%
        + reduced fuel consumption
        + increased engine life
        1. fiv
          +4
          5 September 2022 16: 43
          Another magnet for the gas hose, wipe the headlights and the spark generator into the air path. And the steering wheel is furry. Beast - the wheelbarrow will be!!
          1. +3
            5 September 2022 16: 49
            you just don't know
            1 MTLBu tanker transports 4,5 tons of fuel or additive
            - and here you have 90 tons of diesel fuel
            as they say - just add water
  2. +17
    5 September 2022 06: 06
    Used in the 10s on the Toyota Sprinter Carib, + 15-3% to engine power or fuel economy. As a result, after 3 years, loss of compression and shells on the exhaust valves. Rusting intensifies many times, so a device is needed to shut off the water 5-XNUMX minutes before killing and preferably non-rusting steel along the entire water path.
    1. +4
      5 September 2022 06: 50
      Quote: Carib
      As a result, after 3 years, loss of compression and shells on the exhaust valves.

      So the injection of water is "afterburner for the poor." And in aviation it was used for lack of fish. But this is not a method.
      1. +2
        5 September 2022 09: 28
        Well, yes, it is more efficient to use the fuel-water emulsion obtained by the Yutkin method (does not delaminate for at least a week). And no additional pumps and tanks are needed.
      2. 0
        29 October 2022 11: 56
        So what's stopping you from going back to injecting alcohol? It also burns, that is, an increase in power by saving diesel fuel. Doesn't freeze. In case of fire, it is easily extinguished with water.
        It is clear that the -T100 will receive the nickname "alcohol carrier", but okay.
        1. 0
          31 October 2022 06: 57
          Quote: eule
          So what's stopping you from going back to injecting alcohol?

          Caring for the Crew's Liver wassat wassat wassat
    2. 0
      5 September 2022 10: 26
      Tank engines already have a small resource, the main thing after use is not to put it in storage without a major overhaul.
  3. +8
    5 September 2022 06: 32
    And, noteworthy, this method of increasing power did not reduce the resource of the power plant, but, on the contrary, increased it.

    Yes, you sho! belay
    1. 0
      5 September 2022 08: 12
      Another "innovation" from the 70-80s of the last century. Then, "buckets" with water and a hose with a needle "for supplying water to the carburetor" were hung on the "Lada and Muscovites" carburetors out of their minds. They wrote that almost 25 % power increases. In general, the ears of the people were warmed, until the Institute associated with the automotive industry checked the next chernukha.
  4. +2
    5 September 2022 08: 14
    They wrote about it back in the 80s.
    1. +1
      5 September 2022 11: 05
      Since the 40s.
      See "MW-50 Blend".
      Nitros, by the way, also began to be used even then.
  5. +3
    5 September 2022 08: 18
    The transmission is designed for a certain power, if you increase it without changing the transmission, then wear begins to grow exponentially. The same can be said about the turbine, since the mixture with water vapor is much denser than fuel vapor, that is, the load on the blades increases ....
    1. +3
      5 September 2022 08: 36
      If you use it only in the summer, then there will be no serious increase in power - the system will simply help compensate for the drop in power.
      1. 0
        5 September 2022 09: 07
        Maybe so, if you do not take into account the increased load on the turbine blades ....
  6. +3
    5 September 2022 08: 24
    Speaking of water injection. In the 70s, an experiment was conducted in the Tashkent taxi fleet on the use of a gasoline-water emulsion obtained by the Yutkin method. The results showed that fuel consumption decreases and the temperature load on the engine decreases, but the motor resource decreases, just because of the increase in power. In technology, as in the body - everything is interconnected ....
    1. +4
      5 September 2022 08: 41
      This only suggests that the engine components need to be strengthened for forcing in this way (and indeed any other, in fact), I'm more interested in the issue of corrosion. For example, German WWII fighters used the injection of a water-methanol mixture and the resource of these engines was extremely small, in particular due to the problem of corrosion, but this resource was enough for a combat engine.
      1. 0
        5 September 2022 09: 14
        I don't know about corrosion. Probably they didn’t write about it in the article, since it wasn’t postponed. request
  7. +3
    5 September 2022 09: 10
    The article is big smart ... I'm only interested in one question, why?
    1. +1
      5 September 2022 10: 21
      The article is big smart ... I'm only interested in one question, why?

      To increase fuel consumption even more.
      So one gas turbine tank costs like two diesel tanks, but it needs to be like three. laughing
      1. 0
        5 September 2022 11: 11
        Quote: Arzt
        So one gas turbine tank costs like two diesel tanks, but it needs to be like three.

        No, with equal power, no. One and a half times.
        1. +1
          5 September 2022 15: 33
          Judging by the article - if it's hot (Syria?) - if not three times it can come out.
          Purely because it eats a priori (and it will come out somewhere around 1.5 from a diesel), plus efficiency drops from the heat.
          Campaign turbine is expensive and not for the masses.
          1. +4
            5 September 2022 18: 50
            You still forget that there is a lot of sand and dust in Syria. And with a poor single-stage filter, the turbine either says goodbye or it has to be "strangled" so that the dust on the blades does not cake
          2. +3
            5 September 2022 20: 30
            Judging by the article - if it's hot (Syria?) - if not three times it can come out.
            Purely because it eats a priori (and it will come out somewhere around 1.5 from a diesel), plus efficiency drops from the heat.
            Campaign turbine is expensive and not for mass

            So the fact is that the gas turbine engine itself costs almost the same as the T-72.
      2. 0
        5 September 2022 18: 47
        Well, it's all logical
  8. +2
    5 September 2022 10: 02
    I'm going to say sedition now. The way tanks are now used in the NWO - the T-90M needs a gas turbine, not a diesel engine. For "acceleration" has become more important than "range", "tactical" mobility is more important than "operational".
    1. 0
      5 September 2022 10: 42
      So there diesel engines cost 1200ls each (on the T-72B3 too) at 1180ls. Everything is fine with that ... only the T-90m has more armor and weight, respectively.
      1. +1
        5 September 2022 14: 40
        Well, the GTD-1250 will be easier. And on the sneaker "more responsive".
        1. +1
          5 September 2022 15: 02
          With equal power with a diesel engine, there is no longer such a difference ...... Another thing is 1180 maximum, but in the dimensions of the turbine you can make 1500hp
          1. +1
            5 September 2022 15: 26
            Maybe I'm not here to judge. She's already been forced. But, diesels are quite heavy at 1 hp, gas turbines - on the contrary, it is lighter than any other internal combustion engine.
            1. +2
              5 September 2022 15: 36
              Not everything is so simple there .... Fuel weight, gear box weight, etc. In general, when the output of diesel power is 1000-1500hp, they have become more in demand than turbines. This is a worldwide practice. Here you still need to look at Nm and at what speed they are available.
              1. 0
                6 September 2022 07: 48
                World practice is that no one has managed to make a tank gas turbine, except for the USA and the USSR. Moreover, from the point of view of the Soviet Defense Ministry, GTU Abrams does not meet the requirements imposed (by us). However, the Germans really did not intend to.
                1. 0
                  6 September 2022 10: 30
                  On the other hand, MTU made a serial 1500hp diesel with a transmission. We are only approaching this with the X-diesel.
                  1. 0
                    6 September 2022 14: 58
                    Ha. Only I doubt that the German diesel engine will fit in the T-90 at all. It's also holding back.
                    1. 0
                      6 September 2022 21: 16
                      B12 ... Both the one and the other .... Our displacement is 38l ... MTU - I don’t know
                      1. 0
                        7 September 2022 08: 01
                        Something tells me that the Leoperds have more MTO volume.
                      2. 0
                        7 September 2022 16: 12
                        The volume of MTO for LEO (Diesel + gearbox) is definitely less. changes in half an hour
                      3. 0
                        14 September 2022 11: 51
                        The fact that this is a monoblock has nothing to do with the volume of MTO.
          2. +1
            5 September 2022 15: 46
            Quote: Zaurbek
            .Another thing, 1180 maximum, but in the dimensions of the turbine you can make 1500ls

            Either a turbine with a heat exchanger, a la Abrams, or a two-shaft diesel engine like on the T-64. Even a star will be noticeably more voluminous than a turbine.
            1. +1
              5 September 2022 15: 48
              Yes, but the Diesel Nm is immediately at low speeds, and the turbine is at high speeds ..... it is likely that the gearboxes are different in size and cooling.
              1. 0
                5 September 2022 16: 09
                Quote: Zaurbek
                Yes, but the Diesel Nm is immediately at low speeds, and the turbine is at high speeds ..... it is likely that the gearboxes are different in size and cooling.

                The T-80 turbines have built-in gearboxes, not a specialist, but I'm sure they are compact.
                Photo in the article:
                https://topwar.ru/25686-na-puti-k-t-80-tankovye-gazoturbinnye-dvigateli.html

                I’m not sure anymore, but I think that even with a scheme similar to a diesel engine, the dimensions would be a percentage, i.e. no longer essential. hi
      2. 0
        5 September 2022 16: 42
        the main threat to tanks is 122 mm and 152 mm UAS guided projectiles
        forcing engines does not solve the problem here
        in addition to the torsion bars, you need to put a hydraulic suspension on all the rollers
        in Syria, tanks from artillery shells were armored in a circular manner, incl. and the tower, but the suspension could not stand
        by reinforcing the suspension, you can put 2x3 meters of 100-mm armor with DZ Relict + 5 tons on the "visor" tower, the speed will drop, but this is not important
        + add DZ to the fenders
    2. 0
      5 September 2022 11: 12
      Quote: Dimax-Nemo
      For "acceleration" has become more important than "range", "tactical" mobility is more important than "operational".
      drinks
  9. +3
    5 September 2022 10: 41
    In the end, the projects on this topic, which somehow made themselves felt since the end of the 70s, were completely closed with the collapse of the USSR.

    Improving the efficiency of gas turbines by injecting water into the compressor is currently widely used for stationary installations. For tank gas turbines, this method is of little use - you need a lot of water, and not just water, but distilled water.
    In addition, despite the high efficiency of injection, its long-term use remains questionable due to the risk of corrosion and erosion of parts of the GTU flow path.
  10. +3
    5 September 2022 14: 45
    Water injection into a heat engine is one of the methods for intermediate cooling of compressed air (or fuel mixture) to increase the mass flow of air passing through the engine, and with it, respectively, power. However, this method has not found distribution for several reasons.
    1. Complication and rise in the cost of the design.
    2, Additional weight and dimensions of the water tank.
    3. Inapplicability at negative temperatures.
    4. Accelerated corrosive wear of the engine due to the high chemical aggressiveness of superheated water vapor, which, when interacting with the combustion products of the fuel, forms various acids.
  11. 0
    5 September 2022 15: 30
    Stern fuel tanks T-80BV. One of them was to be replaced by a barrel for cooling water. Source: vitalykuzmin.net


    Aren't these smoke bombs LH?
    They seem to have been doing these since the time of the T-34.
  12. 0
    5 September 2022 17: 37
    The author is apparently not familiar with the science of thermodynamics, and the design of a gas turbine engine. When compressed in a compressor, water actually lowers the temperature of the air.
    But when it enters the combustion chamber, it takes heat from the combustion products, lowers their temperature and reduces the expansion of gases! Thus, reducing the pressure of combustion products on the turbine blades, and reducing engine power! fellow
    1. +3
      5 September 2022 18: 21
      The testers came across some strange water. Gtd-1000t became as much more powerful by 200-300 horses. laughing
      1. +1
        5 September 2022 22: 16
        That's what I'm talking about too! Firewater! But if you are interested, read about the Brayton / Joule thermodynamic cycle, which describes the working processes of a gas turbine engine.
        In order for a gas turbine engine to become more powerful, the heat from air compression must be removed to the outside, through a heat exchanger, as in turbo diesels with an intercooler.
        Water in your case serves as a ballast, like nitrogen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and according to the laws of physics, it cannot have a positive effect.
        Gtd-1000t and any other engine becomes cancer if water is poured into it. Therefore, in industry, in their right mind and solid memory, no one does this.
        In reciprocating engines, water vapor washes away lubricant from the cylinder walls and collects as condensate in the crankcase. And then someone will be more lucky, or pull up the sleeve, or turn the liners.
        I have not seen experiments with turbines, apparently it is too expensive to be trusted by idiots.
        Although if you have a serviceable tank at hand, be sure to try it, the main thing is not to spare water.
      2. +1
        6 September 2022 00: 43
        E. Perov
        Probably hard water. :)
      3. 0
        7 September 2022 15: 13
        However, your approach to the structural elements of a gas turbine engine is strange - to call the compressor a parasite. The compressor, of course, takes power from the turbine for its rotation, but firstly, the turbine has excess power, and secondly, without a compressor, you will not be able to provide sufficient air pressure to supply it to the combustion chamber and, accordingly, provide the necessary gas flow parameters at the turbine inlet to convert its energy into rotational motion. No water can get into the combustion chamber, let alone into the turbine, since it evaporates at the compressor inlet, lowering the temperature and increasing the density of the air, thereby increasing the total degree of pressure increase. The air at the inlet to the combustion chamber has a temperature of 300-400 degrees and a pressure several times greater than at the inlet to the compressor. Water is not poured into gas turbine engines, but injected. Another thing is that in aviation this is usually done during takeoff, for a short-term increase, or rather, to maintain traction or power, at high ambient temperatures or low atmospheric air pressure (highlands). To use this opportunity on a tank, you probably need to do this only at times when maximum power is needed. The An-24B has such a system, the capacity of the water tank is 30 liters. Only distilled water is used. The inclusion of such a system at temperatures from +10 and below leads to instantaneous icing of the compressor input stages, its surge and, as a rule, to engine failure.
  13. 0
    29 October 2022 18: 15
    Back in the late 40s of the last century it was established. that the gas turbine engine is of little use for ground vehicles due to exorbitant fuel consumption, which was confirmed on the T-80.
  14. 0
    3 December 2022 12: 02
    We return to the principle of operation of the Maxim machine gun - nowhere without water ...