U-2 история of flights
For the first time, American aircraft began photographic and electronic monitoring of Soviet territory at the end of 1946. The beginning of these flights in time coincided with the beginning of the Cold War, and naturally it was not accidental. Initially, such aircraft took off only from Alaska and flew along the Soviet land and sea frontiers. At the same time, as the confrontation between the two countries intensified, the US Department of Defense increasingly insisted on the need for deep air reconnaissance of the territory of the USSR and its allies. Over time, these flights really began, but they led to large losses. A very large number of reconnaissance aircraft were shot down in Soviet airspace, a smaller part over the territory of the PRC and other states of the Soviet bloc. The total number of teams lost aircraft was 252 man, while the fate of the 138 pilots remained unknown.
Taking this into account, the CIA decided to sign an agreement with Lockheed on the construction of a stratospheric reconnaissance aircraft. So 22 March 1955, the company has been a formal contract. According to this document, Lockheed was supposed to build 20 aircraft with a total value of 22 million dollars. This amount did not include the costs of creating jet engines that were supposed to be purchased by the Air Force, as well as photographic equipment that the CIA planned to order separately. The contract terms were quite tight, the first Lockheed aircraft was supposed to deliver in 4 a month, not later than the end of July.
The implementation of this order has become a real technical epic, many of the details of which remain classified. For example, the fuel of those years for jet aircraft at an altitude of 20 meters began to boil and evaporate. Therefore, Shell has urgently created aviation kerosene with stabilizing additives. Modifying the Pratt & Whitney J57 engines was also not easy, and there were plenty of other problems. However, the first aircraft was built by July 15th. It, like all subsequent aircraft, was built in the Californian city of Burbank.
Flight tests were at an extremely fast pace and in deep secret. The plane took off and landed on the bottom of a dried-up lake in the state of Nevada, located north of Las Vegas. A nuclear test site was located near this place, so the whole area around it was closed. 29 July 1955, the reconnaissance plane, which was run by test pilot Tony Levyer, first rolled along the airfield. In September of the same year, he managed to climb to a height of 19 500 meters. And at the end of 1956, he managed to climb more than 22 kilometers. 1 of the same year, U-2, in a disassembled form, was forwarded to the English Lakekenheath Air Base, where the aircraft was reassembled and prepared for flight operations.
Great Britain is a rather densely populated country, so it was obvious that an unusual plane would quickly be noticed. For this reason, even before the start of the first U-2 flights over the Warsaw bloc countries, the American intelligence services conducted a large-scale camouflage operation. 7 May, NASA Director Hugh Dryden made a statement that Lockheed began producing a superhigh-level aircraft that will be used to study the ozone layer, cosmic rays and stratospheric air flow. Later, the general public was informed that the new aircraft were incorporated into the UK-based 1 Meteorological Squadron. It was also reported that such aircraft will fly to "other areas of the globe." Of course, not a word was said about the USSR.
In 1956, the Soviet units of the Air Force and Air Defense did not yet have fighters capable of climbing 20 000 meters, on which U-2 flew, or air defense systems that could get them there. The first missions confirmed the invulnerability of the aircraft. The ability of an aircraft to fly in the Moscow sky without interference was even proven. In 1956, American spy planes performed a series of flights over the USSR. In particular, the 2 flight took place on July 9, another one took place on July 10. On the same day, the USSR officially sent the United States a note of protest, and President Eisenhower ordered that all U-2 raids be suspended over Soviet territory for the time being. They were resumed only in June 1957, and this time the flights were conducted not in the western part of the USSR, but in the Far East.
In total, the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft penetrated 24 Soviet airspace times. The last such raid, called Mission 4154, took place on 1 May 1960. This flight was sanctioned personally by President Eisenhower, who at the same time issued an order after May 1 not to fly over the territory of the USSR. As a result, the U-2 aircraft, invulnerable to this, was shot down by a Soviet anti-aircraft missile in the Sverdlovsk region, and its pilot, Powers, safely descended by parachute and was captured, which Khrushchev officially announced on May 7.
As a result, Soviet-American relations once again underwent a crisis, which caused the cancellation of the international meeting with the participation of the leaders of the USSR, the USA, Great Britain and France, which was to be held in Paris on May 16. The pilot of the downed U-2 remained in prison in the USSR until February 19 1962, when he was exchanged for the Soviet intelligence officer William Fischer, who was known as Rudolf Abel.
In total, over the territory of the USSR, 4 reconnaissance aircraft U-2 photographed 3 million 370 thousand square meters. meters of Soviet territory or about 15% of the total area of the country. Total 392 was shot thousands of meters of film, which is still stored in the archives of the CIA. The value of this aircraft is confirmed at least by the fact that in 1962, it was they who confirmed the preparation of launch positions for Soviet ballistic missiles in Cuba. At present, modern modifications of the U-2S and TU-2S aircraft are still in service with the US Air Force. It is assumed that they will be decommissioned only by 2023 year. The design of the new generation radar Astor,
which is used on these reconnaissance aircraft.
ZRK C-75 "Dvina"
The Dvina S-75 (according to NATO codification - SA-2 Guideline) is a Soviet mobile anti-aircraft missile system. The main developer of the air defense missile system was NPO Almaz (general designer A. A. Raspletin), and the developer of the rocket was the ICB Fakel (general designer P. D. Grushin). The complex was put into service in 1957 year. The C-75 SAM system could destroy targets at a distance of up to 43 km, in the altitude range from 0,5 to 30 km, which had speeds up to 2 300 km / h. Since its adoption, this complex has been constantly improved. Its latest modifications are capable of destroying targets flying at speeds up to 3 700 km / h.
The S-75 air defense missile system occupies a special place among the domestic air defense systems, this particular complex was the first to be transported. He was the first in the world to take part in real hostilities and opened the scoring of enemy aircraft downed. It was from the C-75 complex that supplies of domestic air defense systems began abroad. ZRK-75 has become the most used complex for the history of air defense forces around the world. This complex in various versions was in service with more than 40 countries. For all the time of its release, about 800 divisions of this complex were exported. C-75 was also produced in the People's Republic of China under a license, where it was called Huntsi-1 (HQ-1) and Huntsi-2 (HQ-2).
In many ways, the initial success of the complex is connected with its main weapons - anti-aircraft missile, which was designed in the Grushin Design Bureau. The choice of the main technical solutions for SAM, which received the designation 1D, was largely determined by the appearance of the radio-electronic part of the С-75 SAM system. For example, the use of a narrowly directed antenna for transmitting commands to a rocket rigidly connected with the unit of the target-oriented airborne main antennas of the guidance station predetermined the use of an inclined launch of the rocket with deployable toward the PU target.
To implement such a launch, the rocket had to have a very good initial thrust-to-weight ratio, which only a solid propellant rocket engine (RDTT) could provide. On the contrary, with a relatively long subsequent flight to the target, the requirements for thrust values were an order of magnitude less. In addition, it required high efficiency engine. In those years, only the liquid-propellant rocket engine (LRE) responded to these conditions. So it was decided to use a two-stage scheme of the rocket, which was equipped with a solid-propellant solid propellant rocket motor working at the launch, and a rocket engine, which worked on the march. This scheme allowed the rocket to provide a high average speed, and therefore the possibility of timely hitting an air target.
In order to determine the aerodynamic design of the rocket, the designers created original calculation methods. They took into account the requirements of the effective operation of the stabilization system, the required maneuverability of the rocket (the use of a radio command guidance system on the target was allowed) and the control loop, as well as obtaining minimal aerodynamic drag. As a result, for the first time in the USSR, a normal aerodynamic configuration was used for SAM. At the same time, destabilizers were installed in the front of the anti-aircraft missile, which increased its maneuverability and also made it possible to regulate the stock of its static stability during the refinement process.
The use of the normal scheme allowed in practice to realize higher aerodynamic characteristics in comparison with the “weft” scheme. For such a scheme, it was not even necessary to use the ailerons - the ZUR control on roll was carried out using differential steering deflection. In turn, the sufficient static stability and high thrust-to-weight ratio of the anti-aircraft missile at the launch site ensured a delay in yaw and pitch control up to the separation of the accelerator. At the same time, in order to prevent the unacceptable leaving of the axles of the on-board instruments at the launch site, the rocket was stabilized in roll. For this, a pair of consoles of stabilizers located in one of the planes had ailerons.
The air defense system consisted of radar guidance, a two-stage anti-aircraft missile, as well as 6 launchers, power tools and transport-loading machines. It was from the C-75 air defense missile system that the U-2 reconnaissance aircraft was shot down. 1 May 1960, the Americans decided to fly over Red Square during the May Day parade. The plane under the control of Powers was coming from the direction of Central Asia. At the same time, the aircraft was closely watched by the radar system of the Soviet air defenses, the route of its flight was reported personally to S. S. Khrushchev directly to the mausoleum rostrum. Under Sverdlovsk, the plane entered the zone of action of the air defense system and was shot down. A couple of MiG-17 fighters were raised to intercept it. By an unfortunate coincidence, one of these aircraft was also shot down by a C-75 missile, while the pilot was killed.
The C-75 complex played a very important role in the formation and development of all the guided missile defense systems of the USSR. It became the only air defense system in the world that successfully performed the function of providing air defense during large-scale hostilities (Vietnam, Egypt). Currently, like the U-2, it continues to remain in service with a number of states.