Military Review

Jean Andoche Junot. "Crazy" friend of Bonaparte

Jean Andoche Junot. "Crazy" friend of Bonaparte
Filipoto. Junot in the uniform of a grenadier sergeant of the second battalion of the Côte d'Or, 1792

The hero of our today's article has an ambiguous reputation. Jean Andoche Junot was one of the few close associates of Napoleon who had known him since the first glory of the brilliant assault on Toulon. Unlike many generals and marshals, he not only served Bonaparte, but was his friend. Throughout his life, Napoleon was surrounded by exceptionally brave people, but it was about Junot that Bonaparte said that he "went into the fire, like to a ball." However, due to the nature of the character, aggravated after repeated wounds in the head, even in his best years, Junot had a reputation as not quite a normal person. And with the light hand of Bonaparte in the army, Junot was given the nickname "Junot the Tempest" (Junot la Tempête). We will talk about this general in today's article.

Early life and early military service Junot

This man was born on September 24, 1771 in the Burgundian town of Bussy-le-Grand, which is located 60 km from Dijon. His father was a wealthy timber merchant, Junot was the youngest of the three children of this family. Parents dreamed that he would become a lawyer, and therefore the boy was sent to study at the college of Chatillon-sur-Seine. Here, among Junot's classmates were Auguste Frederic Louis Marmont and Jean-Baptiste Muiron. The first of them will become the Marshal of France and will be "appointed" by Bonaparte as the main traitor of this country. The second on November 15, 1796, will die on the Arcole bridge next to Napoleon, the ship on which Bonaparte will return from Egypt to France will be named after him.

After the start of the revolution, Marmont managed to obtain a patent for a junior lieutenant of the Chartres battalion. And Junot and Muiron on September 1, 1791 joined the battalion of the National Guard of the Côte d'Or department. At this time, Junot was 19 full years old - he will be 20 in three weeks.

Junot acquired his first combat experience in 1792-1793. in the ranks of the Northern and Rhine armies. During this time, he received a saber wound in the head in the battle of La Glizuelle (near Maubeuge) and rose to the rank of sergeant.

Finally, Junot and Muiron ended up near Toulon, where they met again with Marmont. It was here that their truly fateful acquaintance with Napoleon took place. Thanks to calligraphic handwriting, Junot became a clerk, and then an adjutant of Bonaparte, who appreciated his courage. They say that once the earth from a cannonball that struck nearby covered a sheet of paper on which this young Burgundian wrote. Shaking it off, Junot calmly said to Bonaparte:

"Lucky you don't have to sand the paper."

At first, everything went quite well. Bonaparte, who received the rank of brigadier general, was highly appreciated by General Dugomier, who commanded the troops at Toulon, and Auguste Robespierre, brother of Maximilian, chairman of the National Convention. New friends of Napoleon also received a promotion, it was then that Junot became an officer.

But after the coup on 9 Thermidor (July 27, 1794), General Bonaparte was arrested. Junot and Captain Marmont were out of work. Moreover, they could also end up in prison at any moment as friends and accomplices of the "state criminal". However, nothing compromising in the activities of Napoleon was found, and after 2 weeks he was released from prison. But the brilliance of the Toulon victory had already faded, and the young Corsican quickly felt it.

Having moved to Paris, he tried to achieve a new appointment. However, he refused to go to the Vendée under the command of Lazar Gosh on the grounds that he wanted to command artillery, not infantry. After that, he was dismissed without any special prospects for returning to the service - there were enough young and ambitious generals in the republic. At this time, next to him were two people who were the first to believe in the notorious "star" of Bonaparte - Marmont and Junot. Marmont later recalled that time with nostalgia:

“The three of us (himself, Napoleon and Junot) ended up in Paris. Bonaparte without a position, I without legal leave, and Junot as an adjutant to a general whom the government did not want to recognize. We spent time at the Palais Royal and in theaters, although we had almost no money and no chance for the future.

It is curious that all three lived mainly on the money that Junot received from his parents and won at cards (he was often lucky in the game).

They were literally saved by the royalist rebellion of 13 Vendemière (October 5), 1795. Barras, who remembered Bonaparte from the time of Toulon, entrusted him with the defense of the Convention. Having deployed 40 cannons at the Tuileries, Napoleon scattered the crowds of attackers with volleys of buckshot at close range, and then, going on a counterattack, completely defeated them. The rebellion was crushed in half a day. At this time, Junot was next to Bonaparte. When it was over, Napoleon said to him:

“If these fellows (rebels) gave me command over them, how the members of the Convention would fly into the air with me!”

Junot in Bonaparte's army

During Napoleon's First Italian Campaign, Junot was his aide-de-camp. This position did not in the least prevent the Burgundian from taking an active part in the battles. On August 3, 1796, during the Battle of Loano, Junot almost died while pursuing one of the enemy's uhlan detachments: breaking away from other units, he was surrounded and received six saber blows, including in the head.

Many note that it was after these injuries that the already rather complex character of Junot deteriorated significantly. They also talked about bouts of excruciating headaches, which over time became more and more frequent and prolonged. There were signs of progressive post-traumatic psychopathy. His wife Laura, in her memoirs, says that once Bonaparte, as a sign of location, decided to gently pull Junot by the hair - and his palm turned out to be in blood: one of the old wounds opened.

But back to Italy. Having barely recovered, Junot took an active part in the battles of Arcola and Tagliamento. As a result, already on May 10, 1796, he received the rank of brigade chief, which corresponded to the rank of colonel (although it was approved by the Directory only in September 1798).

On June 3, 1797, near the river Seignnot, Junot led a detachment that defeated the military units recruited by Pope Pius VI.

It was Junot who was sent by Bonaparte to Paris with the news of the first victories (this mission has always been considered very honorable). He also accompanied Napoleon's wife Josephine Beauharnais on her way from Paris to Milan. On the way, he began an affair with one of Josephine's companions, but Napoleon's wife for some reason categorically objected to this relationship.

In 1798, Junot was part of Bonaparte's Eastern Army, which set out to conquer Egypt. Here he received his first general rank - January 9, 1799. Participated in many battles, including at Abukir, Alexandria, Jaffa, was the commander of the French troops in the Suez region. He was especially famous for the Second Battle of Nazareth, in which, at the head of a small cavalry detachment, he held back superior enemy forces for several hours and personally killed the son of the Mameluke commander, Murad Bey.

Nicolas Antoine Tonet. General Junot at the Battle of Nazareth, 8 April 1799

And in this illustration we see an episode of the battle, when two Mamelukes attacked Junot at once, he shot one with a pistol, the other he hacked to death with a saber.

A. Ezhov. The feat of General Junot at the Battle of Nazareth, 1800

Some historians believe that it was from Junot that Bonaparte learned about Josephine's betrayal. However, this was written in English newspapers intercepted by the French, so it is unlikely that the commander's wife's adultery was a secret in the Eastern Army.

In Egypt, Junot received another severe wound, this time in the stomach, and the Turks or the Mamelukes were not involved in this. He was wounded in a duel by French General Pierre Robert Lanusse. Junot was the instigator of the duel, who did not like how Lanusse spoke about Bonaparte. Junot was sent to France for treatment, but the ship was captured by the British, and he returned to his homeland only on June 14, 1800, on the day of the battle of Marengo. Thus, Junot did not participate in the coup of 18 Brumaire (after which Napoleon became First Consul) and in the Second Italian Campaign of Bonaparte.

However, Napoleon did not forget his old friend. In 1801, Junot received the rank of divisional general and the important post of commandant of the capital, which he held for 4 years. In December 1803, he was also appointed commander of the Arras Reserve Grenadier Corps. After the coronation of Napoleon, Junot also received the post of Colonel-General of the Hussars of the Consular Guard.

Colonel-General of the Guards Hussars Jean Andoche Junot. Illustration by P. Courcelle from the book "Napoleon's Generals" (Osprey Publishing)

Laura Person: the "little plague" of General Junod

Junot's wife was Laura Adelaide Constance Person.

Marguerite Gerard. La Duchesse Abrantes et le General Junot, circa 1800

Her mother was a friend of Letizia Buonaparte, and Laura assured everyone that the young Napoleon almost became her stepfather - he allegedly wooed this "overripe" beauty. Junot's wife also claimed that their family was descended from the illegitimate offspring of one of the dynasties of the Byzantine emperors.

The first consul called it "the little plague." At the same time, as a family friend, during his stay in Malmaison, Napoleon often came to her house in the morning. According to Laura herself, in her bedroom the First Consul liked ... to read the latest newspapers, which the woman did not like and very embarrassed her. It ended up that one fine day in 1803, Bonaparte and Junot met in Laura's bedroom. It is not known what Junot thought then, but he pretended that he did not see anything reprehensible in the early visit of the First Consul.

Over time, Laura's excessive political activity and her dubious acquaintances began to annoy Bonaparte. He also cooled somewhat towards his friend, who was becoming more and more quick-tempered and irritable. As a result, in March 1805, the emperor sent Junot (along with his wife) to Lisbon, where he replaced Lannes as ambassador of the French Republic. Jean Andoche and Laura returned to France on the eve of a new war - the Third Coalition.

Later, Laura accompanied her husband during the war in the Iberian Peninsula, where she desperately intrigued against Henriette Leberton, the passion of Marshal Massena. Junot sided with his wife, and his relationship with the marshal, to put it mildly, did not work out. Ney also did not want to recognize Masséna's primacy. All this did not contribute to the success of the French weapons.

In 1808, in Paris, Laura Junot was for some time the mistress of the Austrian ambassador, the notorious Metternich, who, by the way, had similar relations before her with Murat's wife, Caroline Bonaparte (he was a clever diplomat, you won't say anything). Later, after the death of her husband, Laura became a monarchist.

She also became famous as the mistress of the young Honore de Balzac, who edited her memoirs. She was also well acquainted with Theophile Gauthier, who changed her title of Duchess of Abrantes into "Abracadabrantes".

Jules Leopold Boyi. Portrait of Laura Junot, 1836

At the end of her life, abandoned by everyone, Laura was in great need and died practically in poverty in 1838. At that time she was only 54 years old. She was buried in the Montmartre cemetery.

Grave of Laura Junot

The continuation of the military career of General Junod

During the battle of Austerlitz, Junot was next to Napoleon as his First Adjutant.

General Junot in the painting by Francois Gerard "The Battle of Austerlitz" (in a hussar uniform to the right of Bonaparte)

On January 19, 1806, he received the post of governor of the province of Parma and Piacenza. Here he severely suppressed anti-French speeches and was appointed commander of the troops in the Apennines. In July of the same year, having transferred his position to Marshal Catherine-Dominique Perignon, he returned to Paris, again becoming the governor of this city and commander of the First (capital) military district.

At this time, Junot entered into a relationship with Caroline Bonaparte and almost got into a duel with her husband, Joachim Murat. However, Bonaparte did not approve of the duel between the marshal and the general, but he scolded Junot very strongly. His wife later claimed that this unpleasant conversation with the emperor finally shook the already weak psyche of her husband.

To finally interrupt this romance, on August 2, 1807, Napoleon appointed Junot as commander of the 25th Observation Corps, intended for operations in the Iberian Peninsula. The emperor did not trust the local king, who, moreover, brazenly refused to support the Continental blockade of Great Britain. The occupation of Portugal was entrusted to Junot.

Junot in the Pyrenees

On September 18, Junot's corps crossed the border and moved towards Salamanca, and from it to Alcantara. On November 30, Junot entered Lisbon, the Portuguese royal family fled to Brazil and returned to Europe only 13 years later.

Satisfied, Napoleon bestowed on his old friend the title of Duke d'Abrantes and appointed him governor-general of Portugal.

Mary Evans. Andoche Junot Duc D'abrantes

But soon anti-French uprisings began in this country, which at first did not seem too dangerous. The situation escalated and worsened after the landing of the British, led by Arthur Wellesley (in the future - the Duke of Wellington). The denouement came on August 21, 1808, when Junot's army was defeated in a battle with superior enemy forces at Vimeiro (here the British for the first time in stories used shrapnel).

On August 30, an agreement was signed in Cintra, according to which the French left Portugal, and the British on their ships evacuated their troops to France. The terms of this agreement turned out to be very soft for the French side: the army retained both banners and weapons.

At the end of December 1808, Junot arrived at the besieged Zaragoza, where he took command of the III Corps of Marshal Moncey (Moncey). Soon Lannes arrived here, taking over the overall command. Junot was here until the fall of the city.

In June 1809, Junot was transferred to Germany, where he became commander of the reserve army with residence in Nuremberg, as well as commandant of Frankfurt.

In January 1810, at the head of the VIII Corps, he again ended up in Spain and successfully acted in the battle of Astorga.

On April 12 of the same year, he was subordinate to Massena, with whom he did not work out. Junot participated in the battles of Ciudad Rodrigo, Sobralo and Rio Mayor (where he was wounded on January 19, 1811). In June of the same year he returned to France. Then in February 1812 he was transferred to Italy, where he received command of the Second Observation Corps.

1812 year

Junot still hoped to be promoted to marshal. At his request, the emperor transferred his old friend to the Grand Army on the eve of its last campaign. Very soon, when Jerome Bonaparte left for Westphalia, Junot was appointed commander of the VIII Corps. Meanwhile, his illness progressed rapidly, his comrades-in-arms looked with horror at the rapidly aging and degrading Junot. Captain Dupuis described him in his memoirs as follows:

"I saw a fat man with a hunched back, with a broken and repulsive figure, dressed casually."

Reason was already failing Junot, and one day he mixed up letters addressed to his wife and mistress.

During the battle for Smolensk, his units, trying to bypass the left flank of the Russians, ran into a swamp and could not support Murat.

“Junot missed the Russians. I'm losing my campaign because of him."

said an annoyed Bonaparte.

Unsuccessful were the actions of Junot's subordinates during the battle of Valutina Gora. Junot was still considered the commander of the corps, but in the Battle of Borodino he no longer actually led it. The Westphalians were put at the disposal of Ney, they fought with the troops of General Baggovut and attacked the Bagration flushes.

During Napoleon's stay in Moscow, the VIII Corps occupied positions near Mozhaisk.

The army was already talking openly about Junot's madness. During the light intervals, he himself was aware of the depth of his fall and suffered greatly, realizing that he could not cope with his duties. Having already crossed the Berezina, he wrote to Napoleon:

“I started this campaign with a command that could bring me glory, and I end with a command below my rank, with which I can only complete the loss of my honor.”

At the beginning of 1813, Napoleon removed Junot from command of the corps and sent him to Venice - to the post of Governor-General of the Illyrian provinces. However, Junot just before our eyes turned into a deep invalid. He was tormented by constant headaches, and his psyche was absolutely upset.

Fouche was soon sent in his place, and Junot, who was dismissed, settled on his father's estate. Here, during one of the attacks, he, fleeing from some imaginary enemies, jumped out of the window and broke his leg, which he then tried to amputate on his own with a kitchen knife. Gangrene set in, and a few days later the insane general, before reaching the age of 42, died of sepsis. It happened on July 29, 1813.

Junot was buried in the cemetery of the city of Montbar. However, a monument in his honor can also be seen at the famous Pere Lachaise cemetery, where the graves of many of Napoleon Bonaparte's comrades-in-arms are located.

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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 28 July 2022 07: 50
    How the light from Bonaparte falls on people. If they don't kill you right away, you'll go down in history.
    The place for reading fresh newspapers is also chosen interestingly. However, the world sometimes goes crazy even in small things.
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 28 July 2022 11: 59
      Sergey, good day. Buonoparties by its name alone secures a place in history.
      Junot, which Junot? Psycho Bonoparte. And already a place in history. And if he had not been associated with Napoleon, he would have been remembered in a couple of years, no more than 3-5.
      There was a case on the collective farm: a booze hit the mentura and the gun on duty jiggled .. I don’t know how, but he shied the political officer in the lower abdomen. When he finished what he had done and was tearing up, he fell under a trailer and ...
      They only remembered him, Petrukha, that the "bolt" shot off.
      The political officer then went crazy: he decided that they did it on purpose and wanted to shoot the whole squad
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 28 July 2022 21: 39
        Greetings, Glory!

        Good story.

        The Russian people express themselves strongly! and if he rewards someone with a word, then it will go to his family and offspring, he will drag him with him to the service, and to retirement, and to Petersburg, and to the ends of the world. And no matter how cunning you later ennoble your nickname, even if you force writing people to derive it for hire from an ancient princely family, nothing will help: the nickname will croak for itself at the top of its crow’s throat and say clearly where the bird flew from
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 29 July 2022 15: 09
          Exactly said
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 28 July 2022 12: 09
      Hello, Sergey! smile

      The place for reading fresh newspapers is also chosen interestingly.

      Well, most likely Bonaparte knew what he was doing. wink

      But in general, Laura, apparently, was the same "gift":

      desperately intrigued against Henriette Leberton - the passion of Marshal Massena.

      She did not find another way to spoil her husband? Almost directly according to Sholokhov: "A woman is a woman and she will always have her harmful effect." (C)
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 28 July 2022 21: 41
        Hi Constantine!

        And according to Sholokhov, and according to Gogol, and according to Chekhov. Take whoever.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 29 July 2022 01: 31
          Great writers knew a lot about people. wink
  2. Fat
    Fat 28 July 2022 08: 09
    Thanks, Valery. A wonderful story. I won’t say bad words about General Junot, except that he’s definitely not “all right” with his “head” (Maybe for that time this is the norm) ... smile
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 28 July 2022 11: 35
      Borisych, my respect, do you want to say that then everyone was: "a little tavo"?
      And that time is crazy and people are crazy
      1. Fat
        Fat 28 July 2022 11: 59
        Hello Slav! The time, yes, was crazy, but not everyone enthusiastically sang "Sa Ira" and "La Marseillaise" ... "Evil forces" accumulated power to attack the newly acquired freedoms of the former low class yes
        From that, the whole bodyaga that followed happened ...
        And the direct profit was raped by the Rothschilds and others like them, the bankers. smile
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 29 July 2022 15: 12
          That's why Rothschild, in order to make a profit, but from where ... The second thing
    2. parusnik
      parusnik 28 July 2022 14: 44
      Andrey Borisovich hi
      Maybe for that time it's the norm
      Yes, what is the norm, if life hit him with a key and on the head, I mean injuries ..
      "- And the head is a dark object, it is not subject to research." (c) ... Yes, and he didn’t have a cast-iron one.
      1. Fat
        Fat 28 July 2022 20: 46
        I will share with you, Alexey, one amusing tale. It was very late in the autumn of 1987, I had just come from the army and got married.
        We sit in a change house, change clothes after work, Lazily talk ... I suddenly got angry that TB does not provide for changing mittens as they become all-consuming wet. To which the foreman told a curious story about
        Two Caucasians from the ranks of "military builders". There, on the 5th site, now the buildings of the shops of our military-industrial complex ...
        I'll cut the march smile They quarreled among themselves for the remaining unexplained reasons. One of the other, during the quarrel, launched an ax right in the forehead. Opponent caught, forehead. The soldier got scared and reported on command. The foreman comes to the "corpse" and it turns out that it is not a corpse at all, although with an ax in his forehead and a sea of ​​blood. He sleeps peacefully, and what can I say - service is not easy for a recruit. They took him to the hospital as soon as possible (there must be an emergency on the site). They made an x-ray in all projections for the affected person. And he has a thickness of the frontal bone 4! cm and without sinuses ... probably a Neanderthal request
  3. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 28 July 2022 08: 30
    According to the memoirs of Junot's wife, when the news of Junot's death reached Napoleon, he said: "He was a brave guy, this Junot. He went into the fire like to a ball."
    1. know
      know 28 July 2022 10: 36
      This is also written at the beginning of the article - the same quote.
  4. sivuch
    sivuch 28 July 2022 08: 48
    Marbo also wrote about Junot's roof that went crazy. He saw him in Spain.
    As for the surrender in Sintra, this is probably the only surrender in history when they wanted to judge the generals who accepted this surrender (spoiler - there was no long-nosed among them)
  5. know
    know 28 July 2022 10: 39
    A return to the theme of Napoleon's generals and a story about a man of interesting fate - a brilliant beginning and what a miserable absurd end. Indeed, it would be better if one of Junot's wounds turned out to be fatal - a brilliant young general would remain in history, who only a stray bullet prevented from becoming a marshal.
  6. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 10: 50
    After a painting by Gerard. I can assume that to the left of the general in the center, waving his arms, is the captive Prince Nikolai Repnin-Volkonsky, the commander of the cavalry guard squadron. This is to whom then curly-haired badass A.S. "Our Everything" Pushkin almost sent a challenge (well, he was generally particularly stubborn in this matter). Two more Russian cavalry guard helmets can be seen behind the prince...

    In 1808, in Paris, Laura Junot was for some time the mistress of the Austrian ambassador, the notorious Metternich, who, by the way, had similar relations with Murat’s wife, Caroline Bonaparte, before her (he was a clever diplomat, you won’t say anything).

    Yes, there was that goose. Even before the war of 1812, he knocked up the wife of our general Bagration (she lived abroad, separately from her husband).
    During the Congress of Vienna, he may have knocked up the married Countess Daria Lieven, the sister of Alexander Khristoforovich Benkendorf. Countess Daria behind her back was also considered a "woman diplomat" ...
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 28 July 2022 12: 12
      Countess Daria behind her back was also considered a "woman diplomat" ...

      There was "gunboat diplomacy", so why not be "blank diplomacy"? wink

      Hi, Nikolay! smile
      1. VLR
        28 July 2022 12: 19
        "Bed diplomacy" has a very long and fascinating history in its own way. But they do not bashfully focus on it. Here, Metternich is a great diplomat. Would he have been so successful if he had not also been such an exemplary male and male?
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 12: 46
          Here, Metternich is a great diplomat.

          The most cunning of the most cunning ... You can still recall Talleyrand, but he "served" no matter what. By the way, the topic for your new article!
          1. parusnik
            parusnik 28 July 2022 14: 37
            The smartest of the smartest...
            Foreign policy of the Republic of Ingushetia for Austria set up
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 14: 47
              Foreign policy of the Republic of Ingushetia for Austria set up

              Something like that.
              1. parusnik
                parusnik 28 July 2022 15: 09
                Especially with Poland, Alexander I abandoned Krakow in favor of Austria, and from Thorn and Posen in favor of Prussia. And he promised that he would give liberties to the Poles, which he fulfilled with honor. Poland became part of the Republic of Ingushetia as an autonomous state, with a constitution and parliament, an army and its own currency. Moreover, nothing was promised to the Polish lands, which went to the Prussians and Austrians. They became part of Prussia and Austria as a province. Self-government was granted, but so-so, purely symbolically.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 20: 51
                  Alexander in this case was a dunduk. In this I will support Valery's thoughts. It was necessary not to keep Poland for itself, flirting with the clinically crazy Polish nobility, but to give it to Prussia. And leave Galicia for yourself.
                  As a result, we would have had an incomprehensible small-town Prussian state that would have spent all its strength on fighting the ambitious, inadequate pans, and in Galicia ... what has grown would not have grown!
                  Perhaps there would have been neither Hitler nor Bandera.. Unfortunately, history has no subjunctive mood, Alexei Anatolyevich! request
                  1. parusnik
                    parusnik 29 July 2022 06: 44
                    Galicia was part of the Austrian Empire. To get it, Alexander had to exchange it for all of Poland. Do not forget that, in fact, the Congress of Vienna, went under the tune of Metternich and Great Britain, RI was destined for the role of a "wedding general". During the congress, before Napoleon's landing, an alliance against Russia had already been formalized. But his return changed all plans. Incidentally, Napoleon sent a treaty against Russia to Alexander, which Louis forgot when he fled. But Alexander did not use it in the future. And as a result, RI was given the Duchy of Warsaw like a bone, and even with the condition that there would be "love, carrots and democracy"
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 29 July 2022 09: 20
                      Interesting ... I did not know about such a "contract" at all ... belay Thank you!
                    2. VLR
                      29 July 2022 10: 05
                      Yes, Alexander was bred like the last sucker. It was necessary to be able to win like this - to win - and not get anything, except for the problematic territory, which became for Russia the "burning shirt of the centaur" (a hint at the death of Hercules).
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 28 July 2022 12: 55
          For the good of the state, all means are good. smile
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 12: 52
        Hi, Nikolay!

        Hi Uncle Kostya! drinks By the way, Countess Daria left notes, including one about the terrible night of March 12, 1801 - the night of the murder of Pavel Petrovich. Her husband's mother, Charlotte Karlovna, was the teacher of the younger children of the monarch, and, naturally, after the murder they were all awakened ...
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 28 July 2022 12: 59
          The conspirators were also "humane", in our time all the witnesses would have been sent the same way. drinks
  7. vladcub
    vladcub 28 July 2022 12: 02
    Valery, I thought that your "Napoleonism" was over. No, get in touch.
  8. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 28 July 2022 13: 00
    _In 1808, in Paris, Laura Junot was for some time the mistress of the Austrian ambassador - the notorious Metternich, who, by the way, before her had similar relations with Murat's wife - Caroline Bonaparte (he was a clever diplomat, you can’t say anything)._
    "... In addition to the ladies mentioned, the mistresses of this, no doubt, an outstanding statesman, by the way - married three times were: Daria Khristoforovna Lieven, nee Dorothea von Benckendorff, wife of Count Lieven, Ekaterina Pavlovna Bagration, wife of Prince Bagration, Princess of Courland, daughter of Peter Biron (her younger sister was Talleyrand's mistress), Ekaterina Fedorovna Dolgorukova, wife of Lieutenant General Dolgorukov, Marie Constance de Lamoignon, wife of Francois-Philibert-Bertrand Nompard de Caumont, French statesman... You can write an article about almost every one of these ladies, especially about Daria Lieven..."©
  9. parusnik
    parusnik 28 July 2022 14: 32
    An outstanding personality, but he did not pull on a marshal.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 28 July 2022 16: 49
      And the "marshal" in Bonapartist France is not a military talent, it is proximity to the "body".
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 28 July 2022 16: 51
        Rather, both of them .. There were no mediocre ones at all, as well as especially close mediocrity.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 28 July 2022 16: 55
          Of course, there were no mediocrity, but, say, Murat, is he a commander?
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 17: 05
            Of course, there were no mediocrity, but, say, Murat, is he a commander?

            He is better, he is the brother-in-law of the "great emperor" himself! wink Although on a horse he gave out miracles of heroism in tons. yes
            In the French TV series "Napoleon" (where Clavier is in the title role), the second series just ends with a massive cavalry attack led by Murat at Eylau. And everything is so picturesque and beautiful, the Gauls and the foreigners who joined them are chopping down "our gunners" ... fellow French filmmakers did not show only one thing - the attack eventually bogged down. repeat Not the last role in this was played by the Pavlovsk Regiment in their copper caps. angry
            And Napoleon's brother - Joseph - was married to Julie Clary, sister of Desiree Clary - Bernadotte's wife. This is the real Game of Thrones! laughing Bernadotte could also consider himself an indirect "relative" of a large Corsican family. drinks
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 28 July 2022 17: 15
              Although on a horse he gave out miracles of heroism in tons.
              Yes. "They won't send them further than the front, they won't give them less than a company."
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 17: 16
                Yes. "They won't send them further than the front, they won't give them less than a company."

                As a cavalry field commander, I think he was very good!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 28 July 2022 17: 30
                  You didn't catch...
          2. parusnik
            parusnik 28 July 2022 17: 10
            Napoleon about Murat: “There was no more decisive, fearless and brilliant cavalry commander ... He was my right hand, but left to himself, he lost all his energy. office - a braggart without mind and determination. "Yes, he was married to Napoleon's sister, but not Napoleon, he married him to his sister by force in order to make him his right hand.
          3. VLR
            28 July 2022 18: 37
            Yes, the Napoleonic marshal is not only a position, but also the highest title of the empire. But it was mostly marshals, not generals, who went down in history, although some generals would argue with them by talent. This suggests that Bonaparte understood people, saw not only military talent, but also the scale of PERSONALITY, and did not appoint anyone as a marshal. Here is the same Junot - his friend -
            he gave a ducal title, "marshal" in Bonapartist France, this is not a military talent, this is proximity to the "body". But he did not accept marshals. And he gave the marshal rank to someone gritting his teeth - he didn’t like the person. But he gave - he understood what was needed.
          4. Alexander Salenko
            Alexander Salenko 28 July 2022 20: 48
            Yes, he didn’t look like a marshal either, but he wasn’t so crazy, but Kutuzov’s march to Tarutino slept about the same as Junot maneuvering Bagration to Smolensk, Napoleon tore and metal.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 21: 02
              Yes, he didn’t pull on the marshal either, but he wasn’t so crazy

              Alexander, welcome! drinks Murat was brave, but far away. I agree. But how beautifully he died, however! "Save face, aim for the heart!"

              but Kutuzov's march to Tarutino overslept about the same as Junot maneuvering Bagration to Smolensk, Napoleon tore and metal.

              A bunch of bad matches. request For a roundabout maneuver, the troops made their way through the forest for a long time, Baggovut at the very beginning of the battle was torn off his head by a cannonball, and the Cossacks rushed to rob the convoy! So, the final defeat did not work out ... Kutuzov also hated Bennigsen from this, although before that he did not favor the bastard.
              1. Alexander Salenko
                Alexander Salenko 28 July 2022 21: 07
                drinks Greetings, but Baggovut was unlucky, and there is no doubt about Murat’s courage, Napoleon remembered him even in Paris. and it so happened that Murat is widely known, and Marengo Desaix who saved Marengo is much less known.
                By the way, I remembered Moreau, this is Napoleon’s opponent, of course, but under Hohenlinden he rolled the Austrians piecemeal, and sometimes it’s impossible to fight together, to go apart if the enemy acts decisively.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 28 July 2022 21: 26
                  and who saved Marengo Desaix is ​​much less known.

                  We somehow dismantled Marengo with his comrades at the forum "near Valery". There is also an alternative version - they say that Bonaparte accurately calculated everything, and Desaix's blow was struck according to a pre-calculated plan and schedule! request
                  By the way, I remembered Moreau, this is Napoleon's opponent

                  Valery wrote one or two articles about him. I must say, it differs from Pikul's interpretation ... what
                  sometimes it doesn't work out

                  In our hard work, the most scarce specialty is a good chromatographer! wink
                  1. Alexander Salenko
                    Alexander Salenko 28 July 2022 22: 04
                    Of course, I read Pikul, but I also saw the battle scheme. As for Marengo, yes, I didn’t understand, but, say, Pears near Waterloo did not come on time. There is a true version that he received a bribe, I don’t exclude it at all, because Napoleon’s prospects were not very good, he would have been strangled one way or another, even if he had won Waterloo. Under Liny, Blucher, in fact, he threw aside, at Quatre-Bras Ney did not really achieve anything, the soldiers were not the same. And those who, for the most part, remained frozen with us.
                    The problem is that there is no evidence of Grusha's bribe, and any historical statement must still be based on a source, but why didn't he come?
                    For example, the battle of Gettysburg began with a small brawl between southerners and northerners and grew into the most serious battle, the same thing, I almost don’t know here, I just read Moltke once, during the Franco-Prussian war. But, what if there were just some unforeseen obstacles?
                  2. VLR
                    29 July 2022 09: 56
                    There is also an alternative version - they say that Bonaparte accurately calculated everything, and Desaix's blow was struck according to a pre-calculated plan and schedule

                    Well, this is just a version, moreover, having the "flavor" of "alternative history".
                2. VLR
                  29 July 2022 10: 01
                  Murat was certainly the best cavalry commander of that era and, moreover, possessed the charisma that allowed him to drag squadrons of his subordinates behind him into frantic but successful attacks.
                  And as an independent commander, of course, zero. Napoleon was required, who told him - "do this and that." Murat went and did without hesitation, often doing the literally impossible. And Napoleon on the island of St. Helena regretted that at Waterloo there was no Murat, who, as he believed, was the only one who could crack the English squares.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 29 July 2022 11: 01
                    And as an independent commander, of course, zero. Napoleon was required, who told him - "do this and that."

                    It seems that of all the marshals of Napoleon, Davout was the most capable and independent.
                    And Napoleon on the island of St. Helena regretted that at Waterloo there was no Murat, who, as he believed, was the only one who could crack the English squares.

                    And Berthier! Which was also dependent without the "great emperor".
  10. icelord
    icelord 31 July 2022 13: 54
    Thanks for the article, well written.
    Basically, the story of Junot is well known, but the news for me was his own amputation with a kitchen knife, I read about amputation and gangrene, of course, but what about myself .... Do not take it for distrust of your competence, I believe, but I want to see the source too. Do not tell me? I'm not a specialist in Napoleonic, and this is not criticism, it's really interesting