The press stirs up interest in the shortbore, publishing on the pages of glossy magazines numerous photographs of modern Western pistols in favorable angles, from which many of our compatriots have a nagging feeling of inferiority and backwardness of the Russian weapons in all respects.
I hate when normal people slip into a lie in a beautiful package, and many are lazy wider and find out more deeply history of my weapon, and therefore in this article I will try to reflect the current state of affairs regarding short-barrels in the Russian Army and special structures.
So - the army pistol. Nagant and TT omit. Long and separate story.
Let's start with the Makarov pistol
The Second World War died down. A cold war and a tough Soviet confrontation with the West began. Immediately after the Second World War, preparations began for the rearmament of the Soviet Army with new standard-scale small arms.
The experience of the war, and it was scrupulously studied at that time, showed the extremely insignificant role of the pistol in the fighting of rifle units. Do not confuse only combat use with the operational use of a pistol in the organs of the NKVD - MGB - GRU - Kontrrazvedka. The gun indisputably proved its right to be truly a personal weapon of self-defense and attack for field investigators, infantry officers, tank crews, pilots, officers fleet. But he didn’t make “weather.” By the end of the Second World War, the theory of massive automatic fire of a rifle unit prevailed and the gun did not fit into it.
In 1945, the GAU determined the performance characteristics of the new pistol and the best gunsmiths of the USSR joined the competition. The gun was planned to be made under the 7,62 cartridge or under the Browning 7,65X17 or under the new 9 mm cartridge, developed by designer B.V. Semin. The new ammunition had less power, but the best stopping effect, since the 7,62 TT chuck was present, the so-called. the sewing effect, when the bullet, having a large initial speed, pierced the soft tissues of the body, and the man in the heat of battle did not even notice. It was required that one hit guaranteed to put the enemy down. Therefore, in the end, the MO leadership chose the 9 mm cartridge.
Smaller charge of gunpowder allowed to do automatic pistol according to the scheme of free shutter. This allowed Makarov to simplify the general scheme of the weapon and reduce its weight in comparison with the TT on the 130. The overall length was also reduced. I must honestly say that when adopting a PM, many indicators regarding accuracy, accuracy, efforts on the trigger and others had to be sacrificed in favor of the main indicator that the military sought from designers - reliability.
On the ground tests pistols were subjected to sadistic tests, which only the PM fully endured. In addition to Makarov, eight more Soviet designers and, according to various sources, from 5 to 15 pistols of foreign models took part in this competition. Since it was planned to arm the personnel of the units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and state security with this pistol, L.P. Beria.
Makarov's pistol under the index PM is accepted for service in the 1951 year, although the high-volume batches of the PM have already been issued since the 1949 year.
What is good PM and how is it bad for some? Makarov created a truly ingenious design, using Walter's locking scheme, the simplest and most reliable, in addition, he created the original double-action trigger, complete disassembly in the field, an expanded chamber allowing the gate to pull and skew and smoothly remove the rather bulky cartridge. A multifunction fuse allows, in addition, to safely remove a loaded pistol from a combat platoon. The function, by the way, is available only on a pair of three western models, and even then it was introduced only in 70 - 80.
Parts of the gun are hung out, which does not allow dirt and scale to accumulate and clog them. Chrome-plated barrel and very licked contours, which is very important for operational use, does not cling to clothes, does not injure hands during use and disassembly. Awesome, exorbitant resource - up to 50 000 shots. True, this only applies to pistols made between 1955 and before the start of 70 - x. yo Starting with the 80-90-ies, the PM and PMM are produced of extremely poor quality.
For the pistol, field, sea and operational holsters of high quality and quite modern for that time were made. Early were from kersey, further - leather. I also add that the PM is a very fast gun. He is instantly brought into a combat position. Can safely be worn with a chuck in the barrel and removed from the fuse. It is necessary to spend time and learn how to make the first accurate shot by self-platoon then the rest is not so difficult. My record for the rate of fire is 4 targets for 180 degrees, two bullets each, with the extraction and the first shot of self-reset in 2,1 seconds. PM shop can be shot for 1 - 1,2 seconds. Saw such a trick!
At a distance - I shot a PM at 100 in a bottle of Pepsi. Three rounds two hits. But this is just a test of the capabilities of the gun. A straight PM grip allows you to fire intuitively on a chest target to 15 m. A confident hit, and you don’t need to lift the PM from the “stop” distance to 5 - 7 PM meters at all. You can put all the bullets from the hip.
What is “bad" in Makarov? Many users, especially athletes, complain of a hard trigger descent. After sporting pistols, of course, it's hard. But not fatal. For a combat model, just right. Without a pick-up, the 2,0 descent force to 2,1 kg is quite acceptable for a normal The self-cocking to 4,3 kg, but if someone shot the self-cocking from Nagant he will agree with me that the self-cocking PM is a powder. There is an outdated shop latch.
A small number of rounds. (In the PMM model, this problem is partially solved). Here I agree half, Multi-charge pistols and a large number of equipped stores, as is now fashionable in the West, did not lead to an increase in the accuracy of the shooter. This is still a piece goods. Betting is done on a massive fire, not on accuracy. As the cowboys in the Wild West used to say: I didn’t get up from six, you won’t get to thirty-six.
Shooting from Makarov on 50 meters can only be a dispute. In a combat situation it is meaningless, 25 meters - this is already a shot of despair. It is better to use Makarov effectively at a distance from "point-blank" and to 15 m. So the PM exactly answers the assignments and combat properties declared in the NSD and is inherently a personal attack and defense weapon designed to defeat the enemy at short distances.
In general, as I see, the main group of opposition to the PM is made up of either athletes or people who have very little contact with this gun or did not hold it at all. This is facilitated by many social and political factors. In Soviet times, admission to military weapons was generally very limited, and bullet firing was conducted from melkashki and Margolin. In the army, training in pistol shooting gradually turned from the most interesting part of combat training into a routine procedure, which was carried out once a year before inspections. After the restructuring, nothing has changed. Old shots remained in place! And with them the former attitude to fire training.
Now about the MTA
Stechkin's automatic pistol is also a masterpiece of design thought. First of all, it must be said that by the present period there are not five models of this type in the world. And Stechkin was created in 40 - e years! APS was put into service together with the PM and AK 47 as a “cartridge - weapon” complex. It should be recalled that the unification of ammunition and small arms of the USSR, at one time far ahead of all countries of the world.
According to NSD - APS is also a powerful personal weapon, which combines the combat properties of a pistol and a submachine gun. It is intended to arm officers who are directly involved in hostilities, as well as sergeants and soldiers of some special units. In my opinion, everything is brief and clear. LP Beria was also present at the acceptance of the APS. The gun went to the organs of the MGB.
About the MTA, currently written a lot, so I will not repeat, but I will say only a few words from myself. In my opinion, the MTA should not have been created automatically. Of course, at that time it was a revolutionary decision, it’s a joke to say, the officers of such a huge and strong army are armed with the most modern automatic pistols. Yes, in the world no one dreamed of this! But time puts everything in its place. If the MTA were non-automatic, it would be a large, multi-charge pistol, a little more than a Colt or High Power. Would not have to create a bulky wooden holster. To walk, and even more to run and overcome obstacles with such a holster is one torment. It is impossible to quickly bring a pistol into a fighting position with a holster. Shoot bursts or 100 and 200 m? Well, this is an extremely rare situation. There remains the usual pistol distance and the use of a pistol for its intended purpose - for self-defense.
Instead, one could cut a comfortable leather holster like a modern PMM holster, where the pocket for the store is brought forward, instead of a ramrod - wiping. Then the holster would be acceptably flat. And it is possible without a pocket at all, since a leather case for four stores was already envisaged for the APS.
The leather holster also looked decently on the officer’s field and everyday equipment: a belt with a shoulder belt and a field bag. It will be objected that a silent model appeared later - APB, in a leather holster with a frame butt. Yes, it appeared, but as a necessary measure of at least some use of canned APSs. And again ... Of the silent APB bursts also do not hurt, they often shoot. In the holster to the APB pushed and butt and muffler and it turned out terrible. The main parameters of the APS, even today, are almost equal to the parameters of combat pistols of the Western armies. The length of the barrel 140 mm allows you to accelerate the low-power cartridge 9 X 18 to an acceptable speed 340 m / s. For comparison, pistols chambered for 9 X19 Luger initial speed of a bullet 350 -365 ms.
Shop on 20 cartridges - quite modern. From the MTA you can shoot single shots with one or two hands, as is now fashionable. Manufacturers of the field equipment sets that have recently appeared are making holsters for APS from synthetic fabrics, integrated for fastening on a waist belt or equipment parts. It is a pity that this was not done before.
Disadvantages: store latch at the bottom of the handle, reloading requires skill and time. The upper back of the handle, where the pistol is held by the thumb and index finger, is wide and the pads do not have a rounding. Hence the constant control of the grip that sometimes distracts from the task. The fuse is far from the thumb and is not as convenient to manipulate as, say, at the PM. Shooting at 100, and even more so at 200 meters, is a contrived topic. Apparently equaled on Mauser. Like, we are not worse. I don’t know of a single case when it was really necessary for someone. Is that going on the attack Horde Chingiz - Khan. Or for Indian war elephants.
Otherwise, the APS is a great gun. Following the tradition of the Soviet gunsmiths, he, too, is fully versed and assembled in the field. Due to the mass of the shutter and the length of its course, the shot from the APS is very soft. Conveniently aim. Sighting line is very large. Very convenient to equip stores. Almost without looking. Again, the MTA has very smooth hull lines, is easy to handle, does not cling to clothing when removed. The gun has a beautiful blueing and just aesthetically beautiful!
GSH-18 of designers Gryazev and Shipunov, 5 designs of Yarygin and SPS designs of Serdyukov
In 2003, according to the results of the “Grach" competition, guns were adopted by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 166: GSH-18 designers Gryazev and Shipunov, 5 Yarygin designs and ATP Serdyukov designs. These guns should be said especially because they were all designed for a new type of ammunition. GSH-18 and PYu chambered for 9 x19 The Luger 7Н21 is a reinforced version of this cartridge. ATP under the new original ammunition 9 x21 (7Н29).
The appearance in the west of a new generation of infantry equipment, where a bullet-proof vest was integrated into the unloading, and many details of the soldier’s equipment and weapons were mounted not on the waist belt, but on the unloading vests, creating obstacles for the bullet, forced the designers to turn to more powerful ammunition and, as a result, New design automatic pistols. All three pistols have modern double-row magazines on 15-18 cartridges. All these pistols have automatics based on the principle of a short barrel stroke. Fixation of shops is carried out by latches located at the base of the trigger guard, like most modern pistols.
On PJ and SPS USM dual action, on GSH-18 USM is similar to the Austrian Glock shock type. In addition, in the GSH-18, the barrel is locked by turning the barrel 18 degrees. On the trunk is located 12 lugs. These bells and whistles do not allow GSH-18 to become a full-fledged pistol, because it has a lot of childhood diseases and their treatment is delayed. The authors of the weapon want to have their say in the design of the weapon, but this does not improve the design. GSH-18 is a regular participant in international gun salons, but then it does not go further.
Manufacturers say that if it is launched into a series, it will be cheaper than PM. I do not know ... In 2005, I shot from the GSH in a Moscow region shooting range. None of the three pistols completely shot even one store. So it’s too early to form opinions about GSH.
TL 6P35- Yarygin pistol. This is more fortunate. He reached mass production, which was greatly helped by his international certification as a sports serial pistol. For the army PJ is made with a metal frame, for export (Viking MP-644), with a polymer. There are still minor differences, but they are not fundamental. Starting from 2004, I had to shoot a lot with this gun on the rifle courses, and later I bought myself a personal copy.
Positive points: Very comfortable grip. I do not even know what to compare. The gun literally sits in your hand. Convenient sights. Very interesting made the trigger mechanic. Eliminates jerking. The descent even by the self-cocked, despite the great effort (7 kg !!!), is very smooth. The gun is accurate. The barrel is weighted like a sports Colts. Do not throw up. Again in competitions I shot from my Viking along with all foreigners. Shop on 17 ammo. Double sided fuse. Store removal is convenient.
Disadvantages. In the first models, the sleeve was extracted straight up, like on a PCA, and if shot from the chest or lower, it flew right in the forehead. Very unpleasant. Later, the extractor was shifted to the right. The safety lever is very small and tight. Horizontal notches cut the fingers. We have to sculpt plaster. The overall finish is very rough. A lot of parts need to be ground. The lips of the store are not processed. Cut your fingers the only way. Shop covers are made of fragile plastic. Split on the first day. I had to sharpen aluminum. Teflon shutter coating begins to peel in the first month of use. A holster for the PU seems to be not even envisaged. Not seen anywhere else.
ATP. Or "Vector" or "Gurza" for the export version. Modern powerful army pistol of the last generation. It may be a competitor unless the Belgian Five - Seven. The gun has several patented innovations. Locking knot, so-called emphasis of the return spring, which allows to exclude from the design a rifle stem with a return spring like on TT, Colt, PJ and put the spring directly on the barrel, like on PM and APS. New ammunition for which the ATP is developed - 9 X 21 mm. Very powerful. On 100 m punches 4-x mm steel plate.
Positive points. Very comfortable in hand. Unexpectedly easy descent. Total 1,5 kg. Beats extremely accurately, despite the powerful cartridge. Bodies aiming are large, as in Glocke. According to the stories this gun appeared in Chechnya.
Disadvantages. The fuse in the back of the pistol grip. Like an ultrasound. Why is he needed there? Unclear! With a small hand, or in an emergency situation, it can be under-pressed and a shot will not occur. And, again, low culture assembly and manufacturing. The patron for the ATP is a rare wonder and, as I asked, no one could feel the weapon from it to their liking to feel the weapon. Two shops for combat and enough.
PSM. The gun was created at the end of 70 – s under the original cartridge 5,45. Despite the standard automation based on the free gate, the gun is a very original design. If you disassemble, you wonder how the designers were able to assemble the mechanism in such a small volume. The width of the gun 1,8 cm. Despite the small size of the pistol evil. The initial speed of the bullet is 315 m / s, the bullet has a steel core and with self-defense it is a very convenient, inconspicuous weapon. More suitable for operational wear and use. Use it as a pistol army officer is not worth it.
The gun, following the Soviet tradition, is completely disassembled and assembled with a punch and a screwdriver. True, not as easy as PM and APS. Thoughtful and well-made holster has not. The staff is very uncomfortable and fearful. At present, the people use self-made, or handicraft-cooperative production, produced for the PSM gas analogue - the Iceberg.
Since the end of 80-ies PSM has become fashionable to give as a premium, it began to produce in beautiful boxes with wooden cheeks and so on. But the quality of these pistols is nothing. PSM has one psychological flaw, which I heard from people who used PSM in a real situation. This gun can not be scared. He is not taken seriously because of the size. Everyone who took PSM in order to exert a psychological effect on the enemy had to open fire, because the “client” was not at all afraid of him and kept pushing.
So by now, six pistols and their modifications are officially in service with the Russian Army. And that's not counting the arsenal of special and silent weapons. All samples of DOMESTIC !!! production.
Great America could not give ANYTHING to its army for a hundred years other than the Colt who had been ripped off, and since the end of the 70 of the last century, the American army has been armed exclusively with European pistols: Beretta, Zig Sauer, Heckler Koch.
Russian sin to complain! God forbid that the armament samples are properly mastered. The other, most important aspect of this issue is fire training, i.e. As in Russia today the question is raised with the training of pistol shooting. I will not comment anything. This is sa-avsem another story and has nothing to do with the "gland".