Military Review

Non-atomic does not mean second-rate. Directions for the development of non-nuclear submarines in the fleets of foreign states

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Non-atomic does not mean second-rate. Directions for the development of non-nuclear submarines in the fleets of foreign states

Swedish nuclear submarine "Gotland" at sea.



- Do you have the same one, only without wings, do you have it?
- No.
- Will seek!

The long-term lack of information about the progress of the construction of our Project 677D Lada nuclear submarines and about the progress of another Project 777A Kalina nuclear submarine makes sailors worry about our shipbuilders. This is all the more relevant given the ongoing fleets foreign states of qualitative changes in the construction of submarines of this type.

Therefore, I propose to see what our "incredible" partners and counterparts are doing in this direction.

A bit of history


The fact that non-nuclear submarines in capable hands are formidable weapons, has been proven in practice during the combat training of NATO naval ships.

The first bell sounded when, in 1999, the Valrus nuclear submarine of the Netherlands Navy, during the ITFEX-99 international exercises, photographed 9 security ships and the CVN-71 Theodore Roosevelt AVM from close range through the periscope. In this case, the boat remained unnoticed. Then it was considered an unfortunate accident.

In 2003, Swedish submariners confirmed the high combat capabilities of the NNS when their Stirling-diesel-electric submarine of the A19 Gotland project, during the exercises of the joint NATO naval forces in the Mediterranean Sea, won the underwater martial arts first from the Spanish SSN, and then sequentially from the French nuclear submarine of the " Rubis", and then the American nuclear submarine SSN-713 Houston of the Los Angeles type.

And in 2005, the Gotland nuclear submarine during the Joint Task Exercise 06-2 exercise was able to unnoticed break through the outposts of the American Ronald Reagan AVM and carry out its conditional torpedoing. The photo report presented by the Swedes convincingly confirmed the complete fiasco of the ASW system of the aircraft carrier formation. This forced the Yankees to seriously study the combat capabilities of the NNS as a subclass of submarines.

The Americans approached this issue very seriously and for two years signed a contract with the Swedish side for leasing the Gotland nuclear submarine for its detailed study at the US Navy anti-submarine warfare center (ASW). The submarine was delivered to San Diego on a transport ship, where it confirmed its high tactical qualities and technical characteristics 6 times during the exercises, breaking through anti-submarine guards and conditionally destroying the main targets from the AUG of the US Pacific Fleet.

In 2007, the lease term ended, and the Swedes returned to the Baltic. But the Americans continued to study and train their anti-submarine forces (PLS) to detect and conditionally destroy the potential “aggressor” nuclear submarines. They began to regularly involve submarines of the navies of Latin American countries in the exercises of their submarines. So, submarines of the Chilean Navy are participating in exercises of the DESI type of the US Pacific Fleet submarine forces. Until 2001, they used submarines built according to the German project 209 (DPL "Thomson" and "Simpson"), and then submarines of the Skorpen "O'Higgins" type.

In 2018, the submarine O'Higgins visited the port of San Diego and for five months participated in the exercises of the submarine forces of the US 3rd Fleet. And since 2019, the PLB service of the 3rd Fleet has created a special “squadron” of aggressor submarines (or AGGRON) to prepare its submarines to fight enemy low-noise submarines (NAPLs).

The Americans were forced to study non-nuclear submarines by the presence in the PLA Navy of non-nuclear submarines of type 039A with an air-independent power plant, as well as the presence in the Russian Navy of no less dangerous and low-noise submarines of project 636 and plans to create even more advanced non-nuclear submarines of project 677 "Lada", the development of nuclear submarines project 777A "Kalina".

In addition, the fleets of other states, deprived of the opportunity to build nuclear submarines, became very interested in submarines with air-independent power plants (VNEU or AIP). Offers from manufacturers of submarines with VNEU appeared on the arms market, which dramatically expanded the range of fleets seeking to have modern submarine forces - inexpensive, compact, with high combat capabilities in their operational zones.

Submarines with air-independent power plants in the fleets of foreign states


To date, NPLs with VNEU are independently built by: FGR, France, Sweden, Japan, China, and the Russian Federation. As well as NNSs with full electric propulsion are now being built for the fleets of Japan and South Korea.

So, Japan since 2009, it has been building SORYU-type nuclear submarines, a series of 14 units.

(W=2900/4200 t, L=84,0 m, d=9,1 m; V=12/20 knots, under VNEU - 6,5 knots; D under RDP = 6200 M; 6 NTA x 533 mm, BZ = 30 units; crew - 65 people, autonomy - 45 days).

These boats were first equipped with Swedish Stirling engines (DS). But very soon, Mitsubishi made its own 600 kW DC. However, this could not turn the Japanese away from the electrical circuit of the underwater movement of their submarines. And already from the eleventh building (submarine "Oryu"), it was decided to make submarines fully electric based on powerful lithium-ion batteries (LIAB).

South Korea is building a series of NNSs from 9 units of licensed German Project 214 NNSs with VNEU based on fuel cells. But since 2019, she also switched to the construction of boats of her own design of the KSS-III type based on the LIAB.

(W=3358/3750 t, L=83,5 m, d=9,6 m; T= 7,6 m; V=12/20 knots; D at 8,0 knots = 10 M; 000 NTA x 6 mm for anti-ship missiles and maintenance, 533 missile defense missiles or SLBMs with a diameter of 6 mm; crew - 900 people, autonomy - 50 days).

India builds a series of NPLs from 6 units. "Calvari" type. In fact, this is a licensed French Scorpion-class nuclear submarine. At the same time, it is planned to install AIP, the MESMA closed cycle steam turbine unit, only on the fifth and sixth buildings.

(W = 1615/1775 t, L = 67,5 m, d = 6,2 m, T = 5,8 m; V = 11/20 knots; D float = 6500 M; 6 NTA x 533 mm, BZ = 18 units (anti-ship missiles, torpedoes, or 30 minutes); crew - 35 (8) people, autonomy - 50 days).

Turkey as well as South Korea, since 2015, it has been building a series of NAPLs of 6 units according to the German project 214.

(W=1690/1860 t, L=65,0 m, d=6,3 m, T=6,0 m; V=12/20 knots, under VNEU - 6,0 knots; D float. = 8000 M ; 8 NTA x 533 mm, BZ = 12 units (anti-ship missiles + torpedoes); crew - 27 (5) people, autonomy - 84 days).

Greece also purchased four project 214 nuclear submarines for its Navy.

China builds for itself and for export non-nuclear submarines of type 039C.

(W=1700/2250 t, L=74,9 m, d=8,0 m T=5,3 m; V=15/22 knots; H=300 m; D under RDP = 8000 M; 6 NTA x 533 mm, BZ = 18 units (6 anti-ship missiles + 12 torpedoes); crew - 60 (10) people, autonomy - 60 days).

Pakistan purchased eight NNS type 039A from China. It is also identified as type 041 of the Yuan class (Yuan-class Type-041). Pakistani designation boat received S20.

(W=1850/2500 t, L=77,6 m, d=8,4 m, T=6,7 m; V=12/20 knots; D=8000 M; 6 x 533 mm NTA, BZ=18 units; crew - 60 people, autonomy - 60 days).

Pakistan also acquired a license for the construction of 4 more submarines of the same project.

Thailand Bought three S-26T type nuclear submarines from China.

(W=1850/2300 t; L=66,0 m, d=8,0 m, T=8,2 m; V=10/18 knots, D floating at 16 knots = 8000 M; H = 240/ 300 m; 6 NTA x 533 mm, BZ = 18 units; crew - 38 people, autonomy - 60 days).

The S-26T type submarine is considered to be an analogue of the Project 039B submarines. In total, the Thai Navy plans to purchase three boats of the S-26T project, with an order for two additional ones, with their commissioning by 2026.

Singapore purchased from Germany specially designed for him four NNS pr. 218SG.

(W=2000/2200 t, L=70,0 m, d=6,3 m; V=10/15 knots, under VNEU – up to 5 knots; VNEU = 2х120 kW; under VNU – 28 days; . = 300 m; 8 NTA (6x533 mm, 2x650 mm) BZ = 24 units; crew - 28 people).

Italy. The Navy has four nuclear submarines of the German project 212A.

(W=1450/1840 t, L=56,3 m, d=6,8 m, T=7,0 m; V=12/20 knots, under VNEU - 6,0 knots; D float. = 8000 M ; 6 NTA x 533 mm, BZ = 12 units (anti-ship missiles + torpedoes); crew - 27 (5) people, autonomy - 30 days).

The boats were built at the Italian shipyard Cantieri del Muggiano by Fincantieri.

Spain It has four Agosta-type NNSs (1740 tons), and 4 S-80-type NNSs (2 tons) are under construction. Since 426, the construction of NNSs of the S2005A project, developed on the basis of French Scorpena-class submarines, has begun in Spain.

(W=3200/3426 t; L=81,05 m, d=11,68 m, T=7,3 m; ethanol AIP=3x1200 kW, 1 EM N=3500 kW; V=12/19 kt; D = 5000 M; autonomy = 30–55 days, under AIP = 28 days; H = 320/460 m; crew - 32 (8) people; 6x533 NTA (torpedoes, anti-ship missiles, CRBD).

In addition, these boats with VNEU of the MESMA type will be armed with the American Tomahawk CRBD block IV.

Israel acquired six submarines of type 800 "Dolphin".

(W=1450/1840 t, L=56,3 m, d=6,8 m, T=7,0 m; V=12/20 knots, under VNEU - 6,0 knots; D float. = 8000 M ; 6 NTA x 533 mm, BZ = 21 units (5 KR + 16 torpedoes); crew - 30 (8) people, autonomy - 50 days).

The boats were built by the German shipbuilding company HDW (Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft). At the same time, three of them carry CRBD and became part of the deterrence forces, presumably, they will carry CRBD with nuclear warheads. The last two boats will be equipped with nuclear submarines based on fuel cells, which will qualitatively increase their ability to continuously stay under water without surfacing to the sea surface.

Poland decided to purchase for its Navy NNS of the Swedish project A26, capable of carrying Tomahawk-type CRBD. The request for the purchase of boats was considered in the parliament and received the approval of the Polish parliamentarians.

This is an approximate picture of non-nuclear submarines today. But the picture does not end there, because this direction in submarine shipbuilding turned out to be very popular, and the total market demand until 2050 is estimated at about 300–400 units.

Ways of development and further improvement of the NPL


To date, there have been at least four ways to further improve this area of ​​underwater shipbuilding.

First, the capabilities of the ship's main air-independent power plant are being improved.

So, the French Navy took a giant step in the creation and trial operation of the VNEU of the so-called second stage. The FC2G AIP installation was developed by engineers and designers of the French naval industrial group Naval Group (NG). They created a unit that, by reforming diesel fuel, receives highly purified hydrogen directly on board the submarine, while German submariners are forced to carry hydrogen reserves on board their boats. Hydrogen is the most energy-intensive fuel, so VNEU based on it is more efficient in terms of energy efficiency than all other installations. But not only.

VNEU based on ECG operate twice as quiet as a Stirling engine, because they simply do not have rotating parts of the machine.

Another advantage of such an installation is that when reforming diesel fuel (to produce hydrogen), it is not necessary to carry on board additional containers for storing hydride-containing solutions.

Such an anaerobic propulsion system is more compact and has a lower thermal footprint. All its components and systems are assembled in a separate eight-meter module-compartment, and not scattered throughout the submarine.

For a hydrogen AIP, the influence of shock-vibration loads is less critical, which reduces the possibility of its spontaneous ignition, and this qualitatively distinguishes it from a GEM based on lithium-ion batteries. In addition, such an installation is cheaper than an installation based on LIAB.

But not only the French were engaged in the improvement of VNEU for NPLs. So, to obtain high-purity hydrogen on board, Spanish engineers created an anaerobic bioethanol reformer (BioEtOH). They plan to install units for the production of highly purified hydrogen on their submarines of the S-80 type. The first such VNEU was planned to be installed on the Cosme Garcia submarine in March 2021.

The disadvantage of the Spanish installation is that, in addition to cryogenic oxygen, as well as conventional diesel fuel for ship diesel and diesel generators, it is also necessary to place on board tanks for bioethanol, which has several disadvantages compared to diesel fuel. Thus, ethanol (technical alcohol) is 34% less energy intensive than diesel fuel. This, ceteris paribus, reduces the power of the propulsion system, the cruising range of the submarine, and increases the volume of storage of variable cargo on board the submarine. In addition, ethanol is hygroscopic, has increased corrosive aggressiveness. And around - "water and iron." It cannot be used as an emergency fuel for diesel operation.

Therefore, experts prefer hydrogen VNEU based on diesel fuel reforming. Diesel fuel is always available. It does not need to allocate separate containers. It is always available in the database. It can be easily obtained at sea from another ship or civilian vessel. What can not be said about alcohol, even technical. Installing the AIP of the second stage on the NNS will naturally affect the improvement of the performance characteristics of the boat. For example, the released volumes (as an option) can be used to accommodate liquefied oxygen cylinders, and thereby increase the time and range of submarine diving.

Over the past time, Japanese and Korean scientists and designers have learned to create "safe" LIAB, which forced out the DS from their new generation NNS. Therefore, they took the path of creating fully "electric" submarines, placing high-capacity lithium-ion batteries (LIAB) on board the NNS of the Oryu and KSS-III types. But the Koreans, unlike the Japanese, are in no hurry to part with the DS on their new second-series nuclear submarines. They pragmatically believe that the presence of DS will significantly increase the ability of their new submarines to continuously be under water, while recharging the LIAB.

It is known that LIABs are expensive and very high-tech. They are afraid of mechanical damage, in which they are fire hazardous, nevertheless they are lighter, more conformal. They are at least 2–4 times (compared to lead-zinc acid AB) have bоmore storage capacity. This is their main advantage.

And this is probably the second general direction for the development of NNS in the XNUMXst century. As we see, история, having made a circle, returned to the idea of ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXba completely "electric" submarine, as the Kriegsmarine shipbuilders once did. The famous XXII series of German electric submarines had characteristics that were unique for their time.

But not only this is seen as progress in the development of non-nuclear submarines.

The armament of these submarines is changing in the most significant way. And this is the third direction of improving the NPL. And the transformation of non-nuclear submarines into control units for underwater drones is the fourth direction in the improvement of this subclass of submarines.

In addition to the fact that Israel, China, followed by Japan, South Korea and Sweden, place long-range missile weapons (both CRBD and SLBM) on board their NNSs, Italian submariners have begun equipping their submarines with autonomous uninhabited underwater vehicles (UUVs) to solve a whole range of combat missions in the waters of the adjacent seas.

So, in February 2021, the Italian Navy signed a contract with the Fincanteri shipbuilding company for the construction of two nuclear submarines under the 212 NFS project. The boat will be 1,2 m longer (L = 59 m) compared to the base model, its surface displacement will increase to 1 tons. type) has been successfully tested.

The boat will be armed with a Deep Impact CRBD. The drawer enclosure will be enlarged to accommodate six of the seven drawers outside the rugged housing. The only "penetrating" will be the commander's periscope. The habitability inside the boat will be significantly improved, which should affect the increase in the autonomy of the ship's navigation. The degree of automation of all processes based on the new ASBU will increase. This will reduce the crew to 29 people.

But its main difference from its predecessors is that this boat is conceived as a node of an underwater network capable of controlling various uninhabited underwater vehicles, receiving information from them, and using airborne weapons on target designation from NPA. At the same time, it is noted that the mutual exchange of information between the carrier and the UUV will be carried out via a secure line of sound-underwater communication, directly with the UAVs, although it was previously supposed to be done via a fiber-optic communication line.

Both boats will be built at the shipyard in Mugiano (La Spezia). In January 2022, the first phase of construction was launched. The first nuclear submarine was laid down on the basis of its readiness by 2026 and transfer to the fleet after all tests no later than December 2027.

But later there was information that under the OCCAR contract, 1,35 billion euros were allocated for the construction of a training center and two NSPLs with a deadline for the delivery of the first unit in May 2030, and the second in June 2031. At the same time, the first two boats will have a diesel-electric installation with the same AIP as on the Project 212A NNS. But they will have a new energy storage and management system from LIAB. They will test the technology for changing modes of movement in a submerged position, testing the elements of a new lithium-iron-phosphate battery. A completely new VNEU will be delivered starting from the third building of the NPL.

In this way, already today, at least four areas for improving NNSs have been clearly identified in the fleets of foreign states:

1. Transition to full underwater electric propulsion (Japan, Republic of Korea).

2. Improvement of methods for producing highly purified hydrogen directly on board the NNS by reforming diesel fuel or bioethanol (France, Spain, Russia, Germany).

3. Equipping NNSs with long-range missiles capable of carrying SBPs (Israel, PRC, RK, RP).

4. Deployment of an underwater combat network based on NSVs based on NNSs capable of detecting, transferring the control center for the use of weapons of NNSs, and, if necessary, attacking enemy ships themselves (Italy, Germany).

I really wanted to write something new about the implementation of the program for the construction of our boats of project 677D Lada, project 777A Kalina, but, unfortunately, there is little material, and even then based on the stories of former colleagues. Therefore, this significant segment of the narrative remains free for coverage by other authors who are not indifferent to the construction of the country's submarine fleet.
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  1. Flooding
    Flooding 3 August 2022 16: 07
    0
    from the eleventh building (submarine "Oryu"), it was decided to make submarines fully electric based on powerful lithium-ion batteries (LIAB)

    It is not entirely clear how the batteries are charged if the submarine is completely electric?
    Power take-off when driving on electric motors?
    Hardly. Is it possible with this option to fully replenish energy costs?
    1. agond
      agond 3 August 2022 16: 38
      +3
      By the way, ethanol reforming produces much purer hydrogen at the output than diesel fuel reforming; hydrogen purity is primary for fuel cells. To the question of VNEU based on Stirling, they all have low unit power and nothing can be done about it, this is probably one of the reasons why they have not found distribution with us, and then they all have pistons with reciprocating motion which can be a source noise. And finally, most importantly, any boat with VNEU should have a supply of liquid oxygen on board, even if you get hydrogen by reforming diesel fuel, an oxidizer is needed for any., as an option, you can use hydrogen peroxide, although for some reason they forgot about it, but in vain in a rocket engine steam peroxide + kerosene gives a higher specific impulse than for example oxygen + kerosene. If a pair of peroxide + kerosene was successfully used in space technology, then why not on a submarine, and then highly concentrated peroxide is very stable and safe when stored properly, an order of magnitude safer than liquid oxygen. Today, it is quite realistic to burn, for example, ethyl alcohol in hydrogen peroxide or liquid oxygen on board a submarine in a chemical reactor, and the resulting steam gas will turn a small high-power turbine. By the way, in the case of oxygen, the output will be only water and carbon dioxide, which can be liquefied at room temperatures, that is, it can be stored on board the boat for some time (if necessary, they can extinguish fires, or blow through ballast tanks upon ascent) and the resulting reaction use water for domestic purposes.
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 3 August 2022 16: 46
        +2
        Quote: agond
        By the way, ethanol reforming produces much cleaner hydrogen at the output than diesel fuel reforming.

        And by the way, ethanol helps fight depression.
        1. Alien From
          Alien From 3 August 2022 17: 45
          +3
          Pour vodka in the tanks!!! What are you talking about, it's vodka!!! (C) feature film Peculiarities of national fishing.
      2. DenVB
        DenVB 3 August 2022 23: 59
        +1
        Quote: agond
        much safer than liquid oxygen

        Liquid oxygen is not very dangerous when stored outside of the strong hull of the boat.

        Quote: agond
        carbon dioxide that can be liquefied at room temperature

        Gas liquefaction is an energy-intensive process. Most likely, you will spend all the efficiency created by the steam turbine on compressing carbon dioxide.
        1. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 4 August 2022 01: 13
          +1
          Quote: DenVB
          Liquid oxygen is not very dangerous when stored outside of the strong hull of the boat.
          At what temperature is it stored?
          1. DenVB
            DenVB 4 August 2022 01: 45
            0
            Quote: Bad_gr
            At what temperature is it stored?

            I have no idea.
            1. Bad_gr
              Bad_gr 4 August 2022 10: 31
              +1
              Quote: DenVB
              Liquid oxygen is not very dangerous when stored outside of the strong hull of the boat.

              Liquid oxygen boiling point - minus 183°С
              They usually store in thermoses, and at the same time, daily losses are 3-5%
              During transportation by road, losses reach 40% (https://chem21.info/info/1450566/)
              And how can liquid oxygen be provided with acceptable storage conditions outside the strong hull of a submarine?
              1. DenVB
                DenVB 4 August 2022 10: 39
                0
                Quote: Bad_gr
                And how can liquid oxygen be provided with acceptable storage conditions outside the strong hull of a submarine?

                And how to ensure the same conditions within the strong hull of a submarine?
                1. Bad_gr
                  Bad_gr 4 August 2022 11: 05
                  0
                  Quote: DenVB
                  And how to ensure the same conditions within the strong hull of a submarine?
                  Only in thermoses. But without constant loss of oxygen, there is no way (it is hardly possible to install equipment in a submarine to maintain a low temperature of liquid oxygen. Yes, and it is noisy.)
                  1. DenVB
                    DenVB 4 August 2022 11: 07
                    0
                    Quote: Bad_gr
                    Only in thermoses.

                    And outside of the durable case it is impossible to store in thermoses?
                    1. Bad_gr
                      Bad_gr 4 August 2022 14: 22
                      +1
                      Quote: DenVB
                      And outside of the durable case it is impossible to store in thermoses?
                      Each thermos will need to be protected from external pressure. If the insulation is damaged, this entire structure will begin to overgrow with ice. How will this end for the boat?
                      1. DenVB
                        DenVB 4 August 2022 14: 42
                        0
                        Quote: Bad_gr
                        Each thermos will need to be protected from external pressure.

                        Well, what's the problem? Oxygen cylinders were not invented yesterday. True, they are more designed for internal pressure, but radish horseradish is not sweeter.

                        Quote: Bad_gr
                        If the insulation is damaged, this entire structure will begin to overgrow with ice. How will this end for the boat?

                        Don't know. You may even have to float.
                      2. Bad_gr
                        Bad_gr 4 August 2022 15: 07
                        +1
                        Quote: Bad_gr
                        If the insulation is damaged, this entire structure will begin to overgrow with ice. How will this end for the boat?

                        Quote: DenVB
                        Don't know. You may even have to float.

                        Equipment that is not inside the strong hull is placed between the strong and light hull, air is supplied there to float the boat. If part of this space is occupied by ice, then the boat may not emerge (there is not enough room for air to provide positive buoyancy).
                      3. DenVB
                        DenVB 4 August 2022 15: 53
                        +1
                        Quote: Bad_gr
                        Equipment that is not inside the strong hull is placed between the strong and light hull, air is supplied there to float the boat.

                        Well, not right there. In ballast tanks. I think the designers have thought of this problem. And, as far as I know, German boats do not have a light hull as such.

                        Upd. Looked at Wikipedia. Indeed, the boats are double-hulled.

                        The supply of liquid oxygen in impact-resistant cylinders and metal hydride in steel tanks are located in the aft part between the light and strong hull.
                      4. SovAr238A
                        SovAr238A 6 August 2022 01: 39
                        0
                        Quote: Bad_gr
                        Quote: DenVB
                        And outside of the durable case it is impossible to store in thermoses?
                        Each thermos will need to be protected from external pressure. If the insulation is damaged, this entire structure will begin to overgrow with ice. How will this end for the boat?

                        What is the point of protecting from external pressure, if the protection from internal is many times greater?
                      5. Bad_gr
                        Bad_gr 6 August 2022 12: 59
                        0
                        Quote: SovAr238A
                        What is the point of protecting from external pressure, if the protection from internal is many times greater?

                        Do you know the difference between a cylinder for compressed air and a Dewar vessel, which is used to store liquid oxygen?
          2. dzvero
            dzvero 4 August 2022 11: 28
            +1
            At what temperature is it stored?

            It can also be stored in Dewar flasks at room temperature. Evaporation loss - 1,5-5% per day. The actual evaporation temperature of oxygen is -183оС. "Do not touch with your hands, do not inhale deeply, do not take inside" smile
      3. Pushkowed
        Pushkowed 4 August 2022 09: 33
        +2
        The specific impulse of a rocket engine has nothing to do with it. It uses the reactive principle of motion, and much depends on non-obvious things, such as the density of the components and the molar mass of the reaction products. In a submarine, only the amount of energy stored in chemical bonds per ton of matter is important. And there is nothing more practical than liquid oxygen. The peroxide also contains "parasitic" hydrogen, which has already occupied 2 oxygen valences, preventing them from oxidizing the fuel components. As soon as liquid oxygen was mastered, experiments with combined-cycle turbines on boats ceased.
      4. TEX-50
        TEX-50 4 August 2022 10: 04
        +2
        Mnuuu, "diesel oil" can be very different, because. this term implies only the fractional composition, i.e. the temperatures of the beginning and end of boiling. Diesel fuel may not contain sulfur, oxygen at all, and consist only of saturated hydrocarbons. Then the purity of the resulting hydrogen will not differ from ethanol in any way.
    2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 3 August 2022 17: 31
      +8
      Quote: Flood
      It is not entirely clear how the batteries are charged if the submarine is completely electric?

      Through diesel, of course. The author ... is very free in the wording.
    3. Boa kaa
      3 August 2022 19: 19
      +7
      Quote: Flood
      How are the batteries charged if the submarine is fully electric?
      It was supposed to go without saying. However...
      As A. Karpenko points out in "Bastion": -- "... the boat can constantly replenish the energy reserve in lithium-ion batteries using battery recharging using the RDP device. Boats of this class were equipped with two Kawasaki 12V 25/25 diesel generators, 3900 hp." http://bastion-karpenko.ru/soryu/ hi
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 3 August 2022 19: 27
        +2
        Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
        It was supposed to go without saying. However...

        However, among the readers there are enough land laymen-humanists laughing
    4. solar
      solar 3 August 2022 22: 28
      +3
      Diesel is used to charge the batteries. The Japanese, for example, have 2 Kawasaki diesels.
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 3 August 2022 22: 32
        +1
        Quote from solar
        Diesel is used to charge the batteries. The Japanese, for example, have 2 Kawasaki diesels.

        The author has already written in the comments.
        Thank you.
    5. TreeSmall
      TreeSmall 4 August 2022 16: 12
      +1
      Quote: Flood
      Power take-off when driving on electric motors?

      belay
      It’s almost like pulling Mühhausen out of the swamp behind the parishes, or rather, a perpetual motion machine of the 5th generation ...
      So you only discharge the batteries and get parasitic heat:
      Traveled = Eb * efficiency (wires, converters) - Unit * engine efficiency * efficiency of the mover-Echarger * efficiency (charger, wires)
      On the SS 511 Oryu there are powerful diesel generators 2 × Kawasaki 12V 25/25 SB, designed to recharge the batteries under the RPD for a long time.
      They abandoned AIP Stirling in favor of LIAB + diesel
      Submarines like Taigei (29SS) same as Soryu, but with water jet propulsion and some changes on control surfaces.
      And so, in general, for fully electric submarines with LIB-powered, it is supposed to be recharged at sea from a service ship (you still need to supply diesel for business, food, medicine, etc.) or from autonomous stations
      Maersk to build offshore network of charging stations for electric cargo ships


      And these floats (or maybe underwater stations) can recharge me, both from their own diesel engine and from thermocouples, the sun or the flow of water or wind.
      1. Flooding
        Flooding 4 August 2022 18: 27
        0
        Quote from TreeSmall
        They abandoned AIP Stirling in favor of LIAB + diesel

        Already explained.
        It turns out that under the "fully electric" submarine means a submarine on an electric course.
        Diesels have not been cancelled.
        1. TreeSmall
          TreeSmall 4 August 2022 19: 19
          -2
          Well, this is so far with progress in batteries and speed from charging: wait.
          They will charge, just like refueling a diesel. But ☝️ Of course, they will leave an emergency source of energy: whether it will be a pedal drive or Diesels are not the point
    6. The comment was deleted.
  2. Igor Borisov_2
    Igor Borisov_2 3 August 2022 16: 27
    +3
    Thanks for the article to the author, informative ...
  3. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 3 August 2022 17: 30
    +3
    And in 2005, the Gotland nuclear submarine during the Joint Task Exercise 06-2 exercise was able to unnoticed break through the outposts of the American Ronald Reagan AVM and carry out its conditional torpedoing. The photo report presented by the Swedes convincingly confirmed the complete fiasco of the ASW system of the aircraft carrier formation. This forced the Yankees to seriously study the combat capabilities of the NNS as a subclass of submarines.

    Taking into account the fact that the exercises themselves were organized by the Americans precisely with the aim of testing the capabilities of the nuclear submarines - analytics, of course ... at the level
    1. Boa kaa
      3 August 2022 19: 49
      +1
      Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
      ... the exercises were arranged by the Americans precisely with the aim of testing the capabilities of the NPL - analytics, of course ... at the level

      Andrew, hi
      As it arrives ... remarks:
      1. Joint Task Force Exercise (JTFEX).
      Joint Task Force Exercises (JTFEX) are designed to test the ability of a strike force to operate in hostile and challenging environments with other US and coalition forces. Comprehensive exercises bring together specific combat areas to prepare for the upcoming deployment of a strike force. An example of such an exercise includes the AVU "John F. Kennedy" (CV-67). The carrier battle group, which participated in Joint Task Force Exercise (JTFEX) 02-1, is designed to test the strike group's ability to operate in hostile and challenging environments with other US and coalition forces. Comprehensive exercises bring together specific combat areas to prepare for the upcoming deployment of a strike force.

      As can be seen from the definition of the OBJECTIVES of complex exercises, they did not directly "test the capabilities of NNSs", because these were COMPLEX exercises, and not purely "research" of the forces of PLBs.
      2. About the level of ... analytics.
      If it doesn’t make it difficult, specifically, what does not suit such a LARGE analyst like you in this review, constrained by the scope of the article on VO.
      Sincerely, Boa. smile
      1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 3 August 2022 20: 48
        +3
        Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
        If it doesn't make it difficult - specifically, what does not suit such a LARGE analyst like you in this review

        Here, here you are, of course, not in the eyebrow, but in the eye - and my height is 188 and my weight is under 140 (alas ... not everything is in the muscles), so it's absolutely true - I'm a BIG analyst. HEAVY even, one might say laughing
        And what does not suit ... According to my information, the situation was like this
        The high combat qualities shown by HMS Halland aroused close interest from the US military. In 2004, the Swedish government received a request from the United States of America to lease HMS Gotland under the Swedish flag and crew to participate in an international exercise in which the US Third Fleet was preparing to demonstrate its combat skills. The Swedish government granted this request in October 2004 and on March 21, 2005 a memorandum of understanding was signed between the US and Sweden. On May 10, 2005, HMS Gotland was taken on board by the Norwegian semi-submersible vessel MV Eide Transporter for transportation across the Atlantic Ocean and the Panama Canal to Point Loma Naval Base on the US Pacific coast in San Diego, California (arrival - June 27, 2005 G.). The Swedish crew was airlifted to California. Joint Task Force Exercise 06-2 began on July 18, 2005. The training sites were located about 100 nautical miles off the coast of the United States, where the depth varies from 1000 to 2000 meters. The territory of the sites was equipped with microphones and underwater phones. The exercise was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the US Navy in the fight against modern diesel-electric submarines. According to the exercise plan, HMS Gotland opposed the 7th Carrier Strike Group, which was formed from Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, Ticonderoga-class cruisers and the newest ASW aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan.

        That is, during these exercises, the Americans purposefully studied the capabilities of NPLs during these exercises.
        1. Boa kaa
          3 August 2022 22: 07
          +6
          Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
          Here, here you are, of course, not in the eyebrow, but in the eye

          Andrey, thank you for such a capacious and verified information. Only it belongs to the period of "leasing" Gotland. And the first meeting of the Yankees with the Swedes was in the Mediterranean, after which the idea of ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXba "deep" study of the combat capabilities of the NPL was born. Based on the results of leasing, the amies came to the conclusion that it is possible to effectively deal with such an enemy only with low-frequency illumination or non-acoustic methods.
          Sincerely. hi
          PS I happen to be a little smaller than you: only 172 cm tall and 100 kg in weight. I gained weight after the operation, when physical activity was banned. Now I'm joking that no more than 5 kg can be "released" in one hand, but not accepted !!! laughing
          1. Bad_gr
            Bad_gr 4 August 2022 01: 02
            0
            Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
            That is, during these exercises, the Americans purposefully studied the capabilities of NPLs during these exercises.

            Judging by the film "Remove the Periscope", the question of the capabilities of diesel submarines in modern conflicts does not arise for the first time, and in the future it will be tried on the tooth more than once.
          2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 4 August 2022 09: 08
            +3
            Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
            Andrey, thank you for such a capacious and verified information. Only it belongs to the period of "leasing" Gotland.

            So this is the essence of my "I do not agree!" (c) and is concluded. The article says
            And in 2005, the Gotland nuclear submarine during the Joint Task Exercise 06-2 exercise was able to unnoticed break through the outposts of the American Ronald Reagan AVM and carry out its conditional torpedoing. The photo report presented by the Swedes convincingly confirmed the complete fiasco of the ASW system of the aircraft carrier formation. This forced the Yankees to seriously study the combat capabilities of the NNS as a subclass of submarines.

            That is, according to the text, it turns out that the Americans were alarmed by the results of the 2005 exercises. In fact, as I understand it, the Americans were puzzled by studying the combat capabilities of NPLs based on the results of previous successes of the Swedes, and back in 2004, they initiated Gotland's participation in the 2005 exercises in a role that just made it possible to evaluate the effectiveness of NPLs against AUS.
            Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
            I gained weight after the operation, when physical activity was banned.

            And I - after quitting smoking. It’s just that the body is weighty, as a student, when there wasn’t a fat one, I’ll just start training - immediately after 102 kg the weight flew away, and for heavyweight in boxing I’m too small (there are gorillas, almost a head taller than me, and arm length .. .), which is why he didn’t meddle in the competition. Then again, already at an older age, iron began to pull, the weight grew even more.
            And here's how I quit smoking at the age of 36 - so in 2 months + 35 kg at once, it reached 155 kg, oh-wei ... And I just started chasing just now, about a year ago. Well, now I’m going to 130 kg, and when I get there, I’ll go to 120 kg laughing
            1. Boa kaa
              4 August 2022 15: 23
              +3
              Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
              Well, now I’m going to 130 kg, and when I get there, I’ll go to 120 kg

              How's the classic? - The road will be mastered by the walking ...
              So, good luck with yourself. Let this picture be your guiding star!

              PS I believe the misunderstanding is resolved. Inaccurate expression of thoughts (mine) always leads to a misunderstanding of what was said ...
              I'm getting old, and even 6 hours under general anesthesia apparently affect ... recourse
              1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                Andrei from Chelyabinsk 4 August 2022 21: 15
                +1
                Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
                Inaccurate expression of thoughts (mine) always leads to a misunderstanding of what was said ...

                In the coffin, in the law, in one and a half thousand icons, God's grandmother and afterlife sobbing!!! So this is YOUR article!
                Oh mein gott. If I had realized right away, I would have written to you in a personal ... repeat
                Excuse me Alexander. I'm not a brake, I'm just a very slow gas...
                1. Boa kaa
                  5 August 2022 14: 00
                  +2
                  Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                  I'm not a brake, I'm just a very slow gas...

                  Well, what are YOU!
                  You are a very weighty competent author, whose opinion I value. hi
  4. KSVK
    KSVK 3 August 2022 18: 29
    -3
    Quote: Flood

    It is not entirely clear how the batteries are charged if the submarine is completely electric?

    They come to the base and connect the charging cable.
    The battery capacity is enough for the entire period of autonomy,
    1. Snail N9
      Snail N9 3 August 2022 18: 45
      0
      Hm ... the idea with ethanol is interesting ... wink I hope the capacity for it is enough for the entire period of autonomy .... and for the entire crew. lol
  5. KSVK
    KSVK 3 August 2022 18: 33
    +4
    Quote: agond
    as an option, you can use hydrogen peroxide, although for some reason they forgot about it, but in vain

    All operators abandoned peroxide torpedoes. Including ours, they have been decommissioned. Too unsafe. According to the main version, the Kursk sank precisely as a result of the explosion of a “thick” peroxide torpedo.
  6. highlight
    highlight 3 August 2022 19: 10
    +1
    Quote: KSVK
    Too unsafe. According to the main version, the Kursk sank precisely as a result of the explosion of a “thick” peroxide torpedo.

    "Don't hit the floor with a torpedo
    this is not basketball for you "(c) Kristina Orbakaite
  7. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 3 August 2022 19: 10
    -1
    pl with purely electric propulsion in the Baltic if charging is not in the base but 15 miles at a depth (cable from a coastal substation) this would be the quietest pl
  8. DenVB
    DenVB 3 August 2022 20: 39
    +1
    created an anaerobic unit for the reforming of bioethanol (BioEtOH).

    I wonder how bioethanol differs from simple ethanol?
    1. Pushkowed
      Pushkowed 4 August 2022 09: 05
      +2
      He is no different. Bioethanol is a type of ethanol derived from biological raw materials (wood, grain...) and not from inorganic (natural gas, recycled plastic...).
      1. DenVB
        DenVB 4 August 2022 10: 43
        +1
        Quote: Pushkowed
        He is no different. Bioethanol is a type of ethanol derived from biological raw materials (wood, grain...) and not from inorganic (natural gas, recycled plastic...).

        "And if vodka is not driven from sawdust, then what would we have from five bottles ..." (c)
    2. Boa kaa
      4 August 2022 15: 56
      +2
      In fact, it is technical alcohol. Inside -- strictly not recommended ! Better - a stool (in the sense of moonshine!)
      Ethanol is an organic compound, a monohydric alcohol, which is a colorless, transparent, flammable liquid.
      For the production of ethanol, the following methods are used: chemical, biological and distillation ...
      (- ethylene hydration, which makes it possible to obtain synthetic ethanol on an industrial scale;
      - fermentation of organic products with a high content of carbohydrates (sugar cane, potatoes, rice, etc.);
      - hydrolysis of vegetable raw materials (for this, renewable raw materials containing cellulose are used).
      The main difference between ethyl alcohol and bioethanol is that the latter is a form of ethanol and is produced by a biological method from plant materials.
      Ethanol is produced in two main ways - chemical and microbiological. The production of ethanol from biological raw materials includes 5 stages:
      - preparation of raw materials (grinding of biomass);
      - fermentation (breakdown of starch into sugar);
      - fermentation (the appearance of ethanol under the influence of microbes);
      - distillation (removal of microbes);
      - dehydration (removal of water).
      Along with the microbiological method of production, a chemical method is used, which involves the direct hydration of ethylene or hydration through an intermediate ester.
      1. DenVB
        DenVB 4 August 2022 16: 13
        +1
        Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
        In fact, it is technical alcohol. Inside -- strictly not recommended !

        So vice versa. Bioethanol is the real drinking alcohol. Moreover, if it goes to reforming, then it must still be well purified so that the catalysts are not killed. Rectificate class alpha.

        There will certainly be many who want to serve on such submarines.
  9. solar
    solar 3 August 2022 22: 33
    +2
    German submariners are forced to carry hydrogen supplies aboard their boats

    Not certainly in that way. Rather, overboard, between a durable and lightweight body. Doesn't take up space and is safer
  10. solar
    solar 3 August 2022 22: 41
    +5
    The author somewhat exaggerates the capabilities of Swedish boats - the Stirling engine does not add low noise in itself. The exercises were conducted in such a way that the submarines gained an advantage due to the chosen area. In real combat operations, the AUG would try not to enter such areas.
    But in general, the increase in range when using air-independent installations and modern batteries leaves diesel-electric submarines of the old type far behind in real combat operations - this is undoubtedly.
    1. Boa kaa
      4 August 2022 16: 07
      +2
      Quote from solar
      The Stirling engine does not add quietness by itself. The exercises were conducted in such a way that the submarines gained an advantage due to the chosen area.

      The Stirling engine is constantly being improved. But it has one significant drawback: it cannot work at depths exceeding 200m. For the Baltic, this is not critical, which cannot be said about other water areas.
      The choice of a place for the exercises remained with the Yankees. And they proceeded from the option of approaching the AVU combat maneuvering area as close as possible to the enemy's coast to increase the reach radius of carrier-based aircraft.
      Either way, it was their choice.
      1. solar
        solar 4 August 2022 17: 03
        0
        These were exercises to test the risks of AUG operation from atypically close distances to the coast for them with a complex indented coastline, with straits, channels and islands. In general, the danger in these places from NPLs was clear even before the start of the exercises.
        You yourself quoted
        Joint Task Force Exercises (JTFEX) are designed to test the ability of a strike force to operate in hostile and challenging environments with other US and coalition forces.
  11. The comment was deleted.
  12. ban
    ban 4 August 2022 09: 46
    +1
    To date, NPLs with VNEU are independently building: FGR, France, Sweden, Japan, China, Russia


    And what side did the Russian Federation get here?
    1. agond
      agond 4 August 2022 11: 57
      -1
      Regarding the danger of storing hydrogen peroxide on a submarine, yes, a container with peroxide is more dangerous than, for example, a barrel of cucumbers, but after a year of storage it decomposes and is lost only a fraction of a percent, and subject to the simplest rules, it can be stored even at home under the bed, but with liquid oxygen everything is completely different, by the way, if a peroxide canister is fired in winter in an open field from an automatic machine, an explosion will not occur, it will simply leak out, but if, for comparison, fire a Dewar vessel with liquid oxygen. By the way, VNEU of any type based on a heat engine or fuel cell (for a rare exception) it is impossible to create without the use of an oxidizer, the fuel can be different, diesel fuel, alcohol, hydrogen, aluminum, and the oxidizer will be one and its name is oxygen and it must be stored somehow, so storing oxygen as part of hydrogen peroxide is a good way,
      1. DenVB
        DenVB 4 August 2022 16: 25
        +1
        Quote: agond
        and the oxidizing agent will be one and its name is oxygen

        You can still use nitric acid.
      2. TreeSmall
        TreeSmall 4 August 2022 16: 29
        -1
        and there will be one oxidizing agent and its name is oxygen and it must be stored somehow

        AT can also be an oxidizing agent.
        He will oxidize water with pleasure:
        N₂O₄+Н₂O->HNO2+HNO3

        Or acid
        Iron, aluminum, chromium do NOT react with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids without heating☝️
        Oxygen on these boats is stored in liquid form, in Dewar vessels (they are still needed to store "exhaust gases", otherwise they unmask themselves)
        In the underwater one, a liquid oxidizer is supplied from the Dewar vessels, and the gas mixture emitted by the engine turbine is frozen again, so the engine does not consume anything from the environment and does not release anything into the environment.☝️
    2. Boa kaa
      4 August 2022 16: 39
      +2
      Quote: ban
      And what side did the Russian Federation get here?

      Malachite is ready to build NPL pr 750B. VNEU is finished.
      Among other things, 2 SMPL pr 865 served in the fleet and had VNEU. There are VNEU "Crystal 20" and "Crystal-27". At least 4 organizations have their own installations at the exit. You need to wait a bit until they finish it.
      1. solar
        solar 4 August 2022 16: 56
        0

        The submarine "Amur-1650" with an air-independent power plant (VNEU), together with the submarines "Skorpena" (France), Type-214 (Germany), S-80 (Spain), participates in the Indian tender Project 75 (I) for the purchase of six submarines for the national Navy with a total value of 11,8 billion dollars. The competition was announced in September 2011.

        In mid-December 2011, the press service of Rosoboronexport reported that the St. Petersburg Central Design Bureau (TsKB) Rubin, which is the designer of the Amur-1650, presented India with a draft of this ship, modified to the requirements of the customer.

        The Russian analogue of the Amur-1650 project is the non-nuclear boat of project 677 Lada. In 2010, the lead ship of this project - the submarine "St. Petersburg" - became part of the Navy for trial operation.

        Earlier, Admiral Vladimir Vysotsky told RIA Novosti that the first Russian non-nuclear submarine with VNEU could be created in 2014 on the basis of project 677. The development of VNEU is proceeding at a faster pace by specialists from the Rubin Central Design Bureau.
  13. TreeSmall
    TreeSmall 4 August 2022 16: 18
    0
    Quote: Aator
    project 777A "Kalina", but, unfortunately, there is little material,

    Many projects and plans, few results



    It’s bad if, how will it work out with drones
    1. agond
      agond 4 August 2022 18: 29
      +1
      Quote: DenVB
      Nitric acid can still be

      A lot of things are possible, but in the thermal VNEU, during the combustion of fuel, low-boiling gases should not be formed, which then need to be put somewhere
      1. TreeSmall
        TreeSmall 4 August 2022 21: 20
        -2
        gases that then have to go somewhere

        Wrote the same:
        In the underwater - a liquid oxidizing agent is supplied from the Dewar vessels, and the gas mixture released by the engine turbine is frozen again, thus the engine does not consume from the environment and does not release anything into the environment
    2. Boa kaa
      4 August 2022 19: 37
      +2
      Quote from TreeSmall
      It’s bad if, how will it work out with drones

      They seem to be seriously working on 677D. Yes, and Lazurit promised to finish his closed-cycle gas turbine VNEU by 2023. We need nuclear submarines to protect 500M of the coastal zone from fans of "quietly" joking ...
      Therefore, I think they will finish it. Everyone needs them. Yes, and they will go for export like hot cakes: we have the best price / quality ratio in terms of weapons.
      IMHO.
      1. TreeSmall
        TreeSmall 4 August 2022 21: 21
        -1
        It is good to.
        Only now they “finish” for a very long time
        1. agond
          agond 4 August 2022 22: 02
          0
          Quote from TreeSmall
          In the underwater one, a liquid oxidizer is supplied from the Dewar vessels, and the gas mixture emitted by the engine turbine is frozen again, so the engine does not consume anything from the environment and does not release anything into the environment.

          There were project 615 boats in which the underwater diesel engine could run on diesel fuel and oxygen, the oxygen was stored in liquid form, and the exhaust gases were absorbed in a chemical absorber, by the way, it weighed more than the oxygen supply, so this is not good, it is best if the output is distilled water and pure carbon dioxide, which can be easily converted into a liquid state and stored at temperatures up to plus 30 * C in ordinary cylinders without cooling, but store liquid oxygen (boiling point minus 183 * C) on a submarine without constant cooling losses above 0,6% per day, at the same time, evaporated oxygen should not enter the compartments of the boat, it is simply dangerous, this is not hydrogen peroxide for you, at room temperature there will be nothing and losses from decomposition are the same 0.6%, but per year.
      2. SovAr238A
        SovAr238A 6 August 2022 01: 47
        0
        Quote: BoA KAA
        Quote from TreeSmall
        It’s bad if, how will it work out with drones

        They seem to be seriously working on 677D. Yes, and Lazurit promised to finish his closed-cycle gas turbine VNEU by 2023. We need nuclear submarines to protect 500M of the coastal zone from fans of "quietly" joking ...
        Therefore, I think they will finish it. Everyone needs them. Yes, and they will go for export like hot cakes: we have the best price / quality ratio in terms of weapons.
        IMHO.

        The word "turbine", in the context of submarines, especially non-nuclear ones, due to their tasks and methods of use, sounds extremely contradictory.
        1. Boa kaa
          6 August 2022 11: 47
          +1
          There are many miracles in this world! (With)
          Nevertheless, Lazurit specialists are already conducting field tests of a single engine (underwater and surface submarines) based on a closed-cycle gas turbine.
          More information about the principle of its operation can be found here: https://mirmarine.net/svm/seu/668-gtu-zamknutogo-i-poluzamknutogo-tsiklov.
          1. Boa kaa
            6 August 2022 12: 21
            0
            However, a mistake! repeat
            Instead of Lapis Lazuli should be read - MALACHITE! yes
  14. Vladimir Postnikov
    Vladimir Postnikov 7 August 2022 11: 54
    -1
    The long-term lack of information about the progress of the construction of our Project 677D Lada nuclear submarines and about the progress of another Project 777A Kalina nuclear submarine makes sailors worry about our shipbuilders.

    The sailors are no longer worried. The account has been going on for decades. Sailors have simply grown old during this time.
    Thus, the French Navy took a giant step in the creation and trial operation of the VNEU of the so-called second stage. The FC2G AIP installation was developed by engineers and designers of the French naval industrial group Naval Group (NG). They created a unit that, by reforming diesel fuel, receives highly purified hydrogen directly on board the submarine, while German submariners are forced to carry hydrogen reserves on board their boats.
    The author probably does not know that reforming was also sawn at the Lada power plant. Sawed, sawed, but not sawed. No reforming, no fuel cells. Sawed under the leadership of the Rubin General Designer Lev Sidorenko, who also sawed the Poseidon.
    Forgive me the author, but the article is about nothing.
    1. agond
      agond 8 August 2022 16: 01
      0
      Quote: Boa constrictor KAA
      Nevertheless, Lazurit specialists are already conducting field tests of a single engine (underwater and surface submarines) based on a closed-cycle gas turbine.

      This is the surest way to create VNEU, since
      1 turbines are small in size and have high power compared to internal combustion engines
      2 turbine on the same shaft with a generator can rotate quickly on magnetic bearings creating a minimum of vibration at high frequencies that are easily damped
      3 turbine does not require ultra-clean fuel as for fuel cells with their expensive catalysts on rare earth metals, I suspect they are often changed, and then reforming is certainly cool, but it is impossible to take all the hydrogen from the hydrocarbon molecule catalytically so that only hydrogen is the output and carbon dust, in any case there will be liquid and gaseous wastes, some of which will have to be collected in Dewars or chemical absorbers.
      4 and then turbines have long been mastered by industry
  15. nks
    nks 14 August 2022 14: 40
    0
    In 2003, Swedish submariners confirmed the high combat capabilities of the NNS when their stirling-diesel-electric submarine of the A19 Gotland project during the exercises of the joint NATO naval forces in the Mediterranean Sea


    The author does not provide a source for this information. It is not clear what kind of exercises we are talking about - neither in "Exercise Cooperative Engagement 2003 NATO exercises with Partners in the Adriatic Sea", nor in "DOGFISH annual NATO antisubmarine warfare (ASW) exercise 2003, held in mid-February in the Ionian Sea" Sweden does not participated (she is not yet a member of NATO at all, but she does take part in some joint exercises. And usually this is closer to her waters, and not in the Mediterranean Sea.