Military Review

Spanish soldier of the XNUMXth century

141
Spanish soldier of the XNUMXth century

Landsknecht captain in an engraving by an unknown master with the initials HD, 1545


Article "Iron Duke" Alba. The beginning of the battle path" we said that this Spanish grandee had no prejudice towards people of humble origin, such were many of the commanders of his army. One of them was Julian Romero de Ibarrola, who, having started his service as a simple soldier, received a knighthood from the kings of Spain and England, the military rank of maestre de campo and became the commander of the Sicilian terce.

At home, he is the personification of a "simple hero" who has served his homeland all his life - honestly and without pathos. Sometimes he is called the "best soldier of Spain", and sometimes - the "watch dog" of the Duke of Alba. They talk with delight about the heroism shown in many battles, and with horror about the "Spanish fury" in Antwerp, which was plundered by Julian's subordinates. He was a soldier of his era, and it makes no sense to judge him from the point of view of our relatively "vegetarian", but at the same time very cynical and hypocritical time. Today we will just talk a little about this man.

The origin of the hero


Julián Romero came from a poor La Mancha family, which nevertheless claimed to be of noble origin. In Spain, since the Reconquista, there have been a disproportionate number of nobles whose ancestors once received the title of hidalgo for military merit - but that’s all: neither land nor money was attached to such a title.

Moreover, in the northwest of Spain there are historical the region of Asturias that was not conquered by the Moors. Many of its inhabitants have light skin (veins are visible on the forearms - the notorious "blue blood") and gray or blue eyes. And therefore, all Asturians, regardless of occupation, considered themselves nobles. In the famous novel by Cervantes "The Cunning Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha" one can read:

“A girl from Asturias was in the service of the owners ... The driver and Maritornes agreed in advance to have a fun night, and she gave him her word that when the guests calm down and the owners fall asleep, she will come here in order to quench his passion and fulfill everything that only he will not demand from her. And it was said about this glorious girl that she kept such promises even in those cases when they were given by her in a dense forest, and moreover without witnesses, for the said girl was very proud of her noble origin, which, in her opinion, could not humiliate service in a tavern, since the vicissitudes of fate and the misfortunes that have befallen her have brought her to this point.

This girl boasted of noble origin only because she was from Asturias.

By the way, as you can see from the map, the kingdom of Asturias also included the modern provinces of Cantabria and the Basque Country.


Kingdom of Asturias on the map


Administrative map of Spain

The economic situation of Spain in the XNUMXth century


Julián Romero de Ibarrola was born in the small town of Huelamo near Cuenco (modern Castile-La Mancha) in 1518. At that time, sheep breeding was the main branch of agriculture in Spain. Huge flocks of sheep (a total of several million heads) were driven twice a year across the entire peninsula: in spring from south to north, in autumn from north to south. On the way, they often destroyed crops in the fields of local peasants.

The influential association of large noble sheep breeders Honrado Concejo de la Mesta (from the Latin “animalia mixta” - mixing of cattle), created in 1273 by decree of King Alfonso X, was granted the right to unhindered driving of their herds throughout the country. At the same time, the peasants were forbidden to enclose fields, gardens and vineyards at the place where the herds followed, and the townspeople did not have the right to block the streets. In the same Madrid, cattle were driven for many years through the city center.


Main herd transportation routes

The fact is that Spanish wool was in great demand in Flanders, France and other European countries, its sale abroad brought a lot of income, from which taxes were paid to the treasury. The kings, interested in receiving the largest possible tax deductions, patronized the Mesta to the detriment of the farmers. So, in 1489, a decree was issued, according to which the Mesta had the right to use communal pastures at the place where the herds followed, and from 1501, the members of the Mesta could enter into permanent lease agreements for any piece of land where their herds grazed for at least some time.

Often, already plowed lands were given over to pastures, and in 1528 the Cortes noted with alarm the fact of a sharp impoverishment of the peasants: it was noted that many of them were "close to complete ruin." The Society of the Place, by the way, was abolished only in 1836. In the XNUMXth century, quite a few peasants, having lost their land, turned into farm laborers - peonies, and were forced to work for shelter and food. Others left the village altogether, becoming robbers, vagabonds or beggars.

In addition to wool, wine, olive oil, fruits, leather and metals were exported from Spain. But the main export commodity was still wool, which was exported from the country to the detriment of local manufactories. Due to the growing export of wool, cloth-making in Spain did not develop, and then local manufactories began to decline altogether, unable to compete with the products of Dutch, English and French competitors. Wealthy nobles and merchants preferred imported products, Spanish cloth makers produced mostly cheap and coarse fabrics for the poor local population.

A year before the birth of the hero of our article (in 1517), a new king came to Spain from the Netherlands - Charles I (since 1519 - Holy Roman Emperor Charles V). He was born in Ghent and at that time did not even know Spanish. Numerous Flemish advisers arrived with him, who ended up in the most important posts (including in the church). As a result, the Cortes at first did not even want to recognize Charles as king, and in 1519 in Toledo they put forward conditions supported by other cities of Castile: the king had to not leave Spain, pledged not to approve foreigners in government positions, promised to ban the export of gold and horses abroad.

But Charles, who was elected Emperor of the Roman Empire in the same 1519, did not fulfill his promises, and in May 1520 he left for Germany, leaving Cardinal Adrian of Utrecht as governor. This caused uprisings in a number of cities in Castile, as well as in Valencia and Mallorca. Karl, who was busy with European affairs, did not show any particular interest in his kingdom.

According to the customs tariff approved in 1546, it became more profitable to transport raw silk from Granada to Genoa than to Castile. Foreign merchants who exported raw materials abroad received such profits that Spain began to be called "Indies for foreigners." As a result, a persistent downward trend in production was formed, which continued under Charles's successor, Philip II, even though he tried (in vain) to ban the import of foreign cloth into the country.

In the second half of the XNUMXth century, many wool and silk weaving workshops were closed in Toledo. The production of silk in Granada and cloth in Zaragoza almost stopped. The production of cloth was significantly reduced (as well as its quality) in Segovia and Cuenca. To a lesser extent, the cloth and silk weaving in Seville suffered, but the products of its workshops were mainly exported to the colonies. The production of expensive thin fabrics has practically ceased, they are now imported from abroad.

In Cordoba and the cities of Andalusia, leather manufactories fell into decay. Gold and silver brought from the colonies did not reach the main strata of the population. Moreover, their influx contributed to the rise in the price of basic goods, and a significant part of American precious metals flowed abroad, enriching the bourgeoisie of the Netherlands, France and England, as well as German and Genoese bankers.

And Philip II, constantly receiving gold and silver from America, was forced several times to declare himself and the state bankrupt. Things got to the point that already at the beginning of the XNUMXth century in Spain itself, gold and silver coins practically disappeared from circulation, and copper money depreciated terribly. They say that at that time the weight of copper coins given for a wax candle was three times the weight of this candle.

The region of Castile-La Mancha - the birthplace of the hero, in Spain is called the country of castles, windmills, and also - "Land without water". As you understand, there could not have been a well-fed and rich area with such a name in the Middle Ages. Of the poor La Mancha hidalgos typified by Don Quixote, Cervantes writes at the beginning of his novel that three-quarters of their income went to food.

It is not surprising that Hualing Romero was forced to enlist in the army as a simple soldier at the age of 15.

The beginning of the military service of Hualin Romero de Ibarrola


Hualing began his military service in Flanders, first as a drummer, then as a pikeman. Two years later, his unit was among the troops that went on a campaign to Tunisia, captured in 1534 by the Ottoman admiral Khair ad-Din Barbarossa.


Sortie of Barbarossa's troops at La Goleta, fragment of a tapestry based on a drawing by Vermeyen, 1555

This campaign was successful: Barbarossa then fled from Tunisia, which, however, did not prevent him from becoming the master of the entire Mediterranean Sea very soon. From Tunisia, Julian Romero was transferred to Italy, where the future Spanish hero “pulled the strap” for 9 years and it seemed that nothing foreshadowed a great future for him.

This is how the "Procession of Landsknechts" is represented in the engraving by Niklas Stoer (first half of the XNUMXth century).


But there were also romanticized images, for example, an engraving by Lucas Cranach the Elder, in which St. George himself is represented as a landsknecht (40s of the XNUMXth century).


In 1542, the next Ninth (out of ten) Italian War began (these wars took place in 1494–1559), during which in the summer of 1544 the Spanish army besieged the city of Saint-Dizier, located in the north-east of France (these were then the Italian wars). On August 17, the city was surrendered, and Julian, who was here with the Spanish troops, set off from the Netherlands by sea home.

Some believe that Julian was among the soldiers demobilized from the Spanish army due to the fact that there was no need for their services yet. On the way, the ships with these soldiers entered Dover, where the head of Hualin, Don Pedro de Gamboa, received an offer from Henry VIII to transfer to the English service. Spain and England at that time were allies, the offer seemed to everyone advantageous, and the Italo-Spanish detachment of 300 cavalry riflemen turned out to be part of the English army.

They were of value primarily because they were fluent in a new progressive method of warfare, which was called caracol (caracol, translated from Spanish as a snail). From twelve to sixteen ranks of riflemen on horseback almost at a gallop drove up to the enemy's formation at a distance of a shot, the soldiers of the first rank fired alternately from two pistols and turned around, driving to the rear. Then the arrows of the next ranks entered the battle. When the horsemen of the last rank fired their shots, the first had already managed to reload their pistols. This fighting technique quickly became very popular in Europe and the French marshal Gaspard de Tavannes wrote in his memoirs:

“Since pistols were invented under Charles V, the German nobility, who had previously served in the ranks of the landsknechts, mounted horses and formed these squadrons 15 or 16 deep. These squadrons went on the attack, but did not make a breakthrough. The first line turns to the left, opening the way for the second, which, in turn, shoots, and so on, forming a "snail" to reload their pistols.


Illustration from a book on military art by Johan Jakob Wahlhausen, 1616

Duel in Montreuil-sur-Mer


On June 7, 1546, peace was signed between England and France, and then one of the most famous duels in world history took place. Julián Romero de Ibarrola opposed his compatriot, Captain de Mora. The fact is that one of the Spanish detachments, commanded by the Spanish nobleman - Captain de Mora (his name was either Antonio, or Cristobal), entered the service of Francis I. This circumstance greatly outraged Julian, who expressed his claims to de Mora : they say, what are you ... a bad person against the motherland and its allies are fighting.

Mora was a distinguished nobleman and was very indignant at the "collision" by some beggar hidalgo. He answered him that he was fighting on the side of honest Catholics, but Julian Romero was in the army of vile heretics and enemies of the church - Protestants.

In general, hot Spanish men inflicted insults on each other that are incompatible with life (at least a quiet life). They decided to fight a duel, not only for themselves, but also for the monarchs: Julian represented Henry VIII, More - Francis I.

The idea of ​​such a duel led everyone into wild delight, and in Montreuil-sur-Mer a classic (as in chivalric novels) tournament field was organized with stands, on which Francis and his heir, official representatives of Henry VIII and many specially arrived aristocrats from other countries. Sometimes you have to read that the duel took place in Fontainebleau, which seems unlikely.

The entourage was appropriate - with heralds and beautiful ladies, coats of arms of two crowns, luxurious costumes of spectators. The participants of the duel were dressed in armor with closed helmets, armed with either Gothic swords, or wide-bladed rapiers resembling them, estoks (intended for injections into weakened places of armor) and dagas (daggers for the left hand, used in fencing).


Rapier, made in Toledo around 1590. As a rule, rapiers have a complex guard with a system of parrying loops and rings and a protective bow for the brush, they may have a ring or cup guard


Different types of rapiers in the illustration of the book Stone GC A Glossary of the Construction, Decoration and Use of Arms and Armor: in All Countries and in All Times


Gothic sword - a conventional name, according to Oakeshott's classification, such swords belong to the XV-XXII types, have a faceted blade and are designed for an accurate piercing blow, they replaced the swords of the "Roman type"


Spanish daga, around 1600


Estoc, end of the XNUMXth - beginning of the XNUMXth century, Army Museum, Paris (such swords are also called panzerstekers or konchars)

According to the recollections of eyewitnesses, the aristocrat de Mora then demonstrated his nobility with all his might, and the former ordinary landsknecht Julian Romero showed an indomitable desire to win. Since Mora was a cavalryman, and Julian was an infantryman who had only recently mounted a horse to "caraculate" on it, everyone believed that victory would be on the side of France. And, indeed, the first part of the fight was won by de Mora. At first, he knocked the rapier out of the hand of his opponent, but then he threw his own too - the opponents exposed the escots. Then Mora, to the applause of the public, with a deft lunge killed the opponent's horse.

However, Julian, who jumped off the falling horse in time, for some reason did not consider himself defeated. Contrary to Mor's calls to admit defeat and end the fight, he simply ran around the carcass of his horse, dodging blows. According to some sources, Mora shouted that he did not wish Julian harm, according to others, he assured him that he did not want to kill.

For some reason, Mora did not get off his horse: either he believed that his opponent would be stronger in a foot fight, or he was waiting for a signal from the steward to end the fight for his clear advantage. This parody of a joust went on for quite some time, and Mora let his guard down.

In the end, choosing the moment, Julian in a sharp throw, jumping over the corpse of a horse, was able to hit his opponent's horse with an escort. At the moment Mora was dismounting, he knocked him to the ground, cut the helmet straps with a dagger and put a dagger to his throat. Maura had to give up.

Many noble French nobles were unhappy with this outcome of the duel, but grateful spectators, including the king of the losing side, applauded the hero. Julián Romero received a gold chain from Francis I, and Henry VIII, who was moved by the news of "his" victory, granted his duel a knighthood with a life annuity. True, it was canceled under Elizabeth I. However, according to other sources, Julian received the title of knight-banneret (serving the lord under his own banner) in 1547 after the Battle of Pinky Cloud.

In the next article, we will continue the story of Julián Romero de Ibarrol.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 8 July 2022 06: 02
    +10
    Having got rid of the "Arab yoke", they quickly brought the country to decline. The conquerors, the Arabs, started silkworms, irrigation, libraries (free), universities .. Symbiosis, after the Reconquista did not work .. Even the crazy gold and silver of America did not bring prosperity. "Greed, Billy, ruined" (c)
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 8 July 2022 07: 14
      +8
      crazy gold and silver america
      Just like that, it ruined it.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 8 July 2022 08: 59
        +4
        I got the impression that the decline of Spain is still a consequence of the empire. So to speak, the first country destroyed by its own empire.
        1. know
          know 8 July 2022 10: 29
          +6
          Charles I (V) has a direct analogy with the Soviet general secretaries: the resources of the system-forming territories (Spain and Russia) and the super-profits received (in Russia - from natural resources - not only Siberian oil and gas), (in Spain - from wool and imported to Spain American gold-silver) were used for the development of other countries, which then sent Russians and Spaniards into three cheerful letters and declared conquerors, oppressors, "bloody orcs" and so on.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 8 July 2022 11: 06
            +3
            No, not traceable
            Spain was poor in resources.
            The resource base of the Spanish Empire was only America. But imperial obligations grew faster than revenues, which, moreover, were not regular.
            Spain was not an analogue of Moscow. This is a "globalist project" in its purest form.
            1. parusnik
              parusnik 8 July 2022 11: 51
              +4
              There are more internal reasons. One of them is a decrease in the population. Jews and baptized Morisco Arabs were expelled, wars, famine, epidemics and emigration of part of the population, here who goes where, who back to Africa, who to the Netherlands, who to America. From here, cultivate the land no one, lack of food, plus high taxes on everything that they produced at home, it was not profitable to produce, except for the domestic market, you produce less tax, and the imported goods cost less. They began to fall apart due to an unreasonable economic policy. the European colonies, the Netherlands, felt themselves, and only then the American ones, when they seemed to be a little comfortable. Yes, and throughout the 19th century, Spain was shaking in revolutions and dynastic wars, as well as in the 20th, revolutions, civil war. During WWII, rose on the trade of tungsten to both sides. But in the end, they became a resort in Europe.
              1. VLR
                8 July 2022 12: 03
                +3
                Yes, there were states that "raised" very well in the Second World War. The Swedes built their "socialism" in two world wars. Portugal increased its gold reserves from $63 million in 1938 to $438 million in 1946. On May 8-9, 1945, the Swiss must have shed bitter tears. Yes, and the Americans came out of the Great Depression only on military orders. If not for the Second World War, the States would be, perhaps now, a second Brazil.
                1. parusnik
                  parusnik 8 July 2022 12: 36
                  +3
                  "Tungsten Rush" in Spain had much in common with "Gold" in Alaska. Franko, there was still a beetle, to Alozievich, he sold tungsten exclusively for cash and not cheaply.
                  1. astra wild2
                    astra wild2 8 July 2022 15: 08
                    +1
                    "not cheap," he probably said to Adalf: "Senior Adolf, the ideas of fascism are certainly good, but the ideas need to be financially supported. Otherwise, I will sell to others"
                    1. parusnik
                      parusnik 8 July 2022 16: 45
                      +3
                      Franco, also successfully sold tungsten to the British ..
                      1. astra wild2
                        astra wild2 8 July 2022 16: 49
                        +1
                        He probably told them something like this, but without the ideas of fascism
                2. Luminman
                  Luminman 8 July 2022 16: 28
                  +4
                  Quote: VlR
                  would be the States, perhaps now, the second Brazil

                  In the USA, as in no other Europe, there was a developed metallurgical industry, chemistry, electrical engineering, auto-ship and machine tool building. During the years of the first five-year plans, they supplied us with entire factories on a turnkey basis. America's resources were limitless. I think that the comparison with the "second Brazil", which still does not have all this, is not entirely appropriate ...
                3. Popov Artyom
                  Popov Artyom 19 September 2022 22: 32
                  -3
                  What nonsense. The Swiss were forced to sell the same gold to the Reich for Deutsche Marks (not accepted by anyone else in the world). Switzerland's exports collapsed, as did imports; it urgently had to triple (!) the area of ​​agricultural land. In addition, Switzerland for many years kept a huge number (more than 3 thousand) of internees of various nationalities, had to feed, clothe, and warm them. Incredibly profitable business!
              2. astra wild2
                astra wild2 8 July 2022 15: 12
                +1
                Alexey, you also have to pay for the resort. They don't have a weak budget for resorts.
        2. mihaylov
          mihaylov 8 July 2022 10: 40
          +3
          Quote: Engineer
          that the decline of Spain is still a consequence of the empire. So to speak, the first country destroyed by its own empire.

          Good afternoon, can you expand on the thesis in more detail? hi
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 8 July 2022 11: 28
            +10
            Good afternoon,
            There is an absolutely wonderful book that formed the basis of my conclusions.
            https://www.ozon.ru/product/ispaniya-doroga-k-imperii-3901431/?sh=HKGZKcij2Q
            Spain began its empire-building as a disunited country, not only a nation, but also a people. Asturians, Basques, Galicians, Catalans, etc. And everyone hated the conditional "Muscovites" - the Castilians.
            Imperial obligations now fell upon this immature formation.
            As a result, a monstrous deformation occurred - our own industry does not develop because of the globalist concept in the economy. Spain has nothing to offer the empire except the prowess of its soldiers. The Italians rule the finances, the fleet is recruited from the Portuguese, Basques, Flemings. Trade is utterly inadequate and America's Viceroys turn a blind eye to trade with the enemy.
            The Spaniards look with disappointment at their own imperial project in which they are one of many, and wealth is constantly flowing away due to the fact that obligations exceed income.
            A contemporary noted bitterly that Brazilian sugar during the period of Spanish rule in Portugal was three times cheaper on the London Stock Exchange than on the Lisbon one. This despite the fact that trade with England through the colonies is prohibited.
            The Spaniards themselves recognized their weakness in trade and navigation, which meant, in fact, the transfer of funds from Spain to those who knew how to do both - England, Holland, France.
            An incredibly ugly construct was created. Generations of Indians in Mexico and Peru died by the tens of thousands in the mines, silver flowed away to the aforementioned Dutch and others who organized the smuggling trade with the "Indies", which Spain, in principle, could not provide. And the rest ended up in Italian banks that financed the empire, which lived in a constant cash gap. The most powerful pump pumped money, and the Spaniards were only an impeller in it.
            Investment in the Spanish economy was at a minimum. Imperial project as it is

            And when, after the war of the Spanish Succession, all greatness collapsed, the Spaniards again found themselves in a poor disunited country, but without the glorious Spanish infantry, which became a complete crap. The country just broke.

            And this is without any "black legend" about the "cruel, obscurantist Spaniards"
            1. mihaylov
              mihaylov 8 July 2022 11: 39
              +3
              Spain began its empire-building as a disunited country, not only a nation, but also a people.

              Did I understand correctly that due to the circumstances, Spain became an empire before it became a normal country? and in accordance with this, the "base of the empire", that is, Spain itself, for this reason, simply could not "pull" such a burden?
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 8 July 2022 11: 45
                +2
                So.
                1. mihaylov
                  mihaylov 8 July 2022 11: 49
                  +2
                  Quote: Engineer
                  So.

                  Thanks, I'll have to buy the book. hi
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 8 July 2022 11: 52
                    +3
                    Highly recommend. Selectively compared with the original. Translation 10 out of 10. Fantasy
                    PS The author lives in Spain and is married to a Spaniard. Therefore, it is completely free from historical Anglocentrism
                    1. mihaylov
                      mihaylov 8 July 2022 11: 58
                      +2
                      Quote: Engineer
                      Translation 10 out of 10. Fantasy

                      Yes, I agree, translation is paramount. Recently I decided to get acquainted with the newfangled book "Against the Grain": a terrible translation, it seems like a poorly processed Google translation, not readable at all. hi
                      1. Engineer
                        Engineer 8 July 2022 12: 07
                        +1
                        Maybe it's the same in the original?
                        I respect Jared Daymond very much, (Gumilyov is a healthy person laughing ) but the language is so-so. Stringy, with self-repetitions.
                        Bishop, for comparison, writes about purely technical things, a narrow focus, but concisely, capaciously, voluminously and very informatively.
                        Namba van for me among antiquities.
                      2. mihaylov
                        mihaylov 8 July 2022 12: 12
                        +2
                        Quote: Engineer
                        Maybe it's the same in the original?

                        Perhaps my English is at the level of "explain at the hotel", so I can't say anything.
                        And Diamond seems to read normally in Russian, but maybe this is the merit of the translator.
                    2. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 July 2022 16: 29
                      +2
                      historical Anglocentrism
                      What a wonderful definition!
                      Bravo, Denis!
                      1. Engineer
                        Engineer 8 July 2022 16: 52
                        +1
                        I can assume that you do not favor English scientists)
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 8 July 2022 17: 02
                        +2
                        From what, I'm sorry. But as you have noticed, on the example of Daimod, there is a lot of “water” in their works, that is, “blah blah blah and facts from the side”. The French historical school is much closer to me.
                      3. Engineer
                        Engineer 8 July 2022 17: 42
                        +2
                        on the example of Daimod

                        "So he is Bulgarian" (c)
                        American)
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 8 July 2022 17: 49
                        +2
                        Yes. But the instinct laid down by the "school" cannot be drunk away.
              2. Popov Artyom
                Popov Artyom 19 September 2022 22: 38
                -3
                Only in 1469, through a dynastic marriage (and then - an escheat inheritance), Castile and Aragorn formally "united". But there were other Spanish states. They have been so customizable that Catalonia still considers itself a separate nation.
            2. parusnik
              parusnik 8 July 2022 12: 31
              +2
              Asturians, Basques, Galicians, Catalans
              At present, in their regions they speak local languages, literary Spanish, for interethnic communication.
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 8 July 2022 12: 37
                +1
                This is one of the theses. We play empire, but we ourselves are not a single people from the word in general. I don't even stutter about the nation. And the "titular" nationality - the Castilians are universally hated.
                Somewhere I have already seen it laughing
                1. parusnik
                  parusnik 8 July 2022 12: 46
                  +3
                  But it would seem, yes? So much time has passed, how many centuries they live under the same roof and not in a federal, but in a unitary state. Where for autonomy, mainly the Basques are fighting. The rest have a move, but not like that. And they don't all stick together.
                  1. mihaylov
                    mihaylov 8 July 2022 14: 18
                    +1
                    Quote: parusnik
                    The rest have a move, but not like that. And they don't all stick together.

                    Well, maybe the rumors about their separatism are somewhat exaggerated?
                    1. parusnik
                      parusnik 8 July 2022 16: 42
                      +2
                      And I’m not exaggerating that there is, that is, but the movements are not massive, they are not particularly eager to leave Spain, and they don’t want to, so .. teaching the local language, more rights for the regions ..
                      1. VLR
                        8 July 2022 20: 13
                        +2
                        When I was in Catalonia - and this was shortly before their independence referendum, they showed me this sticker - on cars, on doors, and so on:


                        And they said: this is a Catalan donkey, a sign of local patriots (or - nationalists, from which side you look) who will vote for the exit from Spain - unlike the Spanish bull. Like, the bull is strength, aggression, and the donkey is diligence and diligence.
            3. Luminman
              Luminman 8 July 2022 16: 39
              +1

              Spain began its empire-building as a disunited country, not only a nation, but also a people. Asturians, Basques, Galicians, Catalans, etc. And everyone hated the conditional "Muscovites" - the Castilians

              It's like that!
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 8 July 2022 16: 53
                +3
                Great, my post is upvoted)
      2. mihaylov
        mihaylov 8 July 2022 10: 34
        +2
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        crazy gold and silver america
        Just like that, it ruined it.

        Damn metal!!! laughing
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 8 July 2022 06: 39
    +4
    Not only Don Quixote wanted jousting. Thirst for spectacle. And there's always a suggestion
  3. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 8 July 2022 07: 00
    +5
    Estoc, end of the XNUMXth - beginning of the XNUMXth century, Army Museum, Paris (such swords are also called panzerstekers or konchars)
    I’ll add from myself that with a single general purpose, these blades still differed from each other. Konchar had a pronounced saber hilt and guard. The Panzerbrecher was distinguished by a horizontal S-shaped guard, characteristic of the German weapons school.
    Thank you, Valery!
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 8 July 2022 09: 15
      +6
      The Panzerbrecher was distinguished by a horizontal S-shaped guard, characteristic of the German weapons school.

      Pay attention to the title photo to the article! In 1545, espontoons were already quite common. Indeed, until the beginning of the 18th century, some armies used protazans, some used espontons. The 18th century (after Peter I) - already espontoons for everyone.
      1. mihaylov
        mihaylov 8 July 2022 10: 42
        +5
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        Indeed, until the beginning of the 18th century, some armies used protazans, some used espontons. The 18th century (after Peter I) - already espontoons for everyone.

        Espontoons have won! I knew it! laughing
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 8 July 2022 15: 22
          +4
          Espontoons have won! I knew it!

          By the way, I wonder why... Is it easier to make a blade? or...
          1. mihaylov
            mihaylov 8 July 2022 15: 24
            +4
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            or...

            maybe a conspiracy theory? wassat
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 8 July 2022 15: 33
              +4
              Just espontons from the word "show-offs".
              But not those that are seas, but those that are more expensive than money.
              1. mihaylov
                mihaylov 8 July 2022 15: 43
                +5
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Just espontons from the word "show-offs".

                I agree, the military in some 18th century cannot do without it - they will laugh at it!
                You go out on the battlefield so bespontovy, and instead of shooting, they neigh laughing
          2. Phil77
            Phil77 8 July 2022 19: 09
            +1
            Quote: Pane Kohanku
            or.

            Nikolay! laughing
            Not even threatening, but revealing.
            -Explain! Or??? laughing
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 8 July 2022 19: 52
              0
              Nikolay!

              Serge, there is a rule. What licked is yours!

              1. Phil77
                Phil77 8 July 2022 20: 49
                +1
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                . What licked is yours

                You give it to me!!!
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 8 July 2022 18: 20
        +1
        And here the people in general have a lot of all sorts of different things.



        Hi, Nikolay! hi
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 8 July 2022 19: 08
          +2
          Hi, Nikolay!

          Hello Uncle Kostya! The last row on the far left is interesting. The halberd has been the universal infantry weapon since the 14th century. It was possible to distribute life-giving cuffs to the knight, and to counter his fellow infantryman. But the 17th-18th century halberd is already the same status weapon of infantry non-commissioned officers. And the gunners had a palnik. A short spear with a not very pronounced blade, but there were sockets for sticking lit fuses. An artillery non-commissioned officer set fire to the fuse with them, and he defended himself from a fierce enemy, on occasion.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 8 July 2022 19: 12
            +2
            But the 17th-18th century halberd is already the same status weapon of infantry non-commissioned officers.

            And in battle, what did they do with it, throw it away (especially in the 18th century)? There were weapons and more serious. wink
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 8 July 2022 19: 58
              +1
              And in battle, what did they do with it, throw it away (especially in the 18th century)? There were weapons and more serious.

              Hardly thrown away. According to a number of sources, our officers burned the shafts of the espontons in bonfires at bivouacs during the crossing of Saint Gotthard. In the last glorious Suvorov campaign! soldier
              A weapon not shown at all in Soviet films. And it was. And, in general, it was necessary sometimes. what You won’t get much against a rider or an infantryman with a bayonet - a skewer ... If you remember, the Cossacks used pikes both during the First World War and during the Civil. For it was necessary to quickly break through the infantry formations bristling with bayonets. request
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 8 July 2022 20: 13
                +1
                A weapon not shown at all in Soviet films.


                And where did you get this weapon? For "War and Peace", the Three-rulers were reworked as much as they could, so that they would at least somehow look like what they fought then, but the hands no longer reached the espontons. smile
  4. Fat
    Fat 8 July 2022 07: 46
    +6
    hi Thanks, Valery. I read it with great pleasure. The article turned out to be very interesting. Great illustrations.
    Hello colleagues.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 8 July 2022 19: 24
      0
      Quote: Thick
      Hello colleagues.

      Hi Borisych!
      In past comments on the question of Svyatoslav, apparently I didn’t “get into the topic.” I wrote about those who, being a Hero of the Soviet Union, were captured during the Great Patriotic War. Specifically. Well, it seemed that Svyatoslav was interested in that particular period. hi
      1. Fat
        Fat 8 July 2022 19: 41
        0
        hi Seryozha! I understand. Let's leave some points out of the public eye, especially since nothing prevents you from turning directly to Svyatoslav. Everything has long been calculated, where, who and for what. And published.
        Do not be offended, Sergey ... Yes, we, in short, have already explained ourselves and almost everything is already archived, available on the network ...
  5. kor1vet1974
    kor1vet1974 8 July 2022 08: 02
    +4
    1547 after the Battle of Pinky Cloud.
    So-so battle, a showdown between the Scots and the British. The Scots to the dust .. Unorganized and undisciplined (each commander, his own director), weakly expressed, albeit a large army of the Scots, was opposed by a not large, but well-organized English army, which showed excellent interaction between various military branches: infantry, cavalry, artillery, navy.
  6. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 8 July 2022 08: 15
    +3
    Thank you for the article! Very interesting! good
  7. Alexander Salenko
    Alexander Salenko 8 July 2022 08: 19
    +5
    He was a soldier of his era, and it makes no sense to judge him from the point of view of our relatively "vegetarian", but at the same time very cynical and hypocritical time.

    Golden words, how sometimes people get bored, climbing with their morality in those times that were not as good as painted in novels, life was hard, and the concept of personal space was completely absent. But more honestly, although of course there were swindlers even then. Now the hero of the article would not be understood: you are a mercenary, what difference does it make who you serve?
  8. faterdom
    faterdom 8 July 2022 10: 05
    0
    Never heard of Ibarolla.
    We are better known with Ibarruri - Dolores and Ruben.
    Maybe descendants? Tran
    naming a surname after 4 centuries is quite possible.
  9. sivuch
    sivuch 8 July 2022 11: 06
    +2
    St. George Durer is clearly not a landsknecht. If only because the latter never wore full armor with leggings and sabatons. Try walking around in these for a few hours.
    Maximum - three-quarter, as in the upper engraving. Yes, and the kid is holding an armet helmet nearby, a spur is lying nearby. No, not landsknecht
    1. VLR
      8 July 2022 11: 14
      +5
      Well, at least the engraving by Cranach (not Dürer) is signed as St. George - landsknecht. Maybe the artist was not strong in such matters, but maybe - "I saw it that way." He believed that it was precisely such armor and such weapons that the saint was entitled to, whether he was at least a landknecht, even a Roman praetorian. And try to forbid him "to see" like that.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 8 July 2022 18: 18
        0
        engraving by Cranach (not Dürer) is signed as St. George - landsknecht.


        Saint George the mercenary? smile

  10. parusnik
    parusnik 8 July 2022 12: 17
    +4

    This is a portrait by El Greco, which depicts "Julian Romero and his patron saint"
    1. VLR
      8 July 2022 12: 29
      +4
      Yes, about this portrait and even a little about the saint - in the next article.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 8 July 2022 12: 40
        +2
        Heroes of the article, you need to know in person laughing
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 8 July 2022 17: 24
      +1
      And which of them is who? How similar are twins.

      Hi Aleksey! smile
      1. VLR
        8 July 2022 17: 34
        +2
        In the next article smile
        Specially found out who is who, and what kind of saint
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 8 July 2022 17: 43
          0
          Specially found out who is who


          El Greco's faces in all the paintings are elongated and very similar, all due to the peculiarities of his vision. smile
          1. Fat
            Fat 8 July 2022 18: 17
            +2
            hi Hello Konstantin. Well, otherwise “I don’t understand the Impressionist painting” .... But in the peculiarities of the vision of Hoffmaler Velazquez. Yeah.
            Portrait of the Infanta Margarita, perhaps you will be surprised. Quite a round-faced girl, however
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 8 July 2022 18: 25
              +1
              Or maybe her face itself was deformed in a different projection. laughing (joke).
              If a large sheet lies horizontally, then all images are deformed, so often the area for work is divided into squares, it is easier to maintain proportions.
              1. Fat
                Fat 8 July 2022 19: 00
                +1
                Each person has a peculiarity of vision, for example, Serov saw almost 500 shades of green ... Some women see themselves in the mirror as fat and lose weight to death. Everything would be “normal”, but a couple of times “sets of bones sparingly covered with dry skin” I was able to see ... Features of vision? Yeah. I have only one question in my head stirred. She has a boyfriend, I saw. How can such a girl survive family life.
                PS. I can't help but perceive a lot in terms of weight control. With a height of 187, I have never been able to gain more than 100 kg. laughing
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 8 July 2022 19: 18
                  +1
                  "sets of bones sparingly covered with dry skin"


                  Well, it's a complete nightmare! I knew one such - the nickname was "Lena - the queen of bones", the men bypassed her, then suddenly he found an amateur and got married, human tastes are inscrutable, or maybe she had some other dignity, I don’t know, and didn’t want to find out. request
                  1. Fat
                    Fat 8 July 2022 20: 17
                    +1
                    Yes, really .. Somewhere like that ...

                    The ideal of beauty ... Keira Knightley
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 8 July 2022 20: 27
                      +1
                      The ideal of beauty ... Keira Knightley


                      Nightmare!!! wassat And not only at night.
                      1. VLR
                        8 July 2022 20: 55
                        +3
                        And this is Leslie Lawson, better known as Twiggy (Reed) - the first supermodel, in the 60s it seemed to everyone very thin:


                        Growth of 166 cm, weight 40 kg.
                        Style icon of the 60s. Dame Commander of the British Empire. Two Golden Globe Awards.
                        Agree, her thinness looks more natural and attractive than that of the same Knightley and many other modern models. Because - "doe", and not "thinner cow".
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 8 July 2022 21: 24
                        +1
                        Because - "doe", and not "thinner cow".


                        Absolutely correct. She and in age well itself and very even. smile

                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 8 July 2022 23: 29
                  0
                  Quote: Thick
                  100

                  Oh, yes, my black horse ....
              2. Fat
                Fat 8 July 2022 22: 35
                +1
                Don't flatter yourself with "projection" Have a beer! wassat (joke)
                Have you seen the portrait of Cavaignan on horseback? It's "ass"!
                The general is sitting on an overgrown greyhound!
                .....
                Well ... the mare's head is larger than the skull of a fighter
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 8 July 2022 23: 23
                  +1
                  "Drink foamy beer - the muzzle will be hefty" (c)

                  Advertising in a pub on Pechatnikov Lane in Moscow.

                  1. Fat
                    Fat 8 July 2022 23: 58
                    +1
                    Yes. All "norms" If not to take into account that the mare's head exceeds the size of the average rider's head ... a little ... wassat
      2. parusnik
        parusnik 8 July 2022 18: 40
        +3
        And this is an intrigue, I will not reveal the "secret of the golden key", the author will reveal it in the second part, follow the advertisement.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 8 July 2022 18: 44
          +2
          Nothing, let's wait. smile

  11. astra wild2
    astra wild2 8 July 2022 14: 43
    0
    Colleagues, Valery, good afternoon.
    Curious person this Julian. Starts as a simple soldier, and becomes the commander of the third. By the way, what is it? Tercio - three. But I doubt that he commanded a troika
    1. VLR
      8 July 2022 15: 05
      +4
      Tertia is an independent military unit, as well as a combat formation. The largest Spanish thirds were the Flemish (up to 8 thousand people) and just the Sicilian - up to 6 and a half thousand. And so - about three thousand, in Spain - less than a thousand and a half. Consisted of pikemen, swordsmen and shooters.
      1. astra wild2
        astra wild2 8 July 2022 16: 55
        +1
        Thanks for the answer
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 8 July 2022 15: 14
      +3
      https://topwar.ru/120797-ispanskie-tercii.html
      Good article about Spanish thirds.
  12. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 8 July 2022 16: 05
    +1
    Landsknecht captain in an engraving by an unknown master with the initials HD, 1545
    The very famous Hieronymus Deckinger. In addition, there is an opinion that the engraving depicts not a landsknecht captain, as evidenced by the signature, but a certain knight. And I would lean towards this version, relying on the character's three-quarter armor, but I'm confused by the presence of a kazbalger.
  13. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 8 July 2022 16: 12
    +2
    Mora was a distinguished nobleman and was very indignant at the "collision" by some beggar hidalgo. He answered him that he was fighting on the side of honest Catholics, but Julian Romero was in the army of vile heretics and enemies of the church - Protestants.
    "Romero didn't run into anyone. Antonio Mora challenged Pedro de Gamboa to a duel, and Romero offered the latter to fight for him as his commander." ©
    1. VLR
      8 July 2022 16: 46
      +3
      Apparently different versions. I read in several sources that it was Romero who sent the insulting challenge, and not specifically Mora, but his squad - take it whoever wants. Mora, as commander, decided to personally defend the honor of his subordinates and fight himself.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 8 July 2022 16: 54
        +4
        Peace be with you!
        In this case, I'm just a switch.
        1. astra wild2
          astra wild2 8 July 2022 16: 58
          +1
          My poet, bravo.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 8 July 2022 17: 03
            +2
            What for me?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 8 July 2022 17: 25
              +2
              Perhaps just in case. wink
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 8 July 2022 17: 30
                +2
                Uh, no, uncle, "bravo" from My Beautiful Stranger is worth a lot.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 8 July 2022 17: 39
                  +3
                  "I'm here, Inezilla,
                  I'm here under the window.
                  Embraced by Seville
                  And darkness and sleep.

                  Filled with courage
                  Shrouded in a cloak
                  With a guitar and a sword
                  I'm here under the window." (c)

                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 8 July 2022 19: 49
                    +2
                    “How unhappy we are, princesses,
                    We are forbidden by law to love,
                    In royal families such an ancient order -
                    By calculation, you need to get married ”(c).
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 8 July 2022 20: 15
                      +3
                      “How unhappy we are, princesses,


                      Yes, and the kings are also not sweet. sad

                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 8 July 2022 21: 48
                        +3
                        “I have mountain cakes,
                        And eat what to eat, and eat what to drink,
                        But I paint, I paint fences,
                        So as not to pass for a parasite! (with).
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 8 July 2022 22: 03
                        +2
                        "Parasites, parasites
                        Everything from toes to brows
                        Just local toadstools
                        Homegrown Broadway "(c)
                        As far as I remember a quote from the Crocodile of that time.)))

                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 8 July 2022 23: 13
                        +2
                        “- I, my brothers, do not like women who are in hats. If a woman is wearing a hat, if her stockings are fildecos, or a pug in her arms, or a golden tooth, then such an aristocrat is not a woman at all for me, but a smooth place ”(c).
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 8 July 2022 23: 27
                        +3
                        "Well, tell me, what is the use of you in life? None, except for harm!" (C)

                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 8 July 2022 23: 49
                        +2
                        “There was no sense in him, however, as with a goat's milk,
                        But there is no harm, however, either ”(c).
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 9 July 2022 00: 17
                        +2
                        Yep, right. laughing

                  2. Fat
                    Fat 8 July 2022 20: 27
                    +3
                    All the same, and more:
                    Night marshmallow...
                    Ether flows.
                    Noisy
                    Runs
                    Guadalquivir.
                    Here comes the golden moon
                    Hush ... choo ... guitars ringing ...
                    Here is a young Spaniard
                    Leaned on the balcony.
                    Night marshmallow
                    Ether flows.
                    Noisy
                    Runs
                    Guadalquivir.
                    Throw off the mantilla, dear angel,
                    And appear like a bright day!
                    Through iron railings
                    Don't miss out on a marvelous leg!
                    Night marshmallow
                    Ether flows.
                    Noisy
                    Runs
                    Guadalquivir. (FROM)

                    But:
                    and full of courage
                    Shrouded in a cloak
                    With a guitar and a sword .... (c)
                    Great! laughing drinks
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 8 July 2022 22: 28
                  +3
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  The beautiful Stranger is worth a lot.

                  Ehhhh, but there was a Cossack like a Cossack! bully
                  Oh, those... strangers.
  14. bubalik
    bubalik 8 July 2022 20: 33
    +3
    Mora was a nobleman and was very indignant at the “collision” by some beggar hidalgo
    , but wasn, at that time, a nobleman could not consider a duel with Nedvoryanin, below his dignity? ,, and could refuse the duel?
    1. VLR
      8 July 2022 20: 43
      +4
      Romero was from a poor "nobles of the sword" family. The ancestor was given the title of hidalgo for military distinctions and said - that's it, you are a nobleman, go graze your only goat and do not deny yourself anything. There were plenty of such nobles in Spain - who, apart from the family sword and ambition, had nothing else. But Romero had the right to challenge for a duel. In addition, he offended the honor of the entire detachment of Mora. And "he scored the arrow according to the concepts" (of that time). Captain Mora had to go investigate.
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 8 July 2022 21: 05
        +2
        Mora was a nobleman and was very indignant at the “collision” by some beggar hidalgo

        [/ Quote]
        [quote] But Romero had the right to challenge for a duel. In addition, he offended the honor of the entire detachment of Mora. And "he scored the arrow according to the concepts" (that
        ,,, understandable, thank you good hi
    2. Fat
      Fat 8 July 2022 21: 49
      +2
      hi I couldn't, Sergei. "Hidalgo", the owner of a pair of goats and 2 acres of a garden, is a nobleman, especially since our hero stood up for the honor of his unit ....

    3. Catfish
      Catfish 8 July 2022 22: 05
      +2
      Something gentry ambition wafted from the window. laughing
      1. Fat
        Fat 8 July 2022 23: 29
        +2
        Corruption! It's not wise that it blew, It's getting colder, the window can be closed... Mosquitoes are flying.... drinks
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 9 July 2022 00: 13
          +2
          Fig there! It's hot, it's all melting.
          1. Fat
            Fat 9 July 2022 00: 20
            +2
            Everything melted, mosquitoes devoured .... and the galleon sprang in the fog .... Romance! laughing .
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 9 July 2022 00: 34
              +1
              Hope there are no mosquitoes. drinks

              1. Fat
                Fat 9 July 2022 16: 58
                +1
                Konstantin... This monster is for me
                ... per tooth. What's in the cargo? Rum, sugar? wassat
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 9 July 2022 20: 01
                  0
                  "A Spanish three-masted ship, Ready to land in Holland: There are hundreds of scoundrels on it, Two monkeys, barrels of gold, Yes, a cargo rich in chocolate, Yes, a fashionable disease: it was recently presented to you." (c)
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 9 July 2022 04: 46
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Something gentry ambition wafted from the window.

        And how is he? Smell? Arrogant? bully
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 9 July 2022 05: 01
          +2
          And the devil knows. We finally got rain. It's like a holiday! good fellow
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 9 July 2022 05: 05
            +2
            Quote: Sea Cat
            It's like a holiday!

            It rained in Moscow for two days in a row.
            Salute, amigo!!! hi
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 9 July 2022 05: 30
              +2
              Salam, effendi! drinks
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 9 July 2022 06: 19
                +1
                Quote: Sea Cat
                Salam, effendi

                Uuuuu! Well, you marked it.
                The phrase Vybegailo suggests:
                "You throw it to me!". laughing
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 9 July 2022 06: 24
                +2
                Shalom, Orthodox!
                Eco has taken you all away from one epithet that I endow Vera with.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 9 July 2022 06: 37
                  +1
                  "Madame, what are you doing here? Do you even love the devil!" (C) laughing

                  We have long forgotten who said "Meow" first. request
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 9 July 2022 06: 47
                    +1
                    Sic transit gloria mundi
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 9 July 2022 06: 56
                      +1
                      "Gloria" - in Russian - means "Glory", -
                      It will be easy for you to remember." (c)
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 July 2022 07: 00
                        +1
                        "Lotus is such a flower,
                        And not washing powder "(C)
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 9 July 2022 07: 12
                        +1
                        "Lotus is such a flower,


                        In any case, laundry detergent is more useful in the household. laughing
                      3. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 July 2022 07: 20
                        +1
                        Isn't this an illustration for "Lysistratus" for an hour?
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 9 July 2022 07: 27
                        +1
                        No, to the "Odyssey" - a country of oblivion. And from "Kings and Cabbage" I did not find the necessary quote, the chapter there was "Lotus and the bottle." smile
                      5. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 July 2022 07: 39
                        +1
                        "I don't know where I am,
                        what's in front of me. Some dirty island
                        bushes, buildings, grunting pigs,
                        overgrown garden, some kind of queen,
                        grass and stones ... "(C)
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 9 July 2022 07: 50
                        +1
                        "There is an island of bad luck in the ocean,
                        All covered with greenery, absolutely all ... "(c)
  15. Luminman
    Luminman 9 July 2022 19: 47
    0
    Quote: Engineer
    There is an absolutely wonderful book that formed the basis of my conclusions.

    The book is actually amazing! Downloaded. I'm reading it for the second day and I can't put it down! Thank you!
  16. Carlos Hall
    Carlos Hall 9 July 2022 23: 52
    +2
    As an Asturian, I really liked the article, for which I am very grateful to Mr. Ryzhov. Asturias has not had a slave population since the time of the oldest kings, since it is there that the monarchy originates, dating back to Duke Froilan, brother of Alfonso I, brother-in-law of Don Pelayo, the victor. Moors in the famous battle of Covadonga grant the Asturians the privilege of hidalgia, even the heir to the throne receives the title of Prince of Asturias. The fact is that all Asturians are based on the nobility or purity of blood prescribed in the books.
    1. Ionmoral
      Ionmoral 10 July 2022 09: 09
      -1
      It is curious that in the region of Castile-La Mancha there are more people with blond hair and light eyes than in Asturias or Cantabria ...
      1. Carlos Hall
        Carlos Hall 10 July 2022 11: 59
        +2
        I don't know what kind of people you saw in Asturias, this is my paternal grandfather
      2. Carlos Hall
        Carlos Hall 10 July 2022 12: 06
        +2
        This map shows the noble population and the slave population. La Mancha has always been a region inhabited by a slave element.
        1. Ionmoral
          Ionmoral 11 July 2022 08: 51
          +3
          Asturias siempre en el corazón..... junto con Cantabria.
          Ando mucho por allí, sobretodo por las aldeas de acceso a los Picos de Europa, muchas aventuras en picó Uriellu, .... también pasó largas temporadas en valle quiros y teberga. En Cantabria conozco más la Cantabria oculta , un paraíso para la espeologia.....
          1. Ionmoral
            Ionmoral 11 July 2022 09: 22
            +2
            Tampoco me voy fijando en los rasgos.... pero las gente con las que he tratado casi todos aldeanos son gente trabajada .... piel blanca, pelo y ojos oscuros.
            En Cantabria por poner un ejemplo Revilla sería un referente...media estatura, pelo oscuro y ojos oscuros ....y piel oscura
            1. Ionmoral
              Ionmoral 11 July 2022 10: 05
              +3
              Si puedo asegurar que en el llamado campo de calatrava, los habitantes son de piel clara, pelo y ojos claros.... el motivo que no tengo claro; Puede ser en la independencia y la repoblación de la zona .... con gentes del norte (navarros...)las órdenes religiosas - militares en la zona jugaron un gran papel en fijar asentamiento , siendo estas punta de lanza contra los moros. ...