New direction of space colonization

New direction of space colonization

A new direction of practical space exploration was proposed by the inventor “Nikolay Agapov”. Unlike well-known promising concepts, such as the extraction of helium-3 on the Moon or space tourism, the space industry development scenario, published on the website of the International Philosophical and Cosmological Society, does not require inaccessible technologies or unaffordable financial costs, but can attract private investment to the development of space technology. industry and the development of extraterrestrial resources.


The emergence of a concept capable of mobilizing the resources of the world economy for space exploration makes it possible to move from the space exploration phase to its large-scale practical exploration. The main difference of the development scenario proposed by the author is that the stake in it is not on new technologies, but on new methods of coordinating activities, which makes its implementation more accessible, both technically and in terms of funding.

The basis of the space industrial system should be the “Industrial Space Group”, which serves as a means of developing and maintaining near-earth satellites. The satellite industry is an established segment of practical space exploration, with a total turnover of about $ 200 billion, and continuing to actively develop. But satellites, in essence, are automatons strongly tied to the services sector; they are economically advantageous, but cannot serve as a means of further space exploration. In addition, automata in space break down, and the more complex they become, the more expensive the risk of their loss from technical problems, the failure of some short-lived systems, reduces their service life. For the maintenance and repair of satellites in space requires the presence of people and the availability of appropriate infrastructure. The industry, designed for servicing satellites, is a logical continuation of the development of commercial astronautics, from satellites in near-earth orbit to the conquest of space by people. The industrial grouping includes several projects of space transportation systems, a source of raw materials on the Moon, and a commercial orbital station performing the functions of a transport center and a supporting base in near-Earth space.

It is supposed to use the transport system consisting of a specialized simplified light carrier, which plays the role of a cheap “Workhorse”, a rocket - “Pony” as the main means of launching a payload into orbit. And the orbital station, which plays the role of the transport and assembly center “Cosmoport”.

Specialized carrier - Pony with simplified engines and control systems, has a low loading capacity, but it is simple and cheap, its production can be put on stream at low cost. Due to the limited payload, Pony must deliver satellites to the spaceport in parts, for subsequent assembly and transfer to working orbits.

The Pony-Spaceport system is based on simple and proven technologies, but it is able to provide cargo traffic from Earth to orbit at low cost and creates a sure ground for the commercialization of manned cosmonautics. The operation of this system will significantly reduce the cost of breeding, up to 1000 $ per kilogram of payload, against 3, 5, thousands, typical of typical for the cheapest traditional carriers.
From the empty plastic tanks of the Pony missiles, organic fuel can be obtained at the spaceport, which forms the basis of one of the first commercial productions in orbit.

The basis of the orbital transport systems should be reusable space tugs, with less powerful, but more economical plasma electrojet engines, which receive energy from solar generators. The cost-effectiveness of plasma orbital tugs allows them to transport satellites between working orbits and the spaceport, linking the entire near-earth grouping into a single system. They also allow the establishment of permanent transport bridges to the moon and other planets, which is practically unattainable when using traditional chemical rockets. Transition to reusable orbital tugs will allow to move freely in outer space and significantly reduce the cost of flights between orbits.

One of the features of plasma engines is in their multi-fuel capacity; they are able to consume any available “working fluid”, like components of traditional rocket fuel, neutral liquids such as water or liquid oxygen, and solids in the form of fine powder.

The main fuel for orbital tugs, according to the author, should be powdered lunar soil produced on the lunar fuel base. The production of powdered fuel on the moon requires significantly less costs than liquid substances. “Mineral dust”, besides simplicity in production, has a number of other advantages over liquid fuels, such as high density and stability in storage. It does not boil in vacuum, it easily withstands temperature drops from absolute zero to hundreds of degrees, its storage in space does not require special conditions.
To remove the fuel powder into orbit from the surface of the moon, it is proposed to use a powerful mechanical catapult - a "moon sling", which is a rotor similar to a helicopter, but with kilometer-long ribbons made of Kevlar or carbon fiber instead of blades. Low gravity and lack of atmosphere on the moon allow the use of mechanical devices instead of the usual jet engines.

The lunar sling does not require fuel at all, but it allows to ensure the delivery of raw materials to orbit in industrial volumes, reducing the cost of delivering materials to the cosmos from the moon to purely symbolic compared to removing from Earth.

Lunar soil can be used not only as a fuel for plasma engines, but also as a raw material, for processing into liquid oxygen, ceramic and metal products in orbital production centers.

The cost of creating a powder raw material base on the moon is within 10 billions of dollars, which does not go beyond the investors' capabilities, but the available lunar resources will significantly reduce the cost of orbital transport and create the soil for the development of various productions in orbit. A commercial lunar resource base provides an economic rationale for human activity on the moon and its further industrial colonization.

Orbital stations must perform many different functions, serving as transportation centers, bases for orbital tugboats, for various types of assembly, technological or production activities, playing the role of supporting bases for human activity in near-Earth space.

The entire near-Earth transport operational system should work to maintain commercial orbiters, returning the funds invested in it in the form of reducing the cost of space services.

The activity of the industrial grouping allows you to repeatedly reduce the cost of launching satellites and increase their service life to virtually obsolescence.

In addition, it creates opportunities for the development of new projects, such as low-orbit communication satellite systems with high-area grid antennas that can receive cell phone calls and broadcast to personal television and radio receivers, which will make space information services affordable and widely available, attracting space tens of billions of dollars of new investment.
Space solar power plants consisting of ultralight, film, concentrating large-area mirrors and industrial-power generators that can form the basis of a clean and fuel-free global energy system of the future, increasing the speed of the space group to hundreds of billions and trillions of dollars and turning it into one of the leading global industries.

The development of cosmonautics according to the proposed industrial scenario makes it possible to create a strong space grouping, including permanent transport infrastructure, lunar and orbital industrial centers in the next few decades. With such a space grouping, humanity will be able to begin the active exploration of space and nearby planets, which would entail the transition of human civilization to the cosmic level from the planetary level.

The flights of the first rockets made outer space accessible, but after 50 years of cosmonautics development, the space expansion of mankind is still perceived as futuristic fiction. The scientific community has adopted the opinion that the main obstacles to the colonization of space are the high cost of space projects and the insufficient level of technology for this. But the Agapov development scenario makes space exploration economically viable and affordable for modern investors, allowing it to begin its colonization in the near future.

According to the IFPC
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  1. borisst64
    borisst64 17 October 2012 10: 05 New
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    "The main fuel for orbital tugs, according to the author, should be a powdery lunar soil"

    One way or another, fuel on the earth has organic matter at its core, i.e. plants. And what chemical composition does moon dust have? Or does the author mean nuclear fuel? Even science fiction should be logical.
    1. Kapitanyuk
      Kapitanyuk 17 October 2012 14: 39 New
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      "One of the features of plasma engines is their multi-fuel nature, they are capable of consuming any available“ working fluid ", such as components of traditional rocket fuel, neutral liquids such as water or liquid oxygen, and solids in the form of fine powder." - you can drown anything. And the lunar soil will be right under your side.
      1. postman
        postman 17 October 2012 22: 13 New
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        Quote: Kapitanyuk
        plasma engines - in their multifuel,

        The working fluid (creates an impulse / traction) in PD: gas, neutral (initially), the lower the molecular weight, the better.
        What is a plasma? It is fully or partially ionized GAS (electrons are stripped from the molecules)!
        1. whatever the liquid, and even more so the soil to turn into gas, you need to have at hand a reactor or furnace (preferably a blast furnace)
        2. For PD to work, energy is required (and not small).

        you are probably, in terms of simplicity of mind, confused with annihilation ....
        1. de_monSher 17 October 2012 22: 23 New
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          I somehow don’t even know ... somehow your thoughts about the “blast furnace” are not even clear. Already on the moon if you expand the production of fuel - scoop I do not want solar energy. One minus is the night is a bit long.
          1. postman
            postman 17 October 2012 22: 45 New
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            Quote: de_monSher
            somehow your course is not even clear

            Take an interest in plasma physics, and try using solar energy (even on the moon) to get it from the lunar soil.
            Is it not difficult for you? Education allows or?
            1. de_monSher 17 October 2012 23: 14 New
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              postman

              Is it not difficult for you? Education allows or?


              For the sake of interest, go to Uzbekistan, to the object "Sun" ... *) Can it be difficult for you? *)) Finance and prejudice, allow? *)))

              And about education, I did not quite understand. I have it quite like that - profile ... *)))
              1. postman
                postman 17 October 2012 23: 33 New
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                I was in Uzbekistan, in the Parkent district, no.
                Not difficult, finances allow, there are no prejudices.
                so, let's begin:
                1. You delivered this crap to the moon (as interesting, but not important, probably with your specialized education)

                or this one?

                (this one is better, its easier)
                2. Watched (probably by the method according to claim 1)
                3. Saved from micrometeorites, and so on.
                4.URA heated silicon to 2000 ° C
                5.FILL THE MELTED SILICON IN? AT? Of course, in TERMOS, they were carried by ships to tugboats awaiting the RT.
                6. Accurately filled in the "tank" (thermos probably)
                And? so, what is next?
                "profile" education will tell how to get thrust / impulse for electric propulsion with this deorm (molten to 2000 ° C silicon)?

                enlighten, do not blame those too slow-witted.

                PS This is not you by chance?
                1. de_monSher 17 October 2012 23: 38 New
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                  No, by no chance ... You have too high an opinion of me. I’m taller, two and a half times, and my beard didn’t come out, my physiognomy is not so Aryan, and my backpack is not so cool ... *)))

                  Further - if you mount something on the Moon, in any case you have to think about protection, and not only from meteorites. But this is not important - about your calculations on silicon. You specifically did not read what I wrote about organosilicon? *)
                  1. postman
                    postman 17 October 2012 23: 46 New
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                    Quote: de_monSher
                    You specifically did not read what I wrote about organosilicon? *)

                    No, I read only:
                    Quote: de_monSher
                    like silicon and luminium will do ...

                    I don’t even know was wast das? can enlighten.
                    Well, that makes sense, if only she (KO) is on the moon.
                    The moon, all is not Greece ....

                    It seems to be that KO was not part of the regolith, well, until recently, in any case!
                    FeTiO3
                    (MgFe) 2 [SiO4]
                    [Al2Si2O8]
                    (Na, or Ca) 2 [Si2O8], where R is Na, Ca
                    Or are you kidding again?
                    1. de_monSher 18 October 2012 00: 09 New
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                      Or are you kidding again?


                      *))) hmm ... how old are you, buddy? *) If it `s not a secret? *)

                      I did not chemical, just as far as I remember, such an engine was also tested on an organosilicon polymer. That's all. That's why I spoke out about Silicon. As for luminium, I wrote - “POSSIBLE” ... remember? *) Remembering that he is also in the lunar soil ... *)
                      1. postman
                        postman 18 October 2012 00: 12 New
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                        45 what?
                        and you?
                      2. de_monSher 18 October 2012 00: 15 New
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                        No, nothing like that - aggressive. Just expression in you, 20 years old, which does you honor ... *)))

                        I am 6 years younger than you ... *)
                      3. postman
                        postman 18 October 2012 00: 37 New
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                        Quote: de_monSher
                        Just expression in you, 20 years old, which does you honor ... *)))

                        The daughter probably makes this expression (just by age), and the son adds.
                        Joke.
                        I often come across "specialists" like this one at work. Today I encountered.

                        Quote: de_monSher
                        I am 6 years younger than you ... *)

                        you have everything ahead
                  2. postman
                    postman 18 October 2012 00: 53 New
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                    Quote: de_monSher
                    As far as I remember, such an engine was also tested on an organosilicon polymer.

                    and nothing? didn't burn?
                    KO (as far as I remember), these are silicones.
                    The sealant is there, grease.
                    No, of course, if the RD nozzle is greased with a compound, and the supply pipes of the RT are sealed, then there will probably be some effect .....
                  3. de_monSher 18 October 2012 01: 11 New
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                    KO (as far as I remember), these are silicones.


                    silazans ... silanes ... siloxanes, etc. Well, it’s not necessarily just sealants ... hmyk ... and it’s not about a frying pan, by and large ...
                  4. postman
                    postman 18 October 2012 12: 42 New
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                    Quote: de_monSher
                    and not about the pan

                    Yes, but in any case (any type of electric propulsion) the ionized gas will flow out (creating an impulse, (the thrust is ridiculous there), and as a rule, this is temperature.
                    By the way, this is for reference why RT should be in-with low atomic weight and GAS
                    Accelerates atoms / molecules in an electric propulsion engine?
                    Correctly :
                    any EM field.
                    or ES field.

                    In essence (well, gross simplification, in the 1st approximation): the gun of the house.
                    The smaller the weight of the projectile (atom), the faster (and with lower energy costs) we will disperse it, the more impulse we get, with higher efficiency.
                    Energy is also important, because it’s not an aircraft carrier with a nuclear reactor
  • de_monSher 17 October 2012 16: 27 New
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    If the engines are electro-reactive, then the working fluid can really be almost anything. In theory, lithium, bismuth, potassium are best suited ... like silicon and luminium are suitable ...

    In general, a normal, well-founded idea ...
    1. postman
      postman 17 October 2012 23: 03 New
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      Quote: de_monSher
      like silicon and luminium will do ...

      the last time Flurry was going to stick a 650mm torpedo.
      Now ERD on the working fluid: silicon.
      Well, do not lead people (immature) into nonsense.
      Is the principle of electric propulsion known?
      -Do you know what accelerates particles in it?
      -Do you have any idea about the atomic mass?
      -Do you have the atomic mass of the elements you listed? (No? To the Mendeleev table
      -Sources of losses of efficiency of electric propulsion. (Classification and source conceptual?)?
      IMHO:
      Whether you take the E-thermal taxiway or pulsed taxiway, then:
      * in order to use the kinetic energy of the gases that appear during the evaporation of a solid (silicon, or "moon" soil) in an electric discharge, you need to HIS (RT) FIRST EVAPORATE (transfer to the third state of aggregation
      Can you figure out how much E is required?

      For electrostatic high-current RD (lithium), first I have to perform RT IONIZATION (I want to see how you will ionize "luminium", silicon or lunar soil, probably by the friction method?)
      RT in any case is GAS.
      Lithium is used only because this metal (!) Has a density of 0,533 g / cm³ Tm = 180,54 ° C and will dissolve in liquid ammonia at -40 ° C
      Silicon: 2,33 g / cm³ Tm = 1961 ° C, here inoinit it!
      1. de_monSher 17 October 2012 23: 22 New
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        Ummmmm ... excuse me, like there are still liquid metal taxiways. And, as I recall, there were options to work with organosilicon compounds in these engines. It seems to be? This time ... and two, touching your previous "cry of the soul" - tell me the connection between the energy of the Sun and plasma physics?

        And please, without screaming ... can you answer briefly? Pliz ...
        1. postman
          postman 17 October 2012 23: 39 New
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          Quote: de_monSher
          Ummmmm ... sorry, like there are still liquid metal taxiways


          On silicon, huh?
          I wrote about lithium. Have you read?

          Quote: de_monSher
          me the connection between the energy of the sun and plasma physics?

          I don’t know what you meant. Plasma cheat? 4th state of aggregation, gas, with "stripped" electrons.
          In order to get at least gas from silicon or soil (with the existing "electron" shell), do you need something? ,correctly: :
          a) heat, melt, bring to a boil
          b) boil to evaporate
          c) maintain the boiling point
          how to achieve this? Continue?


          Quote: de_monSher
          And please, without screaming ... can you answer briefly? Pliz ...

          Bitte schoen!
          But you do not read and do not understand, you do not perceive formulas of the 7th class of elementary mathematics and geometry.
          There is no scream, it’s you who are so dawning.
          In short: what you carry (exactly carry) is nonsense.
          1. de_monSher 17 October 2012 23: 58 New
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            In short: what you carry (exactly carry) - Nonsense


            I don’t carry anything at all - the inheritance of hens is carried. If for that matter - you bear it, I just ask clarifying questions .... *) I, like you, have a fragmentary view of these engines. And ... with your state of aggregation, you simply don’t just forget about the existence of a subsection of quantum physics called chemistry ... *) And, you see, bismuth with its density of 9.8 g per cm in a cube can be used as a working medium in such engines, but silicon with its 2.3 g / cm ^ 3 - is it really impossible? *)) And on bismuth, such engines did - this is definitely ... *)

            In short, comrade is respectable, less expression ... *)
            1. postman
              postman 18 October 2012 00: 35 New
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              Quote: de_monSher
              I don’t carry anything at all

              carry, carry, figuratively of course.

              Quote: de_monSher
              me, like you, the idea of ​​these engines is fragmented.

              I do not have. You are mistaken, the truth is E-1 (1), not E-8
              I can send a diploma screen

              Quote: de_monSher
              You just don’t just forget about the subsection of quantum physics,


              Yes, exactly about the "mathematical genetics" the same ... forgot

              Quote: de_monSher
              And on bismuth, such engines did - this is definitely ... *)

              Hu and when?
              maybe polonium-10 did?

              Quote: de_monSher
              In short,

              In short, you know who? at the penguin, he sits on the ice all the time.
              1. de_monSher 18 October 2012 00: 45 New
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                Yes, exactly about the "mathematical genetics" the same ... forgot


                Well, you never remembered about her ... *)

                I do not have. You are mistaken, the truth is E-1 (1), not E-8
                I can send a diploma screen


                Screen of diploma - nafih, I believe, but about these engines - this is already interesting ... *) very curious ... share, = what can be shared of course = ... *) Maybe even in a separate article?

                carry, carry, figuratively of course.


                I don’t bear it ... you love, clings to general phrases, and expose a person almost as an enemy of the people ... *) And you carry, and you bear at the same time - that at least stand even fall ... *))
                1. postman
                  postman 18 October 2012 00: 57 New
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                  Quote: de_monSher
                  love you, clings to common phrases

                  Do not be offended.
                  Quote: de_monSher
                  Maybe even in a separate article?

                  Smirnov, recently does not accept articles, the incentive disappeared.
                  1. de_monSher 18 October 2012 01: 06 New
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                    Smirnov, recently does not accept articles, the incentive disappeared.


                    It’s a pity ... * (((maybe I’ll drop off my coordinates to you - will we talk? I’m now, as I said then, in St. Petersburg ... and this is really interesting to me ...
                    1. postman
                      postman 18 October 2012 12: 28 New
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                      Can. Only until 10.11. I definitely won’t have 12 times
  • cvx
    cvx 17 October 2012 10: 28 New
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    Well done inventor “Nikolay Agapov”. A very useful invention. It remains only to famously implement it.
  • Ilyich
    Ilyich 17 October 2012 11: 33 New
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    New Vasyuki, damn it ... laughing

    Seriously, the concept, in principle, is not bad. However, the trick is that modern space medicine cannot ensure that a person stays in space for more than a year and a half. (and this is a record). And modern technology - to create in space a closed ecosystem of the earth's environment (gravity, microflora, etc.)
    Those. work will go on a rotational basis. And this - one hell to drive manned missiles. And if a thousand people work there, then you will not be dung.
    1. postman
      postman 18 October 2012 13: 17 New
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      Quote: Ilyich
      cannot ensure the stay of man in space for more than a year and a half.


      In zero gravity !, and not in space.
      And on the moon it can already, the main thing is that there would be a gradient of gravity, then physiological processes go fine.
      If on the analogue of the ISS, then most likely they will be untwisted and the CBS will give the necessary effect ....
      1. Ilyich
        Ilyich 19 October 2012 00: 24 New
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        Gravity is not the only thing that is not in space. One can argue for a long time about particulars, but the fact remains: whatever the conditions, work in space will go on a rotational basis. This is the level of modern technology.
        I repeat: one hell, these are manned missiles. Do not run into.
  • SHILO 17 October 2012 11: 35 New
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    It is a pity, of course, that space is obviously not given due attention to space in Russia.
    So many projects were voiced from MAKS to the plant in orbit, and as a result zilch and accident. It is a pity, if they had taken it seriously and the people would have pulled themselves up, as for me noble goals - it’s not a shame to sweep the cosmodrome.
  • in reserve
    in reserve 17 October 2012 14: 05 New
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    In order to move on, something needs to be changed quite a real concept, provided that our rulers will not be skeptical about it. I only read similar concepts from the Americans, but our Roskosmos only offers zilch or repeats the thread after the amers as if they were “trendsetters”. Why not adopt this concept.
  • Aryan 17 October 2012 14: 09 New
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    after reading, he went on to create a cosmic environmental extremist organization “For Free Space” angry
    1. postman
      postman 17 October 2012 23: 48 New
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      Quote: Aryan
      after reading the vulgar create

      And I goеl Ionize and gasify silicon and regolith.
      there are no problems with silicon, I’m worried, they’ll pour 150 grams of lunar soil to limna ....
  • fatalist 19 October 2012 19: 22 New
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    In principle, it is possible not to ionize the moon dust, but to disperse it in some other way, for example, using an electromagnetic gun (like packing dust into metal shells to disperse it more conveniently).
    The expiration rate will most likely be lower than that of plasma engines, but the working substance in bulk ...

    The main thing is not to fall under the shelling of such an engine;)
  • ASKHAT
    ASKHAT 15 January 2013 13: 55 New
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    Added 09.01.13 10: 33
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    Please study my proposal. NASA's lunar exploration program intends to use lunar dust as a working fluid in an electric rocket engine (ERE), which can easily be mined on the moon. They have a patent for a device for collecting moon dust from the surface of the moon. An ERD using lunar dust could be used in interorbital tugs to move cargo that can be taken from low Earth orbit and delivered to the Moon or Mars. The use of lunar dust gives practically unlimited reserves of cheap working fluid, since it is cheaper to take it from the Moon than to deliver a working fluid from Earth to space. And on Mars, this dust could be generated using a simple and compact grinding machine from the local stone structure in any quantity. In accordance with the invention of NASA US 7773362 (B1), a device (method) for accelerating moon dust in an ERE is proposed. The invention describes almost all possible methods of ionization and acceleration of dusty particles. It is probably impossible to use this patent directly, because the most problematic place in the American invention is how to introduce these particles into the accelerating space of the electric propulsion, since Dust is not gas or liquid and cannot be supplied from the tank using a pump. In addition, lunar dust is very abrasive and prone to sticking together, which also makes it difficult to use any screws, conveyors for feeding it to the electric propulsion system, and especially pneumatic devices under vacuum conditions.
    In this regard, I put forward the idea of ​​a device for supplying a dusty working fluid to the electric propulsion. The essence of the proposed device is that the dust-like working fluid is packaged in separate capsules with a quick-detachable lid and a dielectric shell. These capsules are stored in a store. There is a mechanism that takes out the capsules one at a time from the store and feeds them into the accelerating space of the electric propulsion. Before entering the capsule into the ERD, the cap is discarded. Capsules can be reused. Thereby, high technological effectiveness is achieved in the storage, use and controlled supply of the dust-like working fluid to the electric propulsion. I can report in more detail about the operation of the device.
    PS I think that the use of a dusty working fluid is a promising area in space exploration.
    Contact details: engineer Askhat Garafutdinov (e-mail: [email protected]).