Military Review

How did the authorities of the USSR and Russia squander nuclear potential in 80 and 90?

24
By now, the so-called Nuclear Club has formed in the world, made up of eight countries that have nuclear weapon. These countries, in addition to Russia and the United States of America, include France, Great Britain, China, the DPRK, Pakistan and India. Many experts say that Israel can also be called a member of the Nuclear Club, since Tel Aviv has weapons of mass destruction, but the Israeli authorities are trying to hide it with all their might.

Today, speaking of the Nuclear Club, few people recall that at least one of its representatives once suggested abolishing not only this organization, but also abandon testing and storage of nuclear weapons altogether. whatever country of the world. The initiator of such an idea in January 1986 was the Soviet Union, or rather its then leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. The idea of ​​Gorbachev and his inner circle was to ensure that on the basis of a phased program for 2000, not a single nuclear power remained on the planet, the USSR and the USA would stop the arms race and move to an economically beneficial partnership.

Today, every sane person understands perfectly well that such a proposal is a classic example of populism, which balances on the limit of common sense, because the opponents of the USSR obviously will not abandon their military power. But then it seemed to many that Gorbachev was indeed capable of leading the two countries, who had opposed each other for decades, on the path of rapprochement and universal fraternization. At least, the people very actively welcomed Gorbachev’s statements.

Obviously, the plan for the phased disbandment of the nuclear club, which at that time included the 7 states (the same, but without the DPRK), could not have been born in the head of the then Secretary-General.

At the end of July, 1985, Gorbachev introduced a moratorium on nuclear testing before the start of the next 1986 year (introduces, which is remarkable, without any agreement with the United States - unilaterally). At the same time, the document contains the words that the Soviet Union is ready to extend the moratorium if the United States supports the USSR in its endeavors and also announces a temporary ban on testing nuclear weapons.

Obviously, after hearing that the new leader of the Country of Soviets unexpectedly declares some kind of moratorium after several years of sharp political injections, withdrawals from agreements, a boycott of the Olympics in Moscow and Los Angeles, the American President Reagan, who by that time was during the second term he occupied a chair in the White House, decided that the Soviets were preparing another provocation, throwing the bait to the Americans. For obvious reasons, the Americans only grunted in response to the proposals of Secretary General Gorbachev and declared publicly that they would not support any moratorium. It would seem that the situation should once again follow the path of the classic Soviet-American confrontation, but Mikhail Gorbachev decided that the Americans needed to “help” understand his exceptionally good intentions ... The Soviet Union has since unilaterally decided to follow the path of self-disarmament ever since, expecting that the idea will be picked up by “partners” from overseas. This was an amazing precedent in world practice, because the usually rejected initiative of one of the opponents in terms of military cooperation and concessions to another immediately led to a new confrontation and a sharp aggravation of relations between these opponents. But Mikhail Gorbachev apparently decided to do everything to please the transatlantic “friends”, and therefore, after rejecting those proposals to support the moratorium on nuclear tests, not only did not give the order to abandon the Soviet moratorium, but also continued steps towards unilateral concessions.

In November, 1985, the famous Geneva meeting of Mikhail Gorbachev with Ronald Reagan took place, which presented a sufficient number of surprises, primarily for Americans. When leaving for this meeting, Reagan obviously believed that some ultimatum phrases would come from the Soviet Union that, they say, if you do not support our initiative on the moratorium on tests of nuclear weapons, then we will curtail our program, and then just for ourselves stop responding. It was to such statements of Gorbachev that the American side in Geneva was preparing. But events have followed a completely different scenario. In particular, the Soviet delegation continued to surprise Americans with generous gifts, the main one of which was that the USSR promised the United States not to cancel the unilateral moratorium on nuclear weapon test explosions even after January 1 January 1986.

After such a truly royal gift, Reagan began to look more closely at the new Soviet leadership, and apparently drew for himself that Gorbachev was the “guy” who himself was a great gift for the United States. Gorbachev’s pacifist slogans, which, after a statement on the extension of the moratorium, unilaterally also declared a desire to see a world without nuclear weapons, initially causing the American side only an incredulous grin, later she (the American side) decided to take the United States-Union basis. Having scrolled variations in their heads with the possible benefit that Gorbachev’s striking Gorbachev’s desire to make a positive impression on the West could bring to the US, the American authorities decided to “give a chance” to the Soviet leader to realize his plans. But what else? The main world opponent of the United States, which scared women and children, the Soviet Union, is itself saying that it is ready to disarm in full, and it’s a sin not to use it. And Moscow didn’t set any special conditions: they say, we are disarming, and if you support us in this, then this fact will be just blissful.

The United States, of course, decided to play world pacifism in a manner peculiar to them, which Gorbachev either did not guess, or pretended not to guess. Signing partnership agreements in the field of military and space technologies, Reagan follows a very original path. Already in February 1986, the American president announced that the USSR and the United States had embarked on disarmament, but he also eloquently adds that he is not going to stop projects under the Strategic Defense Initiative, which, first of all, are aimed at creating new types of weapons ( including space). It was a kind of message to American citizens who still could not understand why Reagan decided to go for rapprochement with Gorbachev. This message can be rephrased approximately as follows: friends, we shook hands with Gorbachev; he went on disarmament, and we will go our own way, because for us (the Americans) our own defense is first and foremost.

However, Moscow missed these words about the continuation of the US course on building up military capabilities, and more and more fell into a "friendly quagmire." With further agreement, the Americans managed to remove the question of forward-based weapons, but readily agreed to reduce ICBMs, which the USSR should have had less than 20% of the initial quantity by 1996. In addition, the United States and the USSR decided to take the path of destroying missiles on European territory. Mikhail Gorbachev actively supported such an idea, in fact not paying attention to the fact that it’s about the destruction of American and Soviet missiles, but nothing is said in the document about French and British missiles, and these countries were and continue to be American allies ( including the NATO bloc). In other words, the USSR was at a distinct disadvantage because the European nuclear parity would be more than obvious.

The most surprising thing is that even at the last moment, Washington didn’t support even such favorable conditions for the Americans as he wanted to get the opportunity to retain the right to conduct nuclear tests both on earth and in outer space, implementing the concept of missile defense (SDI).

As a result, an agreement between the USSR and the USA on disarmament was reached in December of 1987. As you can see, the Americans for more than 2 years “probed” Gorbachev for loyalty, and after controlling “probing” they decided that it was time to make a seemingly breakthrough step. As a result, December 8 1987 signed the so-called Washington Agreement, according to which the USSR undertook to destroy the RSD-10, P-12 and P-14 missiles, the United States - "Pershing-2", BGM-109G. These are short-range missiles. If we talk about medium-range missiles, the Soviet Union proceeded to sawing OTP-22 and OTP-23 missiles, and the United States - "Pershing-1A". When in the 1991 year they counted how many rocket complexes were destroyed by those and others, the result was quite interesting: the Americans reported on the destruction of 846 rocket complexes, and the USSR announced a “record” - 1846 units! ..

However, in the USSR, there was such a time that very few people thought about nuclear parity at that time. Mikhail Gorbachev by that time had already managed to get the Nobel Peace Prize, having done his job ...

It would seem that the leadership of the United States could only applaud the initiatives of Mikhail Gorbachev (which this leadership, in principle, did), but Washington, feeling the taste of blood torn to pieces of the country, craved more. His new wishes were to continue the incarnation of Gorbachev’s idea of ​​abandoning nuclear weapons of a single country. Recall that Gorbachev’s idea was to abandon nuclear weapons on a planetary scale, but the White House still liked the idea of ​​abandoning weapons of mass destruction within a single state, namely the USSR (Russia).

The land baton of pacifism 1 / 6 of the land after Mikhail Gorbachev was taken over by Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Guided by the difficult economic situation and the absence of not only real, but also even potential enemies abroad, Yeltsin sells weapons-grade uranium to the United States simply at bargain prices. Bypassing the parliamentary discussion in Russia in a deal between the Russian Federation and the United States, Washington sold about 500 tons of weapons-grade uranium. After another gift from the domestic authorities to the western partners, the Americans realized that Russia could be manipulated as they pleased. In particular, the unilateral withdrawal of the United States from the ABM Treaty was finally witnessed, since no significant threats could be expected from Russia drained by the middle of 90-s, and the Russian Federation after the sale of military uranium actually lost the ability to reproduce nuclear weapons . The then atomic energy minister Viktor Mikhailov put his signature on the sale of 235 uranium from the Russian side to the United States; more senior officials didn’t have a de jure relationship to the deal, but it would be foolish to assume that it was Mikhailov who initiated the continuation of unilateral disarmament of Russia.

But even the export from Russia of 500 tons of weapons-grade uranium did not temper the US appetites, since around the same time Moscow was “friendly” obliging the remaining uranium-235 reserves to be converted into 4% concentrate, which cannot be used for the production of nuclear weapons. The United States itself was able to use not only its reserves of weapons-grade uranium, but also uranium, which was brought from Russia.

It turns out that Gorbachev's words that the planet could become nuclear-free by 2000, in just 10 years (from 1985) have become a reality. True, the snag is that not the entire planet Earth became a nuclear-free one to 2000, but only a single country located on this planet. And the saddest thing is that this country is Russia — the country in which we live ...

Materials used:
http://old.nasledie.ru/politvne/18_24/18_24_1/article.php?art=0
http://coldwar.narod.ru/soglash.htm
http://www.ng.ru/world/2000-10-19/1_deal.html
The Moment of Truth program from 01.10.2012
Magazine "Golden Lion" №73-74
Author:
24 comments
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  1. grizzlir
    grizzlir 12 October 2012 08: 22
    +1
    The initiator of such an idea in January 1986 was the Soviet Union, or rather, its then leader Mikhail Gorbachev. The idea of ​​Gorbachev and his inner circle was that, on the basis of a phased program, by 2000 no nuclear power would remain on the planet, the USSR and the USA would stop the arms race and move to an economically viable partnership. Almost every demobilizer coming home in the 70-80s said that there would be a war. Besides the war in the worst sense, using WMD. As much as I did not relate to Gorbachev, the idea of ​​detente worried the previous leaders of the USSR. Many of them tried to agree on reduction of nuclear weapons, but the NATO countries didn’t really want to do that. So Gorbachev’s idea is not so bad, much worse than what happened with Yeltsin’s coming to power. Missiles that could have been armed for more than a dozen years, or in extreme cases could use For peaceful purposes, space exploration was simply destroyed by bombings. It should be understood that at the present time, we have very few silo-based ICBMs and have a life expectancy, while ICBMs on mobile platforms and sea-based can’t fully provide a deterrence factor.
    1. Sibiryak
      Sibiryak 12 October 2012 08: 38
      +2
      Quote: grizzlir
      So Gorbachev’s idea is not so bad, much worse than what happened with Yeltsin’s coming to power.

      The idea is not bad, but not feasible in principle, due to relations between the two countries! And secondly, the goal was different for this idea, so we have what we have at the moment. Not all that glitters is gold, as they say!
      1. grizzlir
        grizzlir 12 October 2012 09: 19
        +1
        I agree with you, the idea is utopian. It is imperative that someone hides a couple of dozen warheads in order to have a weighty argument at hour C. But then it was perceived as a blessing, as the end of a nuclear threat. Because everyone was preparing for war, I don’t know if you had learned the lessons or not GO in school. We had them every month, and gas masks and respirators were in desks in several classes.
        1. Sibiryak
          Sibiryak 12 October 2012 09: 34
          +1
          Quote: grizzlir
          I know whether you have found GO lessons at school or not.

          Unfortunately I didn’t have time, but I think that these skills are necessary not only in case of war and be useful in peaceful life, so if these lessons are revived, it will only be beneficial!
          1. SHILO
            SHILO 12 October 2012 16: 30
            0
            Call PID ... rum, so afraid of blue and insulted.
    2. Shuriken
      Shuriken 12 October 2012 16: 59
      0
      If a "good idea" were implemented, Russia would hardly be on the world map by now! We are grateful for our sovereignty only to the strategic nuclear weapons, no other weapons can be compared with NATO.
  2. mongoose
    mongoose 12 October 2012 08: 25
    -9
    why be surprised? Bolshevichki, however, that Gorbochev, that Yeltsin
  3. vylvyn
    vylvyn 12 October 2012 08: 58
    0
    Quote - "The idea of ​​Gorbachev and his inner circle was that on the basis of a phased program by the year 2000 there would be no nuclear power left on the planet, the USSR and the USA would stop the arms race and go over to an economically beneficial partnership."



    Quote - "The baton of pacifism for 1/6 of the land after Mikhail Gorbachev was taken over by Russian President Boris Yeltsin. Guided by the difficult economic situation and the absence of not only real, but even potential enemies abroad, Yeltsin sells weapons-grade uranium to the United States simply for According to the deal between the Russian Federation and the United States, which bypassed the parliamentary discussion in Russia, about 500 tons of weapons-grade uranium were sold to Washington.

  4. vylvyn
    vylvyn 12 October 2012 09: 20
    0
    These two m.udak - k.ozly and ........................................ ........................................
    ........ angry
  5. Lyokha79
    Lyokha79 12 October 2012 10: 17
    +2
    The "Moment of Truth" broadcast on October 1 was devoted to this topic. Under the Gore-Chernomyrdin agreement, Russia sold almost all of its uranium reserves to the United States. But talking about the sale can be a stretch, because the price was so meager that it was rather a gift to American "friends".
  6. Rus_87
    Rus_87 12 October 2012 10: 21
    +2
    Well, what can I say ... in any case, the hunchback worked his 100% Nobel Peace Prize ... for what it was handed to the barracks, it still remains a mystery to me personally ...
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 12 October 2012 18: 02
      0
      Rus_87,
      Again the practice of double standards:
      The hunchback - for the destruction of the country, the counterweight to the striped.
      Obama - for not killing more than he could.
  7. wolland
    wolland 12 October 2012 10: 25
    +1
    Stalin would have Gorbachev, he showed him the strength of spirit and courage, and there were times from the same surname Yezhov "kakalis" in his pants ..... It is impossible to judge the USSR and Russian squandering, everything was done by manipulation of our own state. posts ...... from here and conclusions.
    1. Marine One
      Marine One 12 October 2012 13: 48
      0
      Well then! We remember, we remember Ezhov Nikolai Ivanovich. Condemned to capital punishment for preparing a coup d'etat, as well as committing acts of sodomy, and not just anyhow, but for "anti-Soviet and selfish purposes." Anyone would have crumpled up here.
  8. mamba
    mamba 12 October 2012 10: 51
    +2
    Here it is the apotheosis of communist rule, under which, whatever the secretary general does, everything is "approved for stormy and prolonged." An exception is the anti-Khrushchev rebellion.
    Really in the leadership of the CPSU there were no sensible people, patriots and just honest people who would oppose Gorbi? Apparently, only the last bastards got to the level of the Politburo. It is enough to recall Shevardnadze’s boast that he made the greatest contribution to the collapse of the USSR. And these are the words of the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, the KGB general!
    The CPSU raised its grave diggers in its ranks. At the same time, they buried the country.
  9. Leisure
    Leisure 12 October 2012 11: 25
    +1
    And yet, almost squandered. The contract HEU_NOU, for the sale of the homeland, will end only in 2013. Homeland, let's say, is not expensive, somewhere around $ 8,8 billion. Despite the fact that the price for 1997 is underestimated by 1000 times.
    The United States has accumulated from 1945 to our time, about 550 tons of weapons-grade uranium, and keeps intact, and we "presented" our stock of 500 tons to them. at the "price of a potato". 20% of the electricity in the United States comes from our cheap uranium conversion, which is how we date the American economy.
    This "lucrative" deal was carried out under the auspices of the Gor-Chernomyrdin tandem, the then atomic ministry. in the person of Mikhailov and the head of the Russian Academy of Sciences Osipov, under the supervision of the FSB and the Office of the President, mines also indirectly participated. defense Grachev, from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Kozyrev and a number of other small organizations. They helped America to the fullest, whipped themselves.
    There was one positive point, this program helped to save the frames of the prom. nuclear industry enterprises.
    1. leon-iv
      leon-iv 12 October 2012 12: 43
      0
      keeps intact
      We study nuclear physics. And look at the chemical activity of uranium.
      There was one positive point, this program helped to save the frames of the prom. nuclear industry enterprises.
      The Americans we have already processed more than 30% of Australia’s uranium into finished rods.
      1. Leisure
        Leisure 12 October 2012 12: 57
        0
        Respected leon-iv,
        We study nuclear physics. And look at the chemical activity of uranium.
        What do you mean by that?
        1. Pashhenko Nikolay
          Pashhenko Nikolay 12 October 2012 19: 46
          +1
          He probably hints that a couple of billion years have passed and uranium has already turned into lead.
  10. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 12 October 2012 11: 33
    +2
    Just a wonderful illustration to the proverb about good intentions, as the world did not get better ... Gorbachev ditched many good projects ... the same program of hypersonic missiles and the Skif project ...
    1. 73petia
      73petia 12 October 2012 12: 25
      +1
      And in the air defense. In 1989 Buk M2 was ready for serial production. They stopped everything, announced a "conversion", dispersed the people from the factories so that they stopped paying wages.
  11. Check
    Check 12 October 2012 11: 54
    +6
    Despise this spotty shit, ruined and dumped over a hill am
  12. Budilnik
    Budilnik 12 October 2012 12: 34
    +1
    And Medvedev awarded Gorbachev the order. and the people poured a monument to Yeltsin. Who is smarter?
  13. smirnov
    smirnov 12 October 2012 12: 57
    +2
    Burn this labeled in hell for what he did.
  14. Marine One
    Marine One 12 October 2012 12: 58
    +1
    ... to refuse both tests and storage of nuclear weapons, whatever the country of the world. The initiator of such an idea in January 1986 was the Soviet Union


    I will make an addition. Initially, the plan for a total ban on nuclear weapons and the transfer of all atomic research without exception to UN control was presented by Roosevelt's adviser Bernard Baruch in 1946. At a meeting of the UN Security Council, the USSR vetoed the plan. Three years later, the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission itself closed.
  15. omsbon
    omsbon 12 October 2012 13: 09
    +1
    I repeat again and I will repeat!
    Spotted traitor and his clique must be judged! ! !
    1. Rus_87
      Rus_87 12 October 2012 15: 09
      +2
      Personally, it seems to me too late to judge him, time has passed, the train has left ... And Russia may have a lot of problems from such a court, not to mention the stench of all kinds of "human rights defenders" ... The only thing that can be done is not to praise him and others like him and not to give any orders, monuments and museums not to open! It is not necessary to make Gorbach and Borka national heroes, liberators, such Razin Walls! Let the younger generation know to whom Russia is indebted, and not only Russia, the entire post-Soviet space, to the horror and anarchy that existed in the 90s, the "glorious" echoes of which can still be easily met now ... Let them know, thanks to to whom the majority of the people in an instant found themselves below the poverty line and thanks to whom the profession of a military man and engineer, teacher and doctor mixed with garbage with "production waste" ...
      PS
      Not so long ago I saw a report on the museum of the first president of Russia, his wife spoke ... She really thinks that the EBN has done a lot of good for us and literally saved us from I don’t know what, but definitely very bad ... And somehow I feel sorry for her ..
      1. dmb
        dmb 12 October 2012 16: 37
        0
        And you do not spare her for her and those to whom she turned, he really did a lot of good. Shakhrai and Chubais, Burbulis and Berezovsky, Sobchak and Putin should be immensely grateful to him. With gratitude, of course, there will be problems.
  16. Budilnik
    Budilnik 12 October 2012 18: 34
    0
    I would have ripped off Gorbachev's head for the Oka. *

    * - "Oka" - an operational-tactical missile complex with excellent characteristics (designer - Invincible) with a range of up to 500 km. Not covered by the START-2 treaty. But at the request of the "friends" this u ... d liquidated him.
  17. sergant89
    sergant89 13 October 2012 01: 10
    +1
    And after all the deeds, after all the deeds, Tviterr Aifonovich still awarded the order, pah, evil is not enough, and Joseph Vissarionovich.
  18. sapulid
    sapulid 13 October 2012 02: 06
    0
    Let's be honest. Hunchback and Alcot did a lot to finish off the country and you and me, but the content of an excessive number of different types of missiles with nuclear charges was detrimental to the economy of the USSR.
    Another question is that the "spotted" one himself brought the country to the brink with experiments with the seizure of industries, vague cooperation, an incomprehensible "dry law" and the collapse of the law enforcement system.
  19. Feroma
    Feroma 13 October 2012 02: 16
    0
    What can I say, Gorbachev and Yeltsin are two of the greatest horrors of Russia for all times of the past and the future. The first vivid example of where the henpecked in power leads, the second drunk. The second died and to hell with him, the first even left his homeland, since the fate of the second awaits him in his homeland. Both left indelible catastrophic wounds on the body of the country, and for a long time their terrible drunken acts will go around.
  20. Lucky
    Lucky 14 October 2012 18: 24
    0
    The article is sad (((