Military Review

Great Siege of Malta

94
Great Siege of Malta

Hospitaller flagship galley



Nice история The Order of the Hospitallers (Johnites) began as early as 1048, when the Amalfi merchant Panteleon Mauro opened the first hospital in Jerusalem, with John of Alexandria chosen as the patron saint (but later John the Baptist became the patron of the new order). The patroness of women's hospitals, which appeared later, was Mary Magdalene. The first employees of the hospitals were Benedictine monks. In 1100, the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, Gottfried of Bouillon, entrusted the care of the sick and wounded to Pierre-Gerard de Martigue, who volunteered to help 4 more knights. Martin became the first head of the Brotherhood of the Joannites - not yet an order.


Pierre-Gerard de Martigues

The Charter of the Brotherhood of Hospitallers was approved only in 1113 by Pope Paschal II. He also gave his blessing for the construction of new hospitals for pilgrims - no longer in Palestine, but in the port cities of Europe: in Sant Giles, Asti, Pisa, Bari, Otranto, Taranto, Messina.

Military Order of St. John


The Brotherhood of Hospitallers was transformed into a military order under Raymond de Puy, who headed it for 40 years (from 1120 to 1160) and became the first Grand Master (before him, the leaders of the Johnites were called rectors).


Raymond de Puy, First Master of Hospitaller

In 1130, the famous banner of the Order of the Hospitallers appeared - a white cross on a red background. In this form, it was approved by Pope Innocent II. The white color was supposed to symbolize chastity, the four directions of the cross were the main Christian virtues: prudence, justice, temperance, fortitude, and their eight branches were the blessings promised by Christ to the righteous in the Sermon on the Mount.


Banner of the Hospitallers and the arms of the masters to 1306

At the same time, a seal appeared with the image of a patient lying on a bed.


The seal of the Order of the Hospitallers and its impression

It was boring for the knights of the new order to mess around with the sick, and therefore, having transferred the care of them to the obscure "brothers", they took upon themselves the duty of military protection of the Holy Sepulcher and "fighting the infidels wherever they are found." That is, they became "colleagues" and even competitors of the Templars. In one of the chronicles of that time you can read:

“The Templars and the Hospitallers cannot tolerate each other, and the reason for this is greed for earthly goods. What one order acquires, arouses the envy of another. Members of each order individually, as they say, have renounced all property, but they want to have everything for everyone.

Of course, it was difficult to compete with the "wise Templars", but the "valiant hospitallers" tried their best. By 1180, 25 castles in Palestine were already under the control of the Order of St. John. They also had possessions in mainland Europe.

In the 1247th century, the Christian states of Palestine were in decline. In 2, the Hospitallers lost Ascalon, which they defended, Master Guillaume de Chateauneuf was captured. The Johnnites suffered heavy losses during the 1271nd battle of Gaza and in the battle of El Mansur. In 1285, the Hospitaller castle of Krak des Chevaliers fell, in 1291 - Margab. Finally, in 7, Acre was abandoned by the Christians. The wounded Master of the Hospitallers Jean de Villiers and the XNUMX surviving knights went to Cyprus - to Limassol.

Hospitallers in Cyprus and Rhodes


Until 1306, the Hospitallers were in Cyprus, and then “bought” the island of Rhodes from Genoa, which actually belonged to the Byzantines, who were driven out by the summer of 1308. In 1312, Pope Clement appointed the Hospitallers as heirs to the property of the abolished Knights Templar, however, they got a little from this “inheritance” - something that the kings of France and England could not reach. In addition to Rhodes, the Hospitallers then owned significant possessions in mainland Europe, they were especially large in France and Aragon.

The main opponents of the Johnites of Rhodes were Mamluk Egypt and Ottoman Turkey. And the order of the Hospitallers was now a naval order, its knights were no longer horsemen, but captains of warships. But the Johnites also took part in land battles, for example, in 1396, when the army of the Turkish Sultan Bayezid I defeated the crusaders at Nikopol. Master Philibert de Nayac had to ransom the prisoners for 30 ducats.

In 1424, the Hospitallers tried to help Cyprus, which was attacked by the troops of the Egyptian Sultan Barsbay, but the Christians lost during the two-year war.

But the Hospitallers managed to defend their island in 1444, when the Egyptian commander az-Zahir tried to conquer it. It became quite alarming after the fall of Constantinople in 1453: now Rhodes was at the forefront of the struggle against the Ottoman Empire. From May 1479 to August 1480, battles were fought on the island with the Turkish army under the command of the renegade Mesikha Pasha (who converted to Islam Manuel Paleolog), ending in the defeat of the Ottomans and the evacuation of their troops from Rhodes. This victory made such an impression on contemporaries that in Europe the Hospitallers began to be called "Lions of Rhodes".


"The Siege of Rhodes in 1480". Miniature. XNUMXth century

But the Johnites still had to leave Rhodes, when in 1522 the island was attacked by a new army, led by the Ottoman commander Mustafa Pasha and the famous Turkish pirate Kurdoglu. After fierce resistance on January 1, 1523, the surviving 180 members of the order, led by Master Villiers de l'Isle-Adam, left the island in three galleys.

Finding Malta


On March 24, 1530, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Habsburg made a royal gift to the Hospitallers - two islands, Malta and Gozo.


Malta and Gozo

The Johnites recognized themselves as vassals of Charles, pledged to defend the city of Tripoli in northern Africa and once a year to send a hunting falcon to the kings of Spain (this condition was observed until 1798). The governor of Tripoli was the Maltese knight Jean Parisot de la Valette, a participant in the defense of Rhodes, who in 1544 acted as an intermediary in negotiations with the Ottoman admiral Khair ad Din Barbarossa, who besieged Genoa. One of the conditions for lifting the blockade, Barbarossa set the release of Turgut (Dragut) - an authoritative pirate who previously flew under his flag, and who began his career as a corsair under the leadership of the "great Jew from Smyrna" - Sinan Pasha.

Turgut was captured in 1540, already being the Ottoman governor of the "resort" island of Djerba. A ransom of 3 gold ducats was paid for Turgut, and contemporaries later called this deal "the most successful purchase of Barbarossa." Having received a squadron of ships from this admiral, Turgut, who missed his favorite job, immediately captured the Corsican city of Bonifaccio and attacked the island of Gozo, which belonged to Malta. In the next 500, he sacked the Italian cities of Monterosso, Corniglia, Manarola and Riomaggiore, Rappalo and Levante, in 1545 he successfully attacked the Tunisian cities of Sfax, Sousse and Monastir.

Since that time, Turgut in the Ottoman Empire began to be called the "Sword of Islam". When the great admiral Khair-ad-Din Barbarossa died in Constantinople in 1546, it was Turgut who began to be considered his successor. The new hero of the Ottoman Empire and the Maghreb in 1547 attacked Malta, Apulia and Calabria, in 1548 he received the post of Beylerbey of Algeria, marking this appointment with an attack on Campania. Well, he “thanked” the governor of Tripoli, La Valetta: he captured the Maltese galley La Caterinetta, which was carrying 7 escudos allocated to finance work to strengthen the walls of Tripoli. New funds could not be raised, and in 1549 La Valette returned to Malta, and Tripoli fell in 1551.

In 1557, when Jean Parisot de la Valette was elected master, he was already 67 years old.


La Valette in a portrait by an unknown master, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

It was he who was to lead the defense of Malta during the Great Siege of this island, and one of his opponents was an old acquaintance - Turgut-reis. By this time, Turgut had already managed, on the orders of the Sultan, in 1552-1554. to fight for the French king Henry II: he then defeated the combined Spanish-Italian fleet of Charles V near the island of Ponza, captured the Calabrian cities of Corrotone and Castello, ravaged Sicily, Sardinia, Capri and Corsica. And in 1560, squadrons of three renegades - the Asia Minor Greek Turgut, the Hungarian or Croat Piyale Pasha and the Calabrian Uludzha Ali, defeated the fleet of the Spanish king Philip II (son of Charles V), who had captured Djerba. From the bones and skulls of the Spaniards who defended this island, a pyramid was built, which lasted until 1846.


Monument to Turgut-reis in his hometown (embankment of the Sabanci park). Since 1972, this city has been named after the famous native - Turgutreis, located near the Turkish Bodrum

Now, following the order of Sultan Suleiman I, 80-year-old Turgut hurried to Malta. It is here that this famous Ottoman admiral will find his death.

Knights of Malta and renegades of the Ottoman Empire


The Maltese hospitallers, preserving the traditions of Rhodes, immediately began to annoy the Ottomans at sea, intercepting merchant ships and engaging in battles with Turkish warships. Particularly successful was Mathurin d'Aux de Lescout, better known as Romegas - from the name of the town La Romieu (same root with the word arroumîu - "pilgrim"), where his family's estate was located. By the same principle, we would have called a successful ushkuinist Peter of Novgorod or Ivan Porkhovchanin.

Mathurin de Lescaut was a Gascon nobleman who received the title of Knight Hospitaller in 1546, becoming the captain of a battle galley (at this time he was about 20 years old). Meanwhile, the crew of a large Maltese galley then ranged from 400 to 500 people, of which 18 sailed and 255 sat at the oars. The position of the senior rower was called tormentor - literally translated as “executioner” (recall that another name for the galley is “penal servitude”, a word that has become a household word). In Italy, the senior rower was often called a comit, in Arab countries and in Turkey, an algwazil.

By the way, in the slave market of Malta (there was one, where captured Berbers and Turks were sold), the cost of a slave fit to be a galley rower averaged 144 ecu. Their purchase was carried out at the expense of funds obtained by the Maltese corsairs and donations from European aristocrats. But only 70% of the rowers were slaves, another 15% were convicted criminals (convicts), but the rest were civilian employees (one can imagine what state a person had to reach in order to decide to get such a job). Sometimes convicts who had served their time remained in the galleys, who had nowhere to go. There were about a hundred soldiers in the big galleys. In addition, the crew included 6 gunsmiths, two barbers, a clerk, a carpenter and a cabin boy.


Galley on a Malta postage stamp issued in 1910

They say that before the battle on the Maltese galleys they tried to put wine, bread and cheese along the sides - it was believed that a person going to his death should not be hungry. However, such a tradition also existed in other states, although it was not always observed. It is known that the products were displayed on the ships of the Holy League before the Battle of Lepanto.

In 1556, Romegas (together with a pet monkey) miraculously survived a terrible storm that drowned many galleys in the Grand Harbor of Malta: waiting for help, he had to stand chest-deep in water for several hours in an air bubble formed under the keel of an overturned ship. In 1563, Romegas captured a large ship carrying the sanjakbey of Cairo, later ransomed for 18 ducats. In 1564, he participated in the campaign of Philip II in Morocco, which ended in the capture of Badis. In 1571, during the battle of Lepanto, he commanded the admiral's galley of Pope Pius V (the pontiff, of course, was in Rome at that time). When, at the last review before the battle, Juan wished to know the opinion of an experienced Maltese in maritime affairs, he said:

“If the emperor, your father, had seen such a fleet as ours, he would not have stopped until he also became the emperor of Constantinople.”

In 1575, Romegas became the commander of all fleet galleys of Malta, in 1576 - Grand Prior of Toulouse, in 1577 - Deputy (Lieutenant) of the Master, who was then Jean de la Casier. La Casier, unlike Romegas, was unpopular in Malta and did not enjoy authority. In 1581, he was deposed from the post of master and imprisoned in Fort Sant'Angelo, and Romegas became the "anti-grandmaster." Pope Gregory XIII did not recognize Romegas as a master, and many believe that he was poisoned in Rome, where he arrived for negotiations. Romegas died on November 4, 1581. But we're going back 17 years.

In 1564, Romegas captured 4 large Turkish ships, but one of them was of particular importance. In April of that year, the squadrons of Romegas and Pietro di Gio tracked down and intercepted a large Turkish galleon between the islands of Zakynthos and Kefalonia, heading from Constantinople to Venice. The ship belonged to Kustir-aga, the chief eunuch of the harem of Sultan Suleiman I, whom the Turks call Kanuni (Legislator), and the Europeans call him the Magnificent. 200 janissaries were allocated to protect the ship and the cargo it carried (some of the goods belonged to the sultan's wives and his daughters). The naval battle lasted 5 hours and ended with the victory of the Maltese. In Syracuse, where the Ottoman galleon was brought, the goods from its holds were valued at 80 ducats.

But this was not enough: among the passengers of the galleon were the governors of Cairo and Alexandria, as well as a friend (according to other sources, a doctor) of one of the daughters of Suleiman I. The capture of this ship was declared a personal insult to the Sultan, and on May 18, 1565, the Ottoman army landed in Malta , which was headed by the fourth vizier Mustafa Pasha Kizilahmetli.


Kizilahmetli Mustafa Pasha during the siege of Malta. Behind him stands Turgut-reis. Detail of a fresco by Matteo Pérez Aleccio, Palace of the Grand Masters of the Order of Malta

Piyale Pasha, either a Hungarian or a Croat, who came to Turkey as a child after the Battle of Mohacs (August 29, 1526), ​​was appointed Admiral of the Fleet, on whose ships Mustafa's army sailed. He was converted to Islam and made an amazing career, becoming the third person in the empire and the husband of Selim's daughter, the granddaughter of Suleiman the Magnificent and Roksolana.


Bust of Piyale Pasha, Istanbul, Naval Museum

The remark of the Grand Vizier Semiz Ali, who apparently did not like Piyali and Mustafa, is curious:

“Two cheerful gentlemen, great lovers of opium and coffee, are going to have fun on the islands. I'm willing to bet that the entire contents of the holds of their ships consists of Arabic (coffee) beans and poppies.

A few days after the arrival of Mustafa and Piyali Pasha in Malta, they were joined by the Bey of Tripolitania Turgut Reis, who at that time was already 80 years old.

In total, 193 Ottoman ships came to the shores of Malta: galleys - 131, galliots - 7, galleasses - 4, transport dhows - 51. They were joined by corsair galleys and shebeks, which were brought by the Calabrian Giovanni Dionigi Galeni, who adopted the name Uluj Ali after converting to Islam - 75 ships. Together with the crews of the ships, the total number of Ottoman troops reached 35 thousand people (including 6 thousand Janissaries and 9 thousand cavalrymen).

They were opposed by about 9 thousand defenders of Malta, among whom were 592 knights-hospitals, up to 500 sailors of galleys and the same number of slave rowers who were promised freedom, almost 6 thousand Maltese militias, more than 1 Spanish soldiers, about 200 Greek and Sicilian volunteers . The fleet of the order, with the exception of a few galleys, left for Sicily.

Siege of Malta


The Ottoman fleet approached Malta on May 18, 1565, and on the 23rd, the bombardment of Fort San Elmo began, which covered two narrow bays, preventing Ottoman ships from approaching Fort St. Angelo and the city of Birge.


The Ottomans had an advantage in artillery. Maltese guns fired cannonballs weighing 4,5 kg, the flight range did not exceed a kilometer. The Turks also brought large siege weapons, the weight of the cores of which reached 70 kg, they hit a distance of three kilometers. Two bombards stood out in particular, the cores of which, according to the Italian arquebusier Francesco Balbi di Correggio, "buried into the ground for thirty palms."


La Valletta, view from above. At the top left is the island of Manoel, at the top right is Dragut Point, this is the name of the place where one of the batteries of Turgut-Reis was located, this is the place of the alleged death of the admiral

But the Maltese very effectively used Greek fire against the Turks going to storm, the secret of which they managed to learn in Byzantium.

The Ottomans tried to dig under the walls and lay mines under the walls. It is claimed that they also built a huge mobile siege tower, which the Maltese managed to shoot with shells from the halves of the core connected by a chain, usually used to break ship sails and equipment: by concentrating fire on the base of the tower, they made it collapse.

Fort St. Elmo was defended by 120 knights of Malta and a detachment of 400 Spaniards. The Turks expected to take possession of this fleet in a week, but its defenders held out for a whole month.


Mattia Perez d'Aleccio. The siege of St Elmo

It was here that Turgut-reis was killed - either with a cannonball, or with a piece of stone that fell into the eye. He was buried in Tripoli.


"The death of Turgut." Detail of the mural “La presa di S. Elmo”, Grand Hall of the Grandmasters Palace, La Valletta

Turgut was replaced by another famous renegade, Uluj Ali, who later successfully fought on his flank during the Battle of Lepanto and quickly rebuilt and reformed the Ottoman fleet, which had suffered heavy losses.

Three days before the fall of San Elmo, one of the knights made his way to La Valetta, who brought a letter from the commandant with a proposal to break out of the doomed fort. The master's response was extremely harsh:

“You took an oath by joining the order. You swore on your honor that you would sacrifice your lives where and when needed. It is time for our brothers in San Elmo to sacrifice themselves."

Upon learning of this, 5 more knights and 50 soldiers voluntarily went to Fort St. Elmo along with the messenger.

Almost all the soldiers of the garrison of this fort died on June 23, with the exception of five people who jumped into the water and nine who were taken prisoner, but the Turks lost up to 8 thousand soldiers. Looking at the ruins of the captured San Elmo Fort, Mustafa Pasha said:

“If this small fortress cost so much, then how much will the big one cost”?

He offered La Valette an honorable surrender and, having been refused, ordered the beheaded bodies of the slain knights to be crucified: at high tide, they were sent on rafts to Fort Sant'Angelo, where La Valette was with the main forces. The master in response ordered to cut off the heads of the captured Turks and shoot them in the direction of the enemies.
On the day of the fall of Fort St. Elmo, galleys (2 order and 2 Sicilian) managed to approach Malta unnoticed, delivering reinforcements - 42 knights of the order, 25 volunteers from Italy and Germany and 600 Spanish soldiers.

On August 7, the Turks almost captured the fort of St. Michael and the city of Birgu, but the governor of Mdina (at that time the capital of the island) noticed that the Ottoman camp was left without protection. He sent only a hundred cavalrymen to attack him, who planted one foot soldier behind him. The success of this attack exceeded all expectations: having dispersed the servants and killed the wounded, the Maltese set fire to the camp, which caused confusion in the attacking Ottoman troops. Deciding that Christian reinforcements had arrived on the island and that a blow from the rear was about to follow, the Turks stopped the assault. When the commander realized that a minor diversion had taken place, it was already too late.

And a month later, on September 7, a detachment really arrived in Malta, consisting of the soldiers of the Viceroy of Sicily, Don Garcia de Toledo, the hospitalists of the European commanderies and the knights of the Order of Santiago de Campostelo. Mustafa Pasha at first gave the order to land his army on ships, but, having specified the number of troops that had arrived, he decided to join the battle. On September 8, the Turkish troops, weakened by a long siege, were defeated, losing about a thousand people, and Mustafa Pasha gave the final order to evacuate the island.

The Ottomans sailed from Malta on September 11, losing in 4 months, according to various estimates, from 10 to 35 thousand people. Sultan Suleiman, who learned about the defeat, consoled himself with the words:

“Only with me my armies achieve triumph!”

However, he nevertheless demoted Mustafa. But his favorite Piyale Pasha retained his position and fully justified the trust of the Sultan: already in April of the following year, he captured the islands of Chios and Naxos, and then plundered the coast of Apulia.

The losses of the Hospitallers and their allies ranged from three to six thousand people, including 260 knights.

La Valletta


On March 28, 1566, a new city was founded in Malta, which became the capital of the island. It was designed by the Italian architect Francesco Laparelli in such a way that the streets were blown and refreshed by the sea breeze, and the houses had a centralized sewerage system. The city was named after the master who defended the island - Valletta.

Fall of Malta


The history of the Order of the Hospitallers was still going on. There were many battles and victories ahead, crossed out by the shameful surrender of the last master Ferdinand von Gompesch to Bonaparte on June 12, 1798. Meanwhile, the Corsican did not have time to besiege Valletta, and the fortress itself, on the walls of which there were 1 cannons, was so good that the French general Caffarelli, after examining it, said:

"It's good that there were people inside to open the gate for us."
Author:
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 4 August 2022 06: 04
    +5
    There were many battles and victories ahead, crossed out by the shameful surrender of the last master Ferdinand von Gompesch to Bonaparte on June 12, 1798.
    By that time, the Knights of Malta had "fallen into insignificance".
    - He became old, lazy.
    Do you remember what I was? - There were times "(c) smile .
    1. astra wild2
      astra wild2 4 August 2022 07: 40
      0
      "there were times" - "everything flows, everything changes" once young men turned into decrepit grumblers. Once the United Party of Leninists forgot the teachings of V. I. Lenin and degenerates into sycophants
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 4 August 2022 15: 16
        +4
        Well, once upon a time there were no ethnic conflicts, they didn’t cut a friend, a friend, how much in vain in the interests of the national oligarchs.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 5 August 2022 11: 05
          +1
          how much in vain in the interests of national oligarchs

          I would add - small-town oligarchs with primitive thinking.
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 4 August 2022 06: 14
    +6
    The seal of the Order of the Hospitallers and its impression
    I'll make adjustments. These are prints of two different seals. (On the seals, the letters and inscriptions are mirrored to the prints.) The first belongs to the club of reenactors from Smolensk.
    Thank you, Valery!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 4 August 2022 14: 28
      +3
      The patroness of women's hospitals, which appeared later, was Mary Magdalene.

      Hi, hello! smile I rummaged through the net and found an interesting picture of the "Penitent Mary Magdalene", I had not seen it before, somehow I got used to Titianova more. Unfortunately, the author is not indicated, do you know whose work this is?

      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 4 August 2022 14: 39
        +3
        Hi Uncle Kostya!
        I won’t say offhand, but there’s no time to look.
        If you were to ask something about the Impressionists...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 4 August 2022 14: 44
          +2
          They somehow were not fond of such topics. It's a pity, I like the work of these guys. smile
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 4 August 2022 15: 24
            +2
            A wonderful impressionist artist Sergei Stepanov lives and works in St. Petersburg. Ask...
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 4 August 2022 15: 27
              +2
              Thanks, I will look. smile
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 4 August 2022 15: 31
              +2
              Good for real
              From the Neva water, it’s already frosty.



              I called Masha, she is just delighted. smile
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 4 August 2022 15: 38
                +2
                I saw his paintings live, in the hotel that we are repairing hung, you could even buy.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 August 2022 16: 15
                  +2
                  Yes, live is worth it. Did not buy?
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 4 August 2022 16: 23
                    +1
                    Well, where do I go, to a rented hut? To stand in the corner and gather dust? Let people watch. One really caught on, Petropavlovka, from a bird's eye view, in monochrome (well, like the one I cited, "Five Corners")
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 4 August 2022 16: 36
                      +1
                      Petropavlovka was never found. But here is this one. good

                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 4 August 2022 16: 59
                        +1
                        I didn't find this picture online either. Her photo remained on the previous phone, maybe someday I'll get it. By the way, I posted it on the forum three years ago.
                      2. Alf
                        Alf 4 August 2022 18: 22
                        +3
                        Quote: 3x3zsave
                        I didn't find this picture online either.

      2. parusnik
        parusnik 4 August 2022 17: 33
        +6
        Good evening! Does she really repent? Not an ounce of remorse on my face
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 4 August 2022 17: 42
          +4
          Hi Aleksey! And you need it, this is repentance, she is good in her repentance without it. wink
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 4 August 2022 17: 51
            +4
            Where is the repentance? There's fun smile
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 4 August 2022 17: 55
              +3
              That's what I'm talking about. You enjoy looking at her "repentance". laughing
              1. parusnik
                parusnik 4 August 2022 17: 57
                +4
                Then this is a portrait of a non-repentant Mary Magdalene.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 August 2022 18: 18
                  +2
                  What difference does it make, the girl is good, what else do you need?
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 5 August 2022 11: 06
                    +2
                    What difference does it make, the girl is good, what else do you need?

                    Stanislavsky would have looked at the portrait with repentance, and barked: "I don't believe it!" laughing
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 5 August 2022 14: 28
                      +2
                      Stanislavsky himself was still that fruit, remember Bulgakov's Theatrical Novel. wink
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 4 August 2022 17: 56
              +3
              Where is the repentance? There's fun

              Destroy all canons-stereotypes, sinner! laughing drinks
              1. parusnik
                parusnik 4 August 2022 17: 59
                +4
                No, I just doubt that this "poltret" of the penitent Mary Magdalene has been reviewed by many, but this one somehow does not pull, and it is not among the portraits of the same name.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 August 2022 18: 16
                  +3
                  and he is not among the portraits of the same name.


                  There is, you just looked in the wrong place or inattentively. If I do gag here, I always warn about it. And this work was signed exactly like that, and what she actually does there is a question for the artist, but the name of the author was not there. request
                  1. parusnik
                    parusnik 4 August 2022 18: 31
                    +4
                    Then the author, in the studio
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 4 August 2022 18: 36
                      +1
                      Alexei, if you want, then see for yourself, I'm just too lazy. I liked the picture and I posted it, but if you need details, then this is no longer for me. smile
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 5 August 2022 06: 17
                      +3
                      "Italian Natale Schiavoni just became famous for erotic portraits of women." ©
                      1. parusnik
                        parusnik 5 August 2022 06: 28
                        +4
                        Penitent Magdalene (1852)
                        Oil on canvas, 151128. Berggruen Museum. Berlin.

                        Magdalene repents
                        In my sins now.
                        Hurry, she's thoughtful
                        With a crucifix in hand.

                        She sits thoughtfully
                        Lowering the crucifix.
                        And Magdalene repents,
                        Yes, to the best of my ability.

                        And repents, and toils,
                        About life path.
                        Oh what has been lived
                        Oh, what can't be saved.

                        And he wants to get better.
                        To be clean again.
                        And Magdalene repents,
                        Remorse stamp.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 5 August 2022 14: 36
                        +1
                        In general, he has not only nudes, but also enough portraits, and very good ones, but women are always written out very gently. smile

      3. Alf
        Alf 4 August 2022 18: 16
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        The patroness of women's hospitals, which appeared later, was Mary Magdalene.

        Hi, hello! smile I rummaged through the net and found an interesting picture of the "Penitent Mary Magdalene", I had not seen it before, somehow I got used to Titianova more. Unfortunately, the author is not indicated, do you know whose work this is?


        Good evening, Konstantin! Looking at the picture, I did not understand, is it necessary to repent undressed? No, the view pleases the eye, but still, still...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 4 August 2022 18: 22
          +2
          Good evening, Vasily! smile
          I believe that there, Above, it makes no difference in what form a person brings repentance. She wanted to do it naked - so good, if only she did it.
          1. Alf
            Alf 4 August 2022 18: 27
            +3
            Quote: Sea Cat
            I believe that there, Above, it makes no difference in what form a person brings repentance.

            So let her repent dressed, so as not to introduce other penitents into temptation. laughing
            Or from above it is pleasant to look at such upwards. ?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 4 August 2022 18: 33
              +3
              Or from above it is pleasant to look at such upwards.


              Who knows... request

              In addition, before repentance, she was a harlot, and, perhaps, she is simply used to being in this form.
              1. Alf
                Alf 4 August 2022 18: 35
                +2
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Maybe she's just used to being like this.

                Work uniform ?
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 August 2022 18: 37
                  +2
                  Something like. Well, made me laugh! good laughing laughing laughing
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 4 August 2022 18: 43
                    +2
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    Something like. Well, made me laugh! good laughing laughing laughing

                    Yes, and around the intimate twilight ...
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 4 August 2022 19: 13
                      +2
                      And with complete darkness it is in no way possible, the client will not appreciate the goods. laughing
                      1. Alf
                        Alf 4 August 2022 19: 37
                        +2
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        And with complete darkness it is in no way possible, the client will not appreciate the goods. laughing

                        "What about love at first sight?
                        I have poor eyesight, I'm used to touch .. "
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 August 2022 19: 49
                        +2
                        I'm used to it."


                        Well, this is one of the components, to look, feel, smell ...
                        though the latter is sometimes redundant. laughing
          2. VLR
            4 August 2022 18: 46
            +4
            There is no repentance here, as in many other paintings of this type, for the simple reason that she is sitting with her hair untidy. According to church canons, a penitent must have a scarf. But during the Renaissance, under the guise of saints, light "pornography" was painted to customers (in the view of that time) - and they "tore it off with their hands." Like Sapkowski in "Jester's Tower":
            "The picture was almost completely finished and depicted St. Sebastian ... standing at the pillar, still smiling with inspiration, despite the numerous arrows stuck in the stomach and torso of the ephebe ... standing, hanging so luxuriously an extremely thick shame that this picture any man was supposed to evoke a sense of his own inferiority.
            “Special order,” Shimon Unger explained. – For the Cistercian convent in Trzebnica. "
            1. VLR
              4 August 2022 19: 00
              +2
              By the way, this gay cockerel is John the Baptist, written by Leonard da Vinci.


              Still, the inquisitors sometimes underworked smile
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 4 August 2022 19: 12
                +2
                Yes, the Baptist is good, neither subtract nor add. belay
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 4 August 2022 20: 28
                  +3
                  Yes, the Baptist is good, neither subtract nor add.

                  Judging by the work of da Vinci, he had well-developed fine motor skills of the index finger of his right hand ... what
                  He, as if with all his appearance, provocatively says:
                  - And who else has a massage ... the right places ... fellow
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 August 2022 22: 10
                    +1
                    - And who else has a massage ... the right places ...


                    On fig! Let Pinocchio massage. wassat

      4. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 5 August 2022 11: 42
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        whose job is this?

        Natale Schiavonne.(1777-1858)
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 5 August 2022 14: 30
          +1
          Thanks Ivan, got it sorted. smile
      5. Fat
        Fat 6 August 2022 08: 23
        +1
        hi Hello Konstantin. Hello everyone. Found an artist. smile
        This is Natale Schiavoni (1777 - 1858) painter and engraver.
        Read more here. https://www.liveinternet.ru/users/lara_rimmer/post430030928/
        PS For some reason, the site considered my short story unacceptable for publication. belay
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 6 August 2022 08: 28
          +1
          Hi Andrew. hi Understood. smile
  3. astra wild2
    astra wild2 4 August 2022 07: 54
    +4
    Good morning, Valery, what was the pretext for turning the Hospitallers into a militant order?
    After all, there must be some reason, for example: Your Holiness, the hospital in Jerusalem was attacked by the wicked and the brothers had to take up arms.
    Your Holiness, let us have a weapon, so that and so on.
    1. know
      know 4 August 2022 08: 48
      +3
      Yes, it was boring and disgusting, probably, for noble gentlemen to take out pots for the sick. For this, there are the ignorant. Here on a horse in a beautiful raincoat to show off - yes. Fight the Saracens. This is worthy of a knight from a "good family", the youngest son, who does not shine with an inheritance. Him at best - in some abbots. And here is such a completely normal perspective. And you can rise to the rank of commander, and to the master, if you're lucky, and you'll sit at the same table with kings and dukes. And professional warriors brought up from childhood like knights - they are always and everywhere needed. No suggestion is needed.
    2. Senior seaman
      Senior seaman 5 August 2022 11: 45
      +1
      Quote: Astra wild2
      Your Holiness, the hospital in Jerusalem was attacked by the wicked and the brothers had to take up arms.

      A completely common story in those days, even in Europe, because the monks constantly had to have weapons to defend their monasteries.
      1. astra wild2
        astra wild2 5 August 2022 12: 34
        +1
        In order to defend my monasteries, "the only thing I can remember is:" Sacred Relic "there was already a conversation about it, it shows the wars of Ivo Schenkenberg
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 5 August 2022 13: 01
          +2
          Quote: Astra wild2
          "Holy Relic"

          The last relic, with your permission :))
          Quote: Astra wild2
          Ivo Schenkenberg's wars

          This is already the 16th century. reformation.
          And then 12-13th. Times are even less severe.
          Why do you think the monasteries looked like fortresses?
          1. astra wild2
            astra wild2 5 August 2022 13: 17
            +1
            You are right, but I don’t remember a film about that period, so that there were: monasteries and garrisons
          2. Romario_Argo
            Romario_Argo 5 August 2022 13: 45
            0
            by the way, in Russia, in various principalities there were Church troops under the leadership of the Bishops, monasteries acted as garrisons
            Moscow-Novgorod war - there are descriptions
            during the battle of Kulikovo there was a church regiment of 500 people
            in Moscow there were firemen - an analogue of archers - the guards of the Moscow patriarch
  4. know
    know 4 August 2022 08: 51
    +4
    What a character - Romegas! The finished hero of an adventurous novel or film. Far from him Johnnidepp's Jack Sparrow with his gay hairstyle.
  5. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 4 August 2022 09: 12
    +4
    There were many battles and victories ahead, crossed out by the shameful surrender of the last master Ferdinand von Hompesch
    This is far from true. The garrison of Malta was motley. Knights, mercenaries, local militias. Many of the garrison sympathized with the French, being French by origin. The Spanish knights, who, it would seem, God himself ordered to be ardent defenders of the Catholic faith, almost without exception sabotaged the defense of Malta, they barricaded themselves in their barracks. And the Maltese knight Philip de Amata, the attorney of the King of Spain in Malta, represented his sovereign as an intermediary when signing the Act of Surrender on the surrender of Malta to the French. And yet, at first, when the French landed troops, the Maltese successfully opposed the French. Then, the shelling of the city began, riots arose The Grand Council of the Order, decided to surrender.
    1. VLR
      4 August 2022 09: 20
      +6
      The main reason is the cowardice of the master and his entourage. The fortress was strong, Bonaparte did not have time - Nelson was looking for him and could come up at any moment. The Corsican bluffed, "to fright" took.
      1. kor1vet1974
        kor1vet1974 4 August 2022 10: 16
        +3
        Well, well, let's not be so categorical, Malta fell due to internal troubles. This is in the sense that when there is no agreement among the comrades, their business will not work out. The French, too, did not particularly resist. And they are guilty of their actions. They caused an uprising of the townspeople, who blocked them in the castle, and there were still the British nearby. Blaming only the master and his entourage for the surrender is somehow not serious. There are many reasons.
        1. VLR
          4 August 2022 14: 27
          +2
          But, nevertheless, it seems that if the master had shown firmness, Bonaparte would not have stormed the fortress and would have left Malta very quickly. I would say: we actually, after all, we are sailing to Egypt, but just like that, we came here to drink some water. And they didn’t even intend to grab anything from you. Because this sea passage itself was a terrible adventure and could end in disaster in the event of a meeting with Nelson's squadron. Bonaparte was very lucky, but even he understood that there was a limit to any luck and staying off the coast of Malta was suicide.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 4 August 2022 16: 40
            +2
            In general, at the very least, so Pal Petrovich became the Grand Master. hi A Priory was built in Gatchina, and Suvorov and Ushakov went to distribute to the French ... As a result, for the first time in many years, a Greek state was formed - the Republic of the Seven Islands, and its constitution was personally written by Admiral Ushakov in Thecalonia, oh, sorry, Kefalonia. The memory of Ushakov is honored there - a bust was erected on Zakynthos (a neighboring island, to the south).

            Pavel the First personally imposes on Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov the signs of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem.

            Anton and I saw this miniature at an exhibition in Gatchina in January 2020.

            Pavel's master's rank is also underlined on the monument in the courtyard of the Mikhailovsky Castle, the work of the 2000s. Russian crown, boots, and .. Maltese crosses!
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 4 August 2022 17: 19
              +2
              in Thecalonia, oh sorry, Kefalonia.
              Eco on you Zakynthos worked!
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 4 August 2022 17: 53
                +1
                Eco on you Zakynthos worked!

                From Zakynthos, Kefalonia is clearly visible, especially since we were taken to the port of St. Nicholas - a small village in the north of the island, from where we went by boat along the coast to the blue caves. This is just the strait between Zakynthos and Kefalonia.
                By the way, Alexander our "ee2100" also had a rest in the port of St. Nicholas! Just in Cyprus (or did I mess with Crete?). Apparently, the Greeks love this saint - although he is perhaps the most preferred among us. Greeks are generally quite religious.
                In Kefalonia, as far as I understand, there are few sights. They, however, are so-so in Zakynthos. Fort - yes, impressive.
                From recent history - it was on Kefalonia in 1943 that the "massacre of the Acqui division" took place, and not a single Jew was handed over to the Germans during the war on Zakynthos! When the invaders demanded to provide them with a list, they received it .. and there were only two signatures - the governor and the bishop. After that, the Germans shut up with their racial theories. Jews remember this too.
          2. Alexander Salenko
            Alexander Salenko 4 August 2022 20: 01
            +2
            Bonaparte, yes, but his fleet is still not very good in the end. Nelson, although late, the fleet sought out.
            Thank you for the article.
          3. Mikhail Drabkin
            Mikhail Drabkin 6 August 2022 05: 26
            0
            VLR:

            Thanks to the author for an interesting, illustrated, professional essay!
            5 ++
  6. Arkady007
    Arkady007 4 August 2022 09: 33
    +3
    Knights of the Order of Malta were Suvorov and Pavel I /

    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 4 August 2022 16: 43
      +1
      Knights of the Order of Malta were Suvorov and Pavel I /

      Arkady, let me clarify a little. Paul the First was not just a knight - he was the Grand Master. See my comment above. With respect, Nicholai. hi
  7. Korsar4
    Korsar4 4 August 2022 10: 25
    +3
    The history of the world is filled with beautiful nuances. Such as, for example, the Maltese falcon.
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 4 August 2022 12: 19
      +5
      "Hudsoo Hawk"
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 4 August 2022 18: 37
        +1
        What birds just did not file in the history of cinema.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 4 August 2022 14: 13
      +4
      Or an earpiece, or, simply speaking, a Novgorod pirate. laughing



      Good day, buddy! smile
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 4 August 2022 18: 36
        +3
        Greetings, Constantine!

        For example, Vasily Buslaev is good for his dashing.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 4 August 2022 18: 37
          +3
          And is he a nerd too?
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 4 August 2022 18: 46
            +3
            Yes. And from the family of ushkuynikov. And himself, by and large, Ushkuynik.
            1. VLR
              4 August 2022 18: 51
              +4
              Vasily Buslaev’s father was just quiet, this is emphasized in the epic
              Nothing is reported about the grandfather and great-grandfather, maybe they were naughty on the sly.
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 4 August 2022 19: 16
              +3
              Family tradition is great! wink

              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 4 August 2022 21: 23
                +2
                “I found out that I have
                There is a huge family:
                And the path and the line
                In the field, every spikelet ”(c).
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 4 August 2022 22: 07
                  +3
                  We were not sown or reaped anywhere.
                  The farmers didn't respect us.
                  We sow ourselves everywhere
                  So that lazy mouths
                  The fields were rubbish.

                  We are handsome and tall.
                  Brave guys are weeds.
                  We will oats, we will grind wheat,
                  Let's destroy the corn
                  And the fields will remain dust.

                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 5 August 2022 00: 11
                    +3
                    - Guys, who will they give the cake to? - Corn, queen of the fields
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 5 August 2022 00: 40
                      +3
                      And you will sing about the light in your favorite window,
                      About the stars that burn in silence above the horizon
                      And you will sing, and the maples will sigh softly,
                      And again, the guys from our yard will sing along to you.
  8. Albert Brecht
    Albert Brecht 4 August 2022 14: 27
    +1
    I remember, and what I did with my own, and not only, life, is incomprehensible to the mind. In the end, it remains to remember only a couple of moments. And in order to have at least a little more of them, a kick in the ass is simply necessary: ​​"Am I trembling or have the right ?!"
  9. Albert Brecht
    Albert Brecht 4 August 2022 14: 29
    +1
    merged somewhere, it's nervous, we'll add it separately wink
  10. Albert Brecht
    Albert Brecht 4 August 2022 14: 33
    +1
    Yeah, it’s not added, but this is a well-known diminutive and not affectionate from a creative person
  11. Catfish
    Catfish 4 August 2022 14: 40
    +4
    Hello everyone and best wishes! smile

    Since the author also writes about galleys, here is an image of two Maltese galleys.




    And this is the Ottoman fleet of that time.

  12. Obolensky
    Obolensky 4 August 2022 15: 48
    +1
    That's lovely! I read it with great pleasure, thanks to the Author!

    For some reason, the story about different knightly orders attracts me ....

    And like now hospitallers still exist?
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 4 August 2022 16: 50
      +3
      Yes, it exists, but they were pinched great. For example, after the surrender of Malta through the mediation of a knight of Malta, a Spanish subject, the lands of the order in Spain were confiscated by the Spanish king, the Bourbons were then still in power.
      1. Obolensky
        Obolensky 4 August 2022 18: 35
        +2
        Thanks for the information!
    2. VLR
      4 August 2022 19: 04
      +5
      Currently, the Order of Hospitallers has more than 10 thousand members, second only to the Jesuits. The Order includes 6 Grand Priories (Rome, Venice, Sicily, Austria, Czech Republic, England) and 54 national commanders (including in Russia).
      1. Obolensky
        Obolensky 5 August 2022 08: 43
        +1
        I heard that they remained, but I did not know about such details. Thank you very much for the information. It is especially interesting that one of the commanders in Russia. Did not know. I'll have to look up information about them.
  13. Thunderbolt
    Thunderbolt 4 August 2022 17: 56
    +3
    The position of the senior rower was called tormentor - literally translated as "executioner" (recall that another name for the galley is "penal servitude", a word that has become a household word). ....... But only 70% of the rowers were slaves, another 15% were convicted criminals (convicts), but the rest were civilian employees (one can imagine what state a person had to reach in order to decide to get such a job) .
    On September 7, a detachment arrived in Malta, consisting of the soldiers of the Viceroy of Sicily, Don Garcia de Toledo, the hospitaliers of the European commanderies and Knights of the Order of Santiago de Campostelo.
    The Great Military Order of the Sword of St. James of Compostela had a very severe custom. Do you want to become a knight? Excellent ! Bury six months in a galley to begin with, and only then the Council will consider your candidacy. Some did so, although most applicants simply paid in cash and immediately became knights. I consider the first path a manifestation of great courage and true nobility. The Spanish nobleman erased his hand to bloody calluses, then a rough but firm hand controlled a heavy oar for months. And then the Great Order put a sword into this iron palm. And in this sword there was not only the firmness of the hand, but also great fortitude.