Military Review

Gulag - the basis of the Soviet economy in the Stalin period?

71
Gulag - the basis of the Soviet economy in the Stalin period?

One of the black myths that defames the Soviet period Stories Fatherland is the view that Stalin's industrialization was carried out by GULAG prisoners and the camp system was the basis of the Soviet economy of the USSR during the reign of Stalin. The GULAG myth was so inflated during the years of perestroika and the “dashing 1990” that any attempts to present material that refutes this myth were literally made hostile. Alexander Solzhenitsyn with his fake "GULAG Archipelago" is still the untouchable idol of the Russian intelligentsia, adopted at the official level.

However, the reality is far from the conjectures of the authors who develop anti-Soviet and anti-Russian myths. To begin with, it should be noted that the very idea of ​​using prison labor, as well as the practical implementation of this idea, has a long history and cannot be called a feature of Soviet history alone. The history of almost all states of the planet, and of the Russian Empire, is given quite a number of examples of the large-scale use of prison labor. The basic principles of the punitive system - the obligation of labor for prisoners, the system of credits, the involvement of convicts for the economic development of the suburbs, already existed in the Russian Empire.

In the period from 1917 to 1929, prison labor in the Soviet Union was used poorly. During this period, the state simply did not need to attract large numbers of convicts to work. The country was going through a period of economic recovery of the 1913 level of the year, there was no need to introduce additional capacity, to expand the resource base of industry and additional agricultural products. Unskilled labor of prisoners could be used for mass work, such as construction, agricultural, mining. But in the 1920s, there was no need for large-scale works of this kind. At the same time, the state was experiencing a shortage of funds; therefore, it was looking for new forms of organizing forced labor in the correctional system that could bring profit.

The formation of the Gulag (General Directorate of Correctional Labor Camps, labor settlements and places of detention) was the result of a number of economic and social factors that accompanied the process of forced industrialization and collectivization. The Soviet government wanted to achieve maximum savings for the maintenance of prisoners at the expense of their own labor. At the same time, it became necessary to expand the resource base, attract additional labor resources for the implementation of important projects in sparsely populated or uninhabited areas, their economic development and settlement.

Major milestones in the creation of the Gulag:

- Resolution of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR from 26 March 1928, “On punitive policy and the state of places of detention”. This document directed the bodies of execution of punishment to the implementation of tasks of an economic nature;

- 13 of May 1929 of the year on the basis of proposals of the OGPU, People's Commissariat of Justice and Internal Affairs of the RSFSR issued a resolution of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). It marked the beginning of a decisive transformation of the penitentiary system. It was proposed to switch to a system of mass use of labor of criminal prisoners (with their receiving wages), who had a sentence of not three years. On the basis of the decision of the Politburo, a special commission was created consisting of People's Commissar of Justice of the RSFSR Nikolai Yanson, deputy chairman of the OGPU Heinrich Yagoda, prosecutor of the RSFSR Nikolai Krylenko, People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR Vladimir Tolmachyov and People's Commissar of Labor Nikolai Uglanov. Almost immediately, the principle of remuneration of prisoners was adopted, which immediately flutters the idea of ​​“slave labor”.

- 23 May 1939 was adopted by the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), which approved the decision on a radical restructuring of the criminal correctional system. According to him, prisoners who had terms of imprisonment for more than three years were transferred to correctional labor camps. Those who had a shorter time remained under the authority of the NKVD. Prisons ceased to be places of detention and began to serve only as investigative isolators and transfer points. The task of organizing new camps was assigned to the OGPU. The essence of the reform of the criminal correctional system of the USSR was that in the area of ​​the correctional function, prison methods were replaced by methods of outside influence by organizing work in camps isolated on a geographical basis, in compliance with the strict regime. In the economic sphere, prisoners had to work in remote areas, where, due to the remoteness or difficulty of work, there is a shortage of labor. The camps were supposed to be pioneers of settling new areas. In addition, Yagoda proposed a number of administrative and economic assistance measures to the liberated ones in order to encourage them to remain in remote regions of the USSR and settle in the outskirts.

On the basis of the decisions of the Political Bureau of 17 in July, 1929 of SNK adopted a resolution “On the use of labor of criminal prisoners”, which obliged the OGPU and other related departments to urgently develop a set of measures for the colonization of the developed areas. To implement this plan were developed several main principles. Prisoners who deserved their behavior and distinguished themselves at work received the right to a free settlement. Those deprived by the court of the right of free choice of residence and who had served their sentences were left to settle in the area and were allocated land.

At the end of 1929, all labor camps (ITL) were transferred to self-sufficiency and exempted from income tax and trade tax on turnover. This relieved the state of the burden of maintaining prisoners. 7 April 1930 was issued by the Resolution of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR "Regulations on corrective labor camps". 25 On April 1930, by order of the OGPU No. 130 / 63, was organized by the Office of the OGPU camps (ULAG), since November 1930, it has been called the Gulag. Its main task was not the “extermination of the people,” as follows from the black myth of the Gulag, but the economic development of the outlying regions of the USSR.

In 1933, the new Corrective Labor Code of the RSFSR was adopted, which enshrined the principle of the labor of prisoners. In addition, the Code enshrines the principle of compulsory payment for the work performed. Earlier in the ITL provision it was noted that all convicts receive a food ration in accordance with the nature of the work performed. General content and all services provided free of charge. The most important method of increasing the labor productivity of prisoners was the test system: the day of work that exceeded the established standard was counted as one and a half to two calendar days of the term, and for especially hard work - for three. As a result, the sentence could be significantly reduced.

The economic role of the Gulag in the implementation of industrialization plans

One of the most important areas of economic activity for ITL was the construction of railways. In 1920, a number of major problems emerged in the field of transport communications, which adversely affected the state’s defense capability. The transport system could not cope with the ever-increasing growth of freight traffic, and this jeopardized the implementation of not only economic development programs, but also an increase in its safety. The state was not able to quickly transfer significant material, demographic resources, troops (this problem existed in the Russian Empire and became one of the prerequisites that led to the defeat in the Russian-Japanese war).

That is why in the years of the first five-year plan large transport projects were implemented, above all, railways, which had economic and military-strategic importance. Four iron and two railless roads were built. In 1930, the construction of the 29-kilometer branch to the Khibiny Apatity was completed, work began on the construction of the 275-kilometer Syktyvkar-Pinega railway. In the Far Eastern Territory, the OGPU organized the construction of the 82-kilometer railway line Pashennaya-Bukachachi, on the Trans-Baikal railway in Eastern Siberia - the 120 kilometer section of the Tomsk-Yeniseisk railway. Syktyvkar, Kem and Ukhta were connected by 313 and 208 km paths. The labor of prisoners was used in those areas where the local population was practically absent or could not be brought to the main work. These construction projects were aimed at creating an economic base in the marginal, undeveloped and strategically important regions of the country (the main direction of the ITL activity).

The construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal, which was built between the 1931 and 1933 years, was the most popular construction project among the various whistleblowers of the Stalin era. However, the implementation of this project was directly related to the security of the Soviet Union. For the first time, the question of building a canal in Soviet Russia was raised after the October revolution of 1917. The idea arose much earlier, the plan for building a navigable canal belonged to Tsar Peter and appeared during the Northern War with Sweden. In the 19 century, four canal construction projects were developed: in 1800, the project of F.P. Devolan, 1835, the project of Count A.H. Benkendorf, 1857, the Adjutant Loshkaryov, and 1900, Professor Timanov (they were not implemented due to the high cost). In 1918, the Council of the National Economy of the North created a plan for the development of the region’s transport system. This plan included the construction of the White Sea-Ob railway and the Onega-White Sea Canal. These communications were supposed to provide economic ties between the North-West industrial region and Siberia, to become the basis for the development of the Ukhto-Pechersk oil-bearing and Kola mining regions. However, during the Civil War and intervention, and then the restoration of the country, these plans were postponed.

In 1930, the USSR Council of Labor and Defense returned to the question of building a canal, which was connected with the country's security problem - neighboring Finland then pursued anti-Soviet policies and counted on the support of other Western states in the struggle against Soviet Russia. In addition, the biological resources of the USSR in the North were then tirelessly plundered by a number of Western powers, especially Norway stood out. There was nothing to oppose this fishing piracy of the USSR, since the Northern fleet not yet (Northern Fleet was created in 1933).

The channel was to become a strategic target and solve a whole range of tasks:

- to increase the possibilities for the protection of fisheries and domestic trade routes between separate points of the coast and main waterways that go inland. This task was solved by the possibility of the transfer of warships and submarines from the Baltic Sea to White.

- it became possible for the Soviet Naval forces to act on the enemy’s sea lanes, impair maritime trade and put pressure on the entire mode of commercial navigation in the North Sea and the East Atlantic;

- maintaining communications with the outside world. Considering the fact that, if desired, the enemy could easily block the Baltic and Black Seas, the presence of a free exit through the North acquired strategic importance in wartime;

- the emergence of a deterrent to potential adversaries. For Finland, which directly threatened the Soviet Northwest, the presence of a channel was a strong factor of pressure on its foreign policy;

- increased opportunities for the Red Army to interact with the naval forces on the coast and in the areas of inland lakes and rivers associated with the White Sea-Baltic system;

- it became possible to quickly transfer in wartime individual ships and entire military units from one theater of action to another;

- increased opportunities for evacuation into the country;

- in the field of economics: Leningrad and its sea routes to the West were connected with the Arkhangelsk, the White Sea ports and the coast of the Kola Peninsula, and via the Northern Sea Route - with Siberia and the Far East. Appeared exit from the Baltic to the Arctic Ocean and through it with all the ports of the oceans. The North was provided with the Mariinsky water system, and through it with the interior of the country with access to the Caspian and Black Seas (after the completion of the Volga-Don Canal). Opportunities for construction on the dams of hydroelectric stations for obtaining sources of cheap energy appeared. All sectors of the national economy of the North of the USSR could be developed on a cheap energy base. There was a possibility of a more complete use of raw materials, including those still intact.

3 June 1930, the USSR STO decree initiated the construction of this channel. The resolution noted the possibility of attracting labor to prisoners. Already on 2 on August 1933, by the decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, the White Sea-Baltic Canal was recorded as one of the existing waterways of the Soviet Union. 128 hydraulic structures were built on the canal route: 49 dams and 33 artificial canals, 19 locks, 15 dams and 12 drain points. 21 million cubic meters of soil were selected, 390 thousand cubic meters of concrete and 921 thousand cubic meters of row structures were laid. The total cost of the work was estimated at 101,3 million rubles.

The initial participation of prisoners in construction was measured by the total 600 people who were used in survey parties. By the middle of 1931, the number of prisoners involved rose to 10 thousand. Initially, the labor resources for the work were supplied by the Solovetsky ITL, then the Solovetsky and Karelo-Murmansk camps of the OGPU. In September, 1931 of the year, the entire personnel of the Syzran ITL was sent to Belomorstroy. In the middle of November, the White Sea-Baltic ITL was formed on the basis of these ITLs. The average annual number of prisoners employed was 1931 thousand. The peak of work on the channel fell on the autumn of the year 64,1, at this time the number of prisoners reached the maximum value - 1932 thousand people. Mortality in the White Sea-Baltic ITL amounted to: in 125 year - 1931 convicts (1438% of the average annual number of prisoners), in 2,24 year - 1932 people (2010%), in 2,03 year - 1933 prisoners (8870%). This was due to the fact that the second half of 10,56, the largest amount of hard work. In addition, the food situation in the country (1932-1932 hunger) worsened in the country in 1932, which affected the nutrition of prisoners and the condition of the arriving replenishment. This can be clearly seen from the sharply dropped monthly nutritional standards for 1933-1932 years: the flour rate fell from 1933 kg per person in 23,5 year to 1932 kg in 17,17 g .; cereals from 1933 to 5,75 kg; pasta from 2,25 to 0,5 kg; vegetable oil from 0,4 to 1 liters; sugar from 0,3 to 0,95 kg, etc.

But even in these conditions, those who fulfilled and overfulfilled the norms received reinforced grain rations - up to 1200 g, the so-called. premium dish and cash reward. In addition, those who over-fulfilled the production standards received a credit of three working days for five calendar days of the term (for drummers, the test went on a day in two). Naturally, otherwise they used punishment in the form of cuts in rations, cancellation of set-off, transfer to subdivisions of the enhanced regime. It is necessary to take into account that these people were not at the resort, but were serving sentences for crimes. At the same time, to call the conditions of detention of prisoners cruel or brutal - there is no reason. The country was in a difficult transition period, therefore the position of prisoners was adequate to the position of the state.

The value of the channel for the country was enormous. In particular, the transfer of ships from Leningrad to Arkhangelsk was reduced from 17 to 4 days. Now the path ran through Soviet territory, which made it possible to freely create a powerful naval grouping in the North of Russia. In addition, the 17-day transition from the Baltic around Scandinavia, without intermediate bases, where it was possible to replenish stocks, to repair, was impossible for ships of medium and small displacement. The great military and strategic importance of the White Sea-Baltic Canal has also led to a huge positive economic effect.

In the 1920 and the beginning of the 1930 in the White Sea, there were "fish" and "seals" of war with Norway and England. Every spring, hundreds of British and Norwegian fishing vessels entered the White Sea and, taking advantage of the insignificance of the Soviet Naval Forces and the Border Guard Service, looted the biological resources of the Soviet Union. Attempts by the Soviet border guard to stop this activity immediately came across the effects of Western warships that cruised in these waters. The Norwegians and the British sent their squadrons to these waters every season. In 1929-1930 it came even to the artillery fire. Unsolicited "guests" fired on Soviet territory. After the naval ships and submarines were transferred to the North along the channel and the Northern Flotilla was created, the Norwegian-British ships disappeared from Soviet territory. From 1933 of the year to the summer of 1941, the White Sea-Baltic Channel carried out 6 operations for the transfer of squadron destroyers, 2 operations for the transfer of patrol ships and 9 for submarine operations. In addition, three combat units — the destroyers Stalin and Voikov, the submarine U-404 — were transferred to the Pacific Fleet along the Northern Sea Route. During this period, the canal deployed to the Northern Fleet (from 11 in May 1937, the Northern Fleet) 10 destroyer squadrons, 3 patrol and 26 submarines.

The enemies of the USSR understood perfectly well the strategic importance of the White Sea-Baltic Canal. In the 1940 year, when during the Soviet-Finnish war, the Anglo-French military command was planning a military operation against the Soviet Union, Admiral Darlan insisted on capturing the structure intact, considering it the key to the capture of Leningrad. They took into account in their plans the importance of the canal and the Finnish military, their operational plans provided for its seizure or disabling of the main structures. According to the Finns, the White Sea-Baltic Canal was the main support of the USSR in Karelia. Great importance attached channel and the German military.



To be continued ...
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  1. Region71
    Region71 9 October 2012 07: 52
    +5
    I read about the number of prisoners in the USSR during the time of Stalin and Russia. Thank you for the Grizzly link. Why should the modern government take it and start not just in words, but in fact start fighting bribe takers? 3 years on the construction of roads so needed by Russia. Only something progress in the fight against corruption is not visible. One word.
    1. ivachum
      ivachum 9 October 2012 08: 36
      +6
      "Got caught by a traffic cop or an official on a bribe, 3-4 years on the construction of roads so necessary for Russia."

      .... Then this scum will compose a book "The GULAG-2 Archipelago" ... let them better sew mittens ... am
      1. Region71
        Region71 9 October 2012 08: 57
        +7
        Quote: ivachum
        .Then this scum will compose a book "The GULAG-2 Archipelago" ... better to sew mittens

        Yes, let him compose. It has long been documented that Solzhenitsyn was an informer, even documents from the NKVD archives were published and shown. what a blessing these days.
        1. mongoose
          mongoose 9 October 2012 09: 11
          0
          gee-gee-gee-gee, I don’t understand, are you a young man a supporter of thievish traditions? or can present his receipt?
          zuy. By the way, you’re talking about a front-line soldier who didn’t hang around camps during the war
        2. Hon
          Hon 9 October 2012 10: 09
          +2
          And Rokosovsky, Korolev, Shalamov were also informers? Solzhenitsyn, in fact, did not have a real release in the camps, he sat in a "sharashka"
        3. Uncle
          Uncle 9 October 2012 15: 15
          -3
          Quote: Region71
          proved that Solzhenitsyn was a snitch

          Couldn't you think of anything more stupid? Solzhenitsyn is more likely an enemy of the Soviet regime than an informer. I like him, as a writer, read "The First Circle", "Cancer Ward" or at least "Tiny". You will not repeat nonsense from hearsay.
          1. Region71
            Region71 9 October 2012 23: 09
            +3
            It was not I who invented it, but the archives of the NKVD. And as for his work, I read both "The First Circle" and "Cancer Ward", but I didn’t bother to "Tiny". As a writer, I will not argue. But if I like some of Boryusik's songs Moiseev, this does not mean that I will not consider him a pidrast.
            1. Hon
              Hon 10 October 2012 08: 18
              0
              Read better than Shalamov
      2. mongoose
        mongoose 9 October 2012 09: 09
        -4
        n-dya, do you think at that time you would be a hiker? but not a convict?
        1. Dobrokhod Sergey
          Dobrokhod Sergey 9 October 2012 11: 04
          +4
          Quote: mongoose
          n-dya, do you think at that time you would be a hiker? but not a convict?

          Mongoose, do you know the true meaning of the word "guard"? Read Solzhenitsyn less.
          1. mongoose
            mongoose 9 October 2012 12: 18
            0
            it is known that he wandered about "continue" when I cleaned the faces of the cops
    2. mongoose
      mongoose 9 October 2012 09: 08
      0
      um, my friend is too young and idealistic, but about the camps, God forbid you to go through this experience! and the ELEPHANT was and the GULAG and millions perished there, according to the "class" verdict of the Jewish sentence to the Russian people, its educated class, and the fact that the inspirers and perpetrators of this abomination in the end was not in the same place and was not an excuse for them.
      1. Fox
        Fox 9 October 2012 18: 27
        0
        Solzhenitsin’s clone is back in business ...
      2. nnz226
        nnz226 9 October 2012 23: 25
        +4
        "Millions of perished" - this is just in Solzhenitsyn's way !!!! To sculpt a hunchback - taking advantage of the fact that the masses did not know the truth - and a "Nobel Prize" in literature. And if you look at the statistics from the archives of the NKVD (and there "accounting and control" were at their best, each imprisoned or shot was clearly taken into account), then there were up to 3,5 million "prisoners" during Stalin's time, and this is not only under Article 58, and according to others (I hope no one will dispute that among the convicts there were also criminals in a very large number) and 10% perished (according to the article) even in the most difficult times (I admit that in the WAR the figure could reach 20%) and 20 % of 3,5 million is a maximum of 700 souls (MAXIMUM !!!) and where are the millions killed ???
        1. Hon
          Hon 10 October 2012 08: 38
          -1
          Quote: nnz226
          and there "accounting and control" were at their best, each planted or shot was clearly taken into account

          Gulag statistics are incomplete, and data from different sections often do not fit together. For example, according to the archives of the NKVD, the number of prisoners, camps and colonies at the end of 1936 was 1,196 million. However, the certificate that the NKVD provided to the TsUNKHU for the 1937 census indicated a significantly higher number of 2,75 million people.
          According to official data, in the system of camps, prisons and colonies of the OGPU and the NKVD in 1930-1956, more than 2,5 million people were held at once (the maximum was reached in the early 1950s as a result of the post-war tightening of criminal legislation and the social consequences of the famine of 1946-1947

          Certificate of mortality of prisoners in the Gulag system for the period 1930-1956.

          Years Deaths% Deaths
          to the middle
          1930 * 7 980
          1931 * 7 283
          1932 * 13 197
          1933 * 67 297
          1934 * 25 187
          1935 ** 31 636
          1936 ** 24 993
          1937 ** 31 056
          1938 ** 108 654
          1939 *** 44 750
          1940 41 275
          1941 115 484
          1942 352 560
          1943 267 826
          1944 114 481
          1945 81 917
          1946 30 715
          1947 66 830
          1948 50 659
          1949 29 350
          1950 24 511
          1951 22 466
          1952 20 643
          1953 **** 9 628
          1954 8 358
          1955 4 842
          1956 3 164
          Total 1 606 742

          * Only in ITL.
          ** In ITL and places of detention (NTK, prisons).
          *** Further to ITL and NTK.
          **** No OL (special camps).
          Help prepared by materials
          OURZ GULAG (GARF. F. 9414).
    3. dimanf
      dimanf 9 October 2012 10: 35
      +1
      Quote: Region71

      I read about the number of prisoners in the USSR during the time of Stalin and Russia. Thank you for the Grizzly link. Why should the modern government take it and start not just in words, but in fact start fighting bribe takers? 3 years on the construction of roads so needed by Russia. Only something progress in the fight against corruption is not visible. One word.


      and the tandem will send itself to the construction site?
    4. Click-Klyak
      Click-Klyak 9 October 2012 16: 26
      -2
      In total, 11 million units of archival materials are stored in divisions of the Gulag. 9,5 million make up the personal files of prisoners.
      Almost a million people shot.
      Do not forget about all kinds of special settlers who were sent sometimes without any registration at all.
      1. nnz226
        nnz226 9 October 2012 23: 28
        +2
        9,5 million were not sitting at the same time !!! And the number of those executed from 1930 to 1953 was about 368. (the exact figure is in the book of Kara-Murza "Soviet Civilization" in the first part)
  2. erased
    erased 9 October 2012 08: 22
    +2
    Myths and tales are the basis of modern history. Because the truth is too impartial for the non-current Power.
    1. ivachum
      ivachum 9 October 2012 08: 39
      +1
      "Because the truth is too hard-hitting for the other Power."

      And the opposition, by the way, too ...
    2. mongoose
      mongoose 9 October 2012 09: 12
      -1
      Yeah, especially millions of Russian people who died of starvation in the Volga region, shot by educated Russian people in the Crimea from the submission of great-grandmother Udaltsov and other Jewish brethren
      1. Uncle
        Uncle 9 October 2012 15: 17
        0
        Mongoose, young man, think right!
  3. mar.tira
    mar.tira 9 October 2012 08: 38
    -1
    Good n **** from the stove! Dear author of the article! I would put you on the prison jumble of those years. Yes, enter the daily output with a percentage. And then see what will happen to you and your how you say the salary if you do not fulfill it! I showed your nonsense to my father, and I heard a lot from him about it. Some say that the economy developed only on the labor of prisoners, others only on the enthusiasm of the builders of communism. But the truth is in the middle!
    1. ivachum
      ivachum 9 October 2012 08: 51
      +4
      In the same years, the United States also used the labor of prisoners in the construction of roads ... and the conditions were exactly the same: production standards are large, fed poorly, mortality is high (very high) ...
      1. mongoose
        mongoose 9 October 2012 09: 13
        -6
        I don’t understand, but what do we care about the USA? ahh you always used to nod to the west!
      2. Click-Klyak
        Click-Klyak 9 October 2012 09: 41
        +2
        Well, facts on the table.
        The labor of the unemployed was used - yes. It helped a lot.
        As for poor feeding, there was a moment of hunger, and a very serious one. It wasn’t reached a nightmare like ours in 1932–33 thanks to the efforts of the country's leadership.
        1. Dobrokhod Sergey
          Dobrokhod Sergey 9 October 2012 11: 28
          0
          Quote: Click-Gag
          As for poor feeding, there was a moment of hunger, and a very serious one. It wasn’t reached a nightmare like ours in 1932–33 thanks to the efforts of the country's leadership.

          Click gag, before claiming this, I would like you to submit the 1932 report of the US Department of commerce "Statistical Abstract of the United States."
        2. evgen762
          evgen762 9 October 2012 22: 36
          +4
          There have always been crop failures in Russia:
          In 1892, it completely covered the provinces of Voronezh, Kursk, Poltava, Samara, Tula, Kharkov, Kherson and partially Ryazan, Saratov, Kiev, Podolsk, Bessarabia. In total, between 1891–92, 30 million people were starving.
          In 1897, it affected the provinces of Voronezh, Kaluga, Kursk, Orenburg, Orel, Penza, Pskov, Ryazan, Stavropol, Tambov, Tula, Ufa, Kharkov, in the Oblast Army of the Don and Akmola, partially affected the Podolsk and Kiev provinces.
          the crop failure of 1898 that occurred in 18 provinces, mainly in the East and Southeast: in Vyatka, Kazan, Perm, Samara, Saratov, Simbirsk, Ufa, to a lesser extent - in Voronezh, Kaluga, Kursk, Nizhny Novgorod, Orenburg, Oryol, Penza, Ryazan, Stavropol, Tambov, Tula. In 1897-98, 27 million people were starving.
          In the summer of 1905, the subsoil was determined in the Middle Chernozem, Volga, Trans-Volga, and eastern provinces: Astrakhan, Vladimir, Vologda, Voronezh, Vyatka, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Orel, Pskov, Ryazan, Samara, Saratov, Simbirsk, Tambov, Tver. The crop failures mainly affected traditionally agricultural areas, which, according to official data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs, occupied up to 43% of all arable land in Russia.
          The views on the harvest of 1906 were excellent, however - a drought with dry winds, then, during the harvesting season, a whole set of natural disasters: heavy rains, hail, storms, and the invasion of harmful insects. “The crop failure was undoubtedly exceptional in size”: it affected 49 provinces and regions of European and Asian Russia. It should be noted here that this time only a few provinces survived a continuous crop failure - in the majority it was “motley”: in some counties nothing was degraded, in others (sometimes even neighboring ones) the crop was satisfactory, or even just good.
          in 1907 - in some places the harvest was below average (Bessarabian, Voronezh, Irkutsk, Kaluga, Kiev, Kursk, Moscow, Oryol, Podolskaya, Poltava, Saratov, Smolenskaya, Stavropol, Tauride, Tambov, Tver, Kherson, Chernihiv, and Akmola and Kielce province of the Kingdom of Poland).
          Is Stalin to blame too?
          1. Click-Klyak
            Click-Klyak 9 October 2012 23: 19
            -1
            Quote: evgen762
            Is Stalin to blame too?

            An absurd question. Guilt is not in the fact of crop failure. Crop failures were and will be.
            The blame is that Stalin did everything to aggravate the consequences. Remember - at first we removed all the bread from the collective farms (we then paid on loans, but we had nothing to sell except grain), then we limited the movement of residents (as in Ukraine) and hid the fact of starvation from the world community, depriving ourselves of possible help.
            1. Aleksys2
              Aleksys2 10 October 2012 01: 38
              +1
              Quote: Click-Gag
              The blame is that Stalin did everything to aggravate the consequences.

              Not true!
              Although in 1932 in Ukraine the shortage of bread to the state amounted to more than 100 million pounds (1,6 million tons), the leadership of the USSR and Ukraine found an opportunity to fight hunger. They were forced to use strategic reserves. At a meeting of the Politburo on August 17, 1932, it was decided to accept Comrade Stalin’s proposal (!!!) to reduce the plan for harvesting bread for Ukraine by 40 million pounds (640 thousand tons) as an exception for regions of Ukraine that were especially affected by hunger. Already in 1932, more than 5,76 million tons of grain collected as a result of the harvesting plan returned to agricultural areas. This figure is more than that for 1931.
              Given the difficult situation in the republic in the winter of 1933, the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks adopted a special resolution on February 25, 1933 on the allocation of food aid to Ukraine from state reserves. She was granted a food, seed and feed loan in the amount of 35 poods of grain. Food was allocated from the Untouchable and Mobilization funds. In addition, by the end of April 190, 000 million pounds of seed grain, 1933 million pounds of feed grain and 22,9 million pounds of food grain as a loan and 6,3 thousand pounds of food aid were allocated from the All-Union Fund to the republic.
              By April 1933, food aid to Ukraine exceeded 560 thousand tons. In total, the Ukrainian SSR population received at least 41,48 million pounds (2,3 million tons) of grain and 40 pounds (291 tons) of flour. In addition, 645 million poods (1 thousand tons) of food, a significant amount of cereals and confectionery, sugar, and canned food (from the USSR Council of People's Commissars) were provided.
              On July 1, 1933, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine (b) U adopted a special resolution in which "in addition to the decision of the Central Committee of May 4, 1933 to combat homelessness," provided for 90 thousand children's rations to be set for June. For this purpose, allocated the following funds supply:
              Flour 720 tons, cereals 135 tons, sugar 10 tons, kondizdelya 50 tons, vegetable oil 36 tons, dried fruits 24 tons, canned food 100 thousand cans, tulka 100 tons.
              In general, during the first 6 months of 1933, the Politburo in parts allocated 1,99-2,2 million tons of food to those areas where its shortage was most acute. In February 1933, food aid was provided not only to Ukraine (320 thousand tons), but also to the North Caucasus (290 thousand tons).
              The distribution of food (320 thousand tons) and seed (1,274 million tons) of grain was organized for the farms of the regions most affected by hunger - in Ukraine, the North Caucasus, the Lower Volga, the Urals and Kazakhstan. All this led to a change in the grain balance, a reduction in the supply of grain to the population, its export and a decrease in income to the untouchable and state funds. In general, in the first half of 1933 in the USSR, general aid to the starving in exceeded exports by 2 times.
            2. travels
              travels 10 October 2012 04: 13
              +3
              Click-gag, you are missing out on the fact that in 1932, settlements on loans (taken for the purchase of industrial machines on which 34-ki and KV were made), at the initiative of the USA and England, were charged exclusively with GRAIN, I also have crop failures there, + annoy the fakin The Rashans (as always), and so, the Grain was pulled out not from the maddened, schizophrenic zeal to KILL its population, and to parabotate the free spirit, but solely because of the need to pay off loans. So attacks on Stalin personally are meaningless. Including from the fact that the OGPU was engaged in the provisional development, which was opposed to Stalin. And all that we now know from the "history textbooks" is a rigidly censored dispelling of the "Cult of personality". Based on this, I will allow myself to repeat the question. Stalin Ainovat in everything ??
              1. evgen762
                evgen762 10 October 2012 21: 10
                +1
                And besides, horses were simply eaten in many areas. And it is necessary to plow something. This became a matter of mechanization - there were dozens of tractors and km buses, and hundreds after the famine. This is not much - this was not the first step (very timid), in contrast to tsarist Russia, which did not do anything.
              2. evgen762
                evgen762 10 October 2012 23: 13
                0
                This - yes - there were long-term deliveries. Under the responsibility of the state.
            3. evgen762
              evgen762 10 October 2012 23: 07
              0
              Then there were no collective farms! Collective farms began to form with the advent of agronomists, technicians, and planting materials. Everything else - just reports of the chiefs (goats) - the limit of the shtetl!
    2. Parabelum
      Parabelum 9 October 2012 08: 58
      +3
      Dear author of the comment, you probably have plenty of rest in the prison baland for those years, and you are tortured to do daily work with a percentage. Or your knowledge of such details is based on the statements of the babylera and others like her? But the truth is yes, it is in the middle, but it’s not clear why you are trying to infringe on the author of the article? He does not seem to say that the prisoners rode like cheese in butter. But the idea of ​​labor camps is generally correct, in my opinion, all nariks, alkanauts and homeless people should be sent to such camps, all one, the benefit to society.
      1. mongoose
        mongoose 9 October 2012 09: 13
        0
        The author of the article is trying to say that the Jewish government did not destroy millions of Russian people and nothing more! am
      2. mongoose
        mongoose 9 October 2012 09: 19
        -4
        I agree with you the same, the camp is wonderful, would you like to go there yourself? laughing
        1. Parabelum
          Parabelum 9 October 2012 12: 57
          +2
          Well, you know, somehow without me, if you think it's great. Although why is it incomprehensible to you. Did I say somewhere that this is great? Or is it your speculation?
        2. Nuar
          Nuar 10 October 2012 15: 03
          0
          Quote: mongoose
          I agree with you the same, the camp is wonderful, would you like to go there yourself?
          Well, some animals - it would be more logical to keep in zoos.
      3. apro
        apro 9 October 2012 09: 24
        +8
        Only in the USSR wage earned wages. But seriously, wage wages are the most inefficient and costly. The only advantage is that it is possible to organize construction or production in the right place in a short time. Kara-Murza is well intoxicated. labor z \ k to be the basis of the economy of the USSR, all Soviet achievements are prudent management and enthusiasm and good pay for free citizens.
      4. mar.tira
        mar.tira 9 October 2012 09: 53
        +2
        Quote: Parabelum
        on the statements of babyllers and others like her

        No ! If you read carefully, on the memoirs of my father. I will add on the memoirs of my grandfather, grandmother, father-in-law. For they were all dispossessed, repressed, convicted, and sent to camps. I did not live at that time, but even according to the recollections of those around me, I feel uneasy .
        1. Skavron
          Skavron 9 October 2012 10: 40
          +2
          Martira, I can only support.
        2. Parabelum
          Parabelum 9 October 2012 13: 00
          0
          Nowhere is it written that this is on your father's memories. Your message says that you showed this "nonsense" to your father.
        3. Uncle
          Uncle 9 October 2012 15: 22
          +2
          Quote: mar.tira
          I’ll add on the memoirs of my grandfather, grandmother, father-in-law.

          And my great-grandfather, the priest, passed the ELEPHANT.
          1. Parabelum
            Parabelum 9 October 2012 15: 55
            0
            We will be attentive and thoughtful.
            Good n **** from the stove! Dear author of the article! I would put you on the prison jumble of those years. Yes, enter the daily output with a percentage. And then see what will happen to you and your how you say the salary if you do not fulfill it! I showed your nonsense to my father, and I heard a lot from him about it. Some say that the economy developed only on the labor of prisoners, others only on the enthusiasm of the builders of communism. But the truth is in the middle! L,
            Poke your finger where is the quote you quoted? because my answer is precisely to this message, and not to the one you are quoting.
            And this quoted
            No ! If you read carefully, on the memoirs of my father. I will add on the memoirs of my grandfather, grandmother, father-in-law. For they were all dispossessed, repressed, convicted, and sent to camps. I did not live at that time, but even according to the recollections of those around me, I feel uneasy .,
            the author gave it later, charming me that he allegedly already said this
      5. Uncle
        Uncle 9 October 2012 15: 20
        0
        Quote: Parabelum
        And the idea of ​​labor camps is generally correct,

        These were called LTP. This is a SIMULTANEOUS prison and asylum and compulsory treatment.
    3. mongoose
      mongoose 9 October 2012 09: 16
      -7
      the economy in the USSR did not develop using economic methods; the world has not seen a similar exploitation of the population since the time of the construction of the Egyptian pyramids by slaves.
      1. Dobrokhod Sergey
        Dobrokhod Sergey 9 October 2012 11: 32
        +4
        "The economy in the USSR did not develop by economic methods, the world has not seen such exploitation of the population since the time of the construction of the Egyptian pyramids by slaves."
        The world has not seen much.
        1. travels
          travels 10 October 2012 05: 10
          +1
          Since the time of the pyramids, only with a small nuance. Not a single building built by SLAVES lasted so long. I, as an engineer, AMAZING the MASTERS who erected the pyramids, the weight of the load for each square meter of electricity was forgiven, and not the slave heaped stones.
      2. Prometey
        Prometey 9 October 2012 14: 09
        +5
        Quote: mongoose
        the world has not seen such exploitation of the population since the time of the construction of the Egyptian pyramids by slaves.

        After that, there’s nothing to talk about with you. Apparently you lived at that time and saw with your own eyes how hundreds of thousands of slaves built pyramids from dawn to dusk. Even in school textbooks it is already written that in Egypt there was no classical slavery and slave labor was used in the household due to the small number of them.
        In your head, complete mess and the brain is simply not able to perceive and analyze information.
        Quote: mongoose
        the economy in the USSR did not develop by economic methods

        Have you even understood what you wrote? Explain then what are economic methods? Or was it a question of forced labor methods, in the language of the classic of the history of the development of capitalism — K. Marx?
        The non-economic method of coercion (labor as an obligation) has been used at all times and in different economic systems, even during capitalism. The mass labor of prisoners in the USSR was used temporarily at construction sites of the first five-year plans in the face of a shortage of labor and against the backdrop of the global economic crisis (in the absence of funds to attract labor). It was a forced measure, not an ideological one.
    4. borisst64
      borisst64 10 October 2012 11: 32
      0
      Quote: mar.tira
      Put you on the prison jumble of those years

      "the norm of flour fell from 23,5 kg per person in 1932 to 17,17 kg in 1933; cereals from 5,75 to 2,25 kg; pasta from 0,5 to 0,4 kg; vegetable oil with 1 to 0,3 liters; sugar from 0,95 to 0,6 kg, etc. "

      Report of the secret-political department of the plenipotentiary representation of the OGPU in Central Intelligence Center of June 17, 1933

      Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) - Comrade Vareikis.



      Some collective farms of the Veidelevskaya MTS massif [Veidelevskiy district of the Central Black Earth Region was located on the territory of the modern Belgorod Region - PZ] are experiencing acute industrial difficulties. There are cases of death of collective farmers at work in the field. On the Harvest Day collective farm, three poor collective farmers died of hunger while weeding coriander in the furrow. Facts of cannibalism are noted on the basis of hunger.

      So the poor collective farmer Bliznyukova E.G. collective farm named "May 1" together with his brother ate their deceased younger brother at the age of 4 years.

      A similar fact of cannibalism took place in the Belo-Kolodezyansky village council.

      June 9 this year poor Stepanova E.F. 34 years old slaughtered her son 9 years old for food.

      Arrested in this case, Bliznyukova, Stepanova confessed to cannibalism. Detailed material will be announced later.

      Envoy of the OGPU for the Central Committee of Bachinsky

      (CDNIVO. F.2. Op.1. D.2461. L.212).

      Everyone was suffering at that time!
  4. 8 company
    8 company 9 October 2012 09: 43
    +7
    Something the author was ashamed to bring in his panegyric to the Gulag the memories of people who visited there. And do not be shy:
    From the memoirs of General Gorbatov:
    "" In our camp there were about four hundred convicted under Article 58 and up to fifty 'urkagans', hardened criminals, on whose conscience there was more than one conviction, but some of them had several, even eight, robberies and murders. It was from them that the elders were placed above us. The work in the mine was quite grueling, especially when you consider the low-calorie diet. As a rule, the "enemies of the people" were sent to the harder work, and the urkagans were sent to the easier ones. Of these, as I have already said, brigadiers, cooks, orderlies and tents were appointed. Naturally, that insignificant amount of fat, which was released into the kettle, fell primarily into the stomachs of the 'lesson'. Food was of three categories: for those who did not fulfill the norm, for those who did it and for those who exceeded it. Among the latter were criminals. Although they worked very little, the accountants were from their own company. They cheated, ascribing to themselves and theirs the work at our expense. Therefore, the criminals were full and we were starving. "
  5. 8 company
    8 company 9 October 2012 10: 17
    +2
    Varlam Shalamov served in the Kolyma camps, as they say, from bell to bell for 10 years, and wrote several series of stories (quoted from the book 'High latitudes' by V.T. Shalamov, AST Moscow, 2009):
    'Robberies by blatars are everywhere. Racket is legalized and does not surprise anyone. In 1938, when there was an almost official concordat between the authorities and the blatars, when the thieves were declared "friends of the people", the high authorities looked in the blatars for a weapon of struggle against the "Trotskyists", with "enemies of the people." There were even political classes with blatars at the EHF, where cultural workers explained to the blatars the sympathies and hopes of the authorities, and asked them for help in destroying the 'Trotskyists'.
    - These people were sent here for destruction, and your task is to help us in this matter, - these are the true words of the inspector of the EHF of the Partizan mine by the name of Sharov, spoken by him at such lessons in the winter at the beginning of 1938. Blathari responded with full agreement. Still would! This saved their lives and made them 'useful' members of society. In the face of the Trotskyists, they met an intelligentsia they deeply hated. Bigger people, like the former secretary of the North Caucasian regional committee of the party, Eshba, were shot on the famous Serpentinka, and the rest were finished off by blatars, an escort, hunger and cold. '


    It was not by chance that the GULAG camp administrations and the criminals quickly found a common language and actively cooperated in making the life of “enemies of the people” in the camps as difficult as possible. This is described by V. Shalamov, E. Ginzburg and many other people who survived in the Gulag and wrote memoirs. The criminals perfectly understood the logic of Stalin's actions, according to their notions he was quite a typical "godfather" who managed to subjugate an entire country by brute force. The criminals convicted under the 58th article were considered upstarts who went against the will of the godfather, and this was "not by concept." In addition, many "enemies of the people" were educated, intelligent people, against the background of criminals they looked like "white crows" and were not able to give the lords, who also acted with brute force, an adequate forceful rebuff.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 9 October 2012 10: 44
      +5
      In general, criminals were considered a "socially close element." Though a little lost. But, in the opinion of the then leadership, they could be re-educated. Therefore, they fiddled with them. Hence the reliance on them in the camps. A swindler and a thief is closer - than an enemy of the people, an intellectual.
      1. Uncle
        Uncle 9 October 2012 15: 29
        -1
        Quote: Company 8
        The criminals convicted under the 58th article were considered upstarts who went against the will of the godfather, and this was "not by concept."

        Someone always hindered the communists from building a bright future. First, these are the Bali bourgeoisie, kulaks, churchmen. All have stayed, but there is no bright future. We took on the middle peasants, intellectuals, scientists, buyers, artists. They put me in camps, but again there is no future. Let's clean up the army, they cleaned it up to the point that there was no one to fight. But there is still no communism and no. It’s a sin to say, the war saved, the mustachioed was rotten, that communist ideas were not needed among the people, he turned to the nation “brothers and sisters ...”. Many of the camps were let in, and after the war the tsierkvi was closed again, the military was imprisoned ...
        1. 8 company
          8 company 9 October 2012 16: 37
          0
          Quote: Uncle
          Someone has always prevented the Communists from building a bright future.


          Bad dancers are always the same thing forever.
          1. travels
            travels 10 October 2012 05: 18
            +3
            All who worked for the development of the state and their homeland, or almost all, lived a normal life, and those who were hit, who wanted to go to paradise on a hunchback and ended up in similar institutions like the Gulag. In order not to be unfounded. My family comes from Peter the 1st, My ancestor was the most famous blacksmith in the Urals, were godfathers of the Demidovs. My Great-Grandfather, - My father’s grandfather already owned several steel mills in the same Urals. With the advent of the Soviets, he gave them (came, he gave). He remained the manager at the largest and worked to his homeland, honestly and diligently, to death. We did not have represences in our family, although we could be attributed to BOURGEOIS. And not a single person in the world will convince me that a crystal honest man has been punished for nothing. This does not happen.
    2. travels
      travels 10 October 2012 05: 12
      0
      And in Russia, ALL are innocent. And those who have been there are not impolite beacons of pure information.
  6. Skavron
    Skavron 9 October 2012 10: 53
    +3
    Something I did not understand what kind of "myths" the author of the article is going to debunk?
    Yes, and I also strongly doubt that the author is even approximately familiar with the construction conditions in the north. Especially in the thirties of the last century. I recommend trying it yourself. And try to feed yourself with gruel, and not a modern high-calorie product, and then write such articles and debunk the "myths". Let him name a large construction site of the thirties, where the labor of the ZK was not used, but we will see.
    Moreover, it says "to be continued" ...
  7. savoj
    savoj 9 October 2012 11: 10
    -1
    My grandfather was shot then. But those who were loyal to the GULAG were those who dismantled or gave orders to knock or knock, wrote denunciations. In another way. Therefore, Kremlin power will always be in shit and will never take Russia as a state. Because the whole Kremlin is in the blood and is not going to apologize for it. All billionaires and millionaires in Russia are mostly Jews, I do not insult, but give a fact. So the Russians shine only further collapse .... by the way again the army began to bomb in the Caucasus, and there is a new war.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 9 October 2012 11: 18
      +1
      As for the collapse of Russia, this is what we went through. They threaten to merge us all the time! Do not wait! For you personally I say, Glory to Old Man Lukashenko! While he smacks people like you, we are calm here!
  8. igordok
    igordok 9 October 2012 11: 11
    +1
    The labor of prisoners is not economically profitable (costs of protection, settlements, etc.). For modern conditions, it is better to bribe takers to fine and confiscate property.

    According to the article: A map with modern borders, and a map of those times would be more informative.
  9. Prometey
    Prometey 9 October 2012 11: 43
    +6
    And I am always interested in the point of view of the "truth-tellers" - whistleblowers who write about the Gulags. And where do they get the idea that only political prisoners were in the camps? As soon as talk about the GULAG begins, intellectuals of a certain nationality come running foaming at the mouth, proving that only "enemies of the people" worked on the construction sites of the five-year plans. At the same time, they do not even want to include at least a piece of the brain. Crime was ALWAYS and at all times and there was it and Stalin's time, oddly enough. Political prisoners in the GULAG were 10% of the total number of prisoners, the rest were convicted of criminal offenses - theft, violence, robbery, murder. Why can't the state use these apostates from the law in its own interests? This is a historical practice that has been applied in almost all countries. In the early 30s, during the first five-year plan in the USSR, there simply would not have been so many political prisoners physically (the main wave of Yezhov's repressions took place in 37-39). Therefore, all dreamers go to the forest.
    1. Nagaibak
      Nagaibak 9 October 2012 15: 49
      +3
      Just with 60 tenths of snot yet not let go. Shalamov shake, but how. Everything is nothing but the numbers are not ale. Particularly touching - millions from hunger, collectivization, war. Add the gulag! Yes, no tens of millions !!! Yes, that you hundreds, hundreds of millions, perished. Robots !!! But how did we all survive after all?
      1. 8 company
        8 company 9 October 2012 16: 32
        -1
        Quote: Nagaibak
        Just with 60 tenths of snot yet not let go. Shalamov shake- but what about


        This is for the Dzhugashvili fans sympathy for the suffering of their people - snot, but for normal people this is normal behavior. Moreover, knowledge of the real history of their people has not hurt anyone. Well, except, besides, again, those who like to compete in idolatry around the leader’s personality.
        1. Nagaibak
          Nagaibak 10 October 2012 10: 00
          +4
          I am for justice. Killed in the camps a lot. But I have nothing to weave about millions and millions. Let’s get the numbers. I don’t accept one rifle for five. That was of course. But the war was won not by one rifle for five. And not just penal battalions. This I for example, why against. Pathetics are not necessary. In the 90s ate up to vomit. A fan of Dzhugashvili never thought of himself like that. Although ... if you look at the level of those leaders who were after ... you will inevitably become. Are you a fan of Kasyanov? Judging by the author. No!!! Better to have a fan for Vissarionych!
  10. 8 company
    8 company 9 October 2012 11: 57
    +4
    Memories of a guy who was arrested at age 20:
    Belykh Petr Ivanovich - born in 1917, arrested in 1937, sentenced to 8 years in prison camp.
    “... Soon, the assistant chief of the station Golev was arrested. An urgent meeting was held. On the agenda was the question of the exclusion from the Komsomol of his wife Golev. The meeting was attended by the secretary of the Komsomol and the NKVD investigator. Golev was accused of not coming and not declaring her husband, who allegedly participated in sabotage. A young, fair-haired, one might say, quite a girl, she stood and cried. I especially remember the performance of Anisimov - one of our Komsomol members. He spoke of the vigilance and shame of our organization for the fact that we could not tear off the mask from the enemy of the Golev people. He expressed gratitude to the NKVD for his vigilance and sharply condemned the Golev family. I felt sorry for Golev's wife, and when I voted, I did not raise my hands. After the meeting, they detained me and the secretary, banging his fist on the table, gave me verbal censure .... In less than a week, Anisimov was arrested. Komsomol members silently, bewildered, shrugged. Following Anisimov, Pryakhin, Lyasitsky, Kovalev and Blinov were arrested ...
    ... Then, as a rule, the interrogation protocols were forced to sign under torture. I have not been beaten. Another method was chosen for me: they did not allow me to sleep and kept them on my legs until exhaustion. As a result of everything, my legs got swollen, I could no longer stand and wrote “us” instead of a signature, which in my concept meant “forcibly”. However, no one paid attention to this, and ten days after the arrest I was transferred to Starokuznetsk prison ...
    ... The service staff included thieves, crooks, murderers, endowed with great rights. They were merciless to the "kontriks", i.e. to us political. If any of them showed human feelings, they were immediately removed and sent to auxiliary work in the zone ...
    ... This time was the beginning of terrible atrocities for us. In the zone there was a moan, a cry of guards and camp staff. They brought to work hungry, half-dressed. The number of goners increased in front of our eyes, it was scary to look at some - these were living skeletons covered in skin. On average, ten corpses were taken out of the campsite per day. Usually they died in the morning. Before the divorce, the corpses were hidden in order to get an extra ration of bread and a spoonful of baland for them. Before withdrawal for divorce, the corpses were pulled off and laid on the floor near the bunks. Then informed the administration. It was impossible to hide further, since at the end of the divorce, the camp pirates checked all the tents. There is an opinion that a person gets used to everything. I was very afraid of the dead, and here it’s in the order of things: you step over corpses, go after the baland and with the bowler return the same way to your bunks. There were 600 people in our camp, and I was counting to myself calmly: in ten days, a hundred people would die, in twenty days two hundred. I can’t survive for more than two months. My turn will come ... "

    http://www.pmem.ru/index.php?id=359
  11. sxn278619
    sxn278619 9 October 2012 11: 59
    -1
    To build socialism in one country, industrialization was vital.
    And for this, you need finances (to buy technology abroad) and cheap mobile labor.
    Currency was obtained through the export of raw materials, grain (which led to hunger) and cultural property.
    The Gulag has given mobile cheap labor.
    Now Russia needs a new industrialization.
    Quote
    For the same number of hours of working time, one person in the Russian Federation produces more than 60% less value added than in the United States.
    But the main problem is that the severe constraints faced by the labor market are taking place against the backdrop of the widening gap between wage growth and productivity. The largest gap - 19% - is observed in the public sector and sectors (together 25% of all employment) that do not compete in foreign markets
    Read more: http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/2040114
    1. Skavron
      Skavron 9 October 2012 12: 07
      0
      Quote: sxn278619
      Now Russia needs a new industrialization.

      And not just new, but high-tech
    2. mongoose
      mongoose 9 October 2012 12: 23
      0
      first to ruin the industry, and to fill up the plants with Russian bones, then on Russian bones and restore them
      1. klimpopov
        klimpopov 9 October 2012 14: 40
        +1
        What plants?
        Have you heard anything about the 1900-1903 crisis?
        Have you read about the industry of the Russian Empire?
        And what a beauty in your comments! It's expensive to watch.
        On other people's bones PR! Not ashamed?
    3. butko58
      butko58 28 May 2013 23: 05
      0
      It is interesting, why did the Bolsheviks seize power in an industrially undeveloped country contrary to Marx's theory?
      Were they not able to calculate the consequences of this, or were they cynically prepared to pay millions of lives just to amuse their ambitions?
  12. cvx
    cvx 9 October 2012 12: 28
    +1
    I do not know what will be continued, but for an article with such a title, the construction of the White Sea-Baltic Canal is not a very good example.
  13. Very smart
    Very smart 9 October 2012 12: 28
    +5
    Come on! Becoming good and the responses to it show the relevance and interest in this issue. In fact: there was nothing good in the camps, there is not and will not be !!! Like it or not - imprisonment and hard work. BUT: after a moratorium on the death penalty, a large group of citizens sits under execution articles. Sits, does not work. They are fed and guarded. That's where it is interesting. On our money with you!
    For those who are interested, I recommend finding what is not easy and reading a book written by a professor of Russian literature from Vilnius. In 1943-44, the Germans sent all Lithuanian intelligentsia to the camps, so that they would not interfere. This man survived and wrote a book after the war. She shocked me. How she was missed in Soviet times! Only in the Baltic States slipped.
    Balis Sruoga "Forest of the Gods". That was the name of the camp in Poland. A simple German labor camp, nothing special. I highly recommend reading.
    As for Solzhenitsyn. I had a friend, Sergey Sergeevich Zh., Who during the war was the commander of intelligence of the art battalion, in which Solzhenitsyn was the commander of the gun, and then the battery. (I don’t remember exactly, I could be mistaken in the details) They were familiar and only positive reviews about the future writer. He fought in a honest way, received awards for real battles. For what exactly he was taken away - there is no information.
    As for his works, in my opinion, this is not literature but journalism. And low-quality, on cheap effects, which is called "on the head of the day." That day, not now. And everything is very black. To read - from the soul turns back.
    1. Z.A.M.
      Z.A.M. 9 October 2012 15: 36
      +1
      Very smart

      Quote: Very smart
      In fact: there was nothing good in the camps, there is not and will not be !!!

      Quote: Very smart
      after a moratorium on the death penalty, a large group of citizens are sitting under execution articles. Sits, does not work. They are fed and guarded. That's where it is interesting. On our money with you!

      Everything is very true. They sit and ... Here's what we know, where are the statistics, about the current prisoners and their role in the economy. What do they produce there, what kind of forests are they felled for and for whom? Yes, even using the examples of city special detention centers, where "a day" is served, and then we can say that these persons, compared even with the 90s, simply rest there.
      And this is all in the background - there is no one to do the "dirty" work. Well, well ... As always, we will pity the poor blatars.

      And one more point, which at the present time, is not really mentioned.
      Do former prisoners receive pensions and which ones? And then again they are talking about raising the retirement age for NORMAL WORK.
      Who knows, enlighten.
      1. antiaircrafter
        antiaircrafter 9 October 2012 21: 29
        +1
        Quote: Z.A.M.
        Do former prisoners receive pensions and which ones?

        Even if they did not work a day after reaching 60 (women) and 65 (men), they will receive a social old-age pension, now 3626,71 rubles per month.
        Persons with disabilities will accordingly receive a social disability pension.
        If there is a seniority, the pension is calculated in the usual manner for labor pensions.
    2. olegyurjewitch
      olegyurjewitch 9 October 2012 22: 15
      0
      Quote: Very smart
      As for his works, in my opinion, this is not literature, but journalism. And low-grade, on cheap effects, which is called "on the head of the day." That day, not now. And everything is very black. Read - from the soul turns back

      So it was necessary to work out their bread, not for free to live in the states.
  14. strannik595
    strannik595 9 October 2012 13: 15
    +1
    dedicated to the defenders of the gulag ......
  15. viktorrymar
    viktorrymar 9 October 2012 14: 40
    +3
    Mongoose, how old are you that you so categorically express yourself, nobody exploited anyone - there were ideological people and worked for the homeland and for the homeland, and there were parasites, hangovers and thieves who managed to get a white ticket for the blat during the war. Do not insult the memory of those people who loved their country and worked not for fear, but for conscience.
  16. Uncle
    Uncle 9 October 2012 14: 47
    0
    Maps and photographs are taken from Wikipedia, with all the ensuing consequences. From St. Petersburg to Ladoga - the Neva River, along the southeastern shore of Ladoga - the Staroladozhsky Canal, from Ladoga to Onega - the Svir River. The Communists ascribed to themselves what was done either by nature or under the Tsar. Ladoga shows the fairway, not the channel. I did not expect such a mess from Samsonov.
    1. Uncle
      Uncle 9 October 2012 15: 34
      0
      That's who the minus is just ridiculous. Out of a desire to spoil when there is nothing to object? I went around Ladoga on my yacht, I know the place and there is a lotion. So I know about the channel not from Wikipedia.
      1. klimpopov
        klimpopov 9 October 2012 15: 36
        0
        Well, you react so much to minuses, they put it on.
    2. pinachet
      pinachet 9 October 2012 16: 57
      +2
      the picture just shows the path, the fact that the channel itself in the north was digging is clear.
  17. serge
    serge 9 October 2012 20: 39
    +6
    Gray economic nonsense.
    The population of the USSR (1937) is 162 million people.
    The number of prisoners in the camps of the NKVD (1935) - 1.727.970 people
    The number of prisoners in the camps of the NKVD (1939) was 1.317.195 people (less than 1%).
    (http://stalinism.narod.ru/docs/repress/repress.htm)
    The number of prisoners in Russia (2007) - 886,4 thousand people (no one now claims that the ZK is the basis of the economy)
    How can the work of one and a half million prisoners become the basis of the economy for a country of 160 million people?
    From an economic point of view, this is purple bullshit. It’s the same as saying that a janitor-guest worker can ensure the economic recovery of the house in which he works. In addition, the fruits of labor of prisoners can be safely divided into two, or even four, because the historical axiom is that a slave cannot work better than an employee and generally a free person.
  18. evgen762
    evgen762 9 October 2012 23: 00
    +2
    All the same, Belbaltlag and the Gulag, in my opinion, are two big differences:
    After the construction was completed on August 4, 1933, 12 prisoners were released, the terms for 484 prisoners were reduced.
    After Belbaltlag, people were given passports.
    I read somewhere, there were 37 Chekists on the whole Belbaltlag - the rest s / c (they coped somehow)
    and the expression in the 32-34 year old questionnaire "Honored Canal Avrmist is a strong business executive."
    Not so simple.
  19. scorpiosys
    scorpiosys 10 October 2012 00: 58
    +4
    Read the normal documents on the history of OUR COUNTRY! The number of prisoners under Stalin in the context of 1 year, so now they believe in Russia was scanty compared to 2010, to make it clear, and for years from 1937 to 1953 they give us a rampart, with re-booked, with war, etc.! Read the statistics on years, topics, and OUR! You won’t sleep for a long time!
  20. dmb
    dmb 10 October 2012 14: 23
    +2
    Dear forum users. I appeal to the sane. It seems to me that in the heat of the discussion we are going away. The speech in the article is not about Solzhenitsyn (not to be remembered by nightfall), but about the existing system and its current assessment. Has the author ever said in an article that the GULAG is good? Of course it's bad. And I could do without him, I doubt it. You don't have to go far for examples. Read the comments of the mammal, as well as its virtual uncle. What do you think these gentlemen will do if the communists come to power in Russia again? Moreover, in a legal way in the elections. That's right, most likely they will make sawn-off trims and will depict the dad Angel until their legal authority determines their purpose. It was also in 1918. Even the most orthodox, but thoughtful admirers of the Father Tsar in particular and capitalism in general, to the question: “Why did the Bolsheviks, instead of restoring the economy, need to engage in extermination of everyone in a row,” they shyly fall silent, because they cannot answer coherently. I want to make a reservation right away that these are thinkers, because there are a number of fellow citizens who immediately delay: "And how a big Jewish conspiracy cut off the Russian ends ..." One should be careful with such gentlemen with sympathy, for I foresee that Basayev's granddaughters will also tell that grandfather was a Great Humanist and died for democracy.
  21. butko58
    butko58 28 May 2013 22: 07
    0
    <The death rate in the White Sea-Baltic ITL was: ... in 1933 - 8870 prisoners (10,56%).
    ...
    At the same time, there is no reason to call the conditions of detention of prisoners cruel or atrocious.>

    The joker however is the author! There is probably every reason to call such conditions of detention a resort or a sanatorium. Well then - they gave a premium dish! To improve health go.
  22. Dry66
    Dry66 16 September 2013 12: 19
    0
    Quote: nnz226
    "Millions of perished" - this is just in Solzhenitsyn's way !!!! To sculpt a hunchback - taking advantage of the fact that the masses did not know the truth - and a "Nobel Prize" in literature. And if you look at the statistics from the archives of the NKVD (and there "accounting and control" were at their best, each imprisoned or shot was clearly taken into account), then there were up to 3,5 million "prisoners" during Stalin's time, and this is not only under Article 58, and according to others (I hope no one will dispute that among the convicts there were also criminals in a very large number) and 10% perished (according to the article) even in the most difficult times (I admit that in the WAR the figure could reach 20%) and 20 % of 3,5 million is a maximum of 700 souls (MAXIMUM !!!) and where are the millions killed ???

    YOU 700 thousand souls, not enough?
  23. Dry66
    Dry66 16 September 2013 12: 25
    0
    Quote: serge
    Gray economic nonsense.
    The population of the USSR (1937) is 162 million people.
    The number of prisoners in the camps of the NKVD (1935) - 1.727.970 people
    The number of prisoners in the camps of the NKVD (1939) was 1.317.195 people (less than 1%).
    (http://stalinism.narod.ru/docs/repress/repress.htm)
    The number of prisoners in Russia (2007) - 886,4 thousand people (no one now claims that the ZK is the basis of the economy)
    How can the work of one and a half million prisoners become the basis of the economy for a country of 160 million people?
    From an economic point of view, this is purple bullshit. It’s the same as saying that a janitor-guest worker can ensure the economic recovery of the house in which he works. In addition, the fruits of labor of prisoners can be safely divided into two, or even four, because the historical axiom is that a slave cannot work better than an employee and generally a free person.

    What does that mean nonsense? And if this million is sent to Norilsk to build, a practically free city, it will turn out that brought billions to the country every year.
  24. Reinhard
    Reinhard 4 February 2014 12: 35
    -1
    True - she is always in the middle. But statistics is iron.