Military Review

Napoleon did not want to go to Russia?

18

According to historians, the French emperor understood the destructiveness of the war with Russia

“If I borrow Kiev, I will take Russia by the legs, if I seize Petersburg, I will take her by the head. But if I enter Moscow, I will strike Russia at the very heart. ” These words of Napoleon, which he allegedly spoke on the eve of the invasion of Russia, are known to everyone from school. Based on these words, Napoleon’s plan to attack Russia and occupy Moscow for a long time was considered an indisputable fact.

However, this phrase came from the pen of Abbot de Pradt, the representative of Napoleon in Poland during the 1812 war of the year. He began his memoirs a few years after the events described, and they are so overwhelmed with fabrications that it is impossible to believe them.

And what can you believe? Official documents are sure the president of the All-Russian military-historical social movement, historian, author of the books "Napoleon's Army", "Austerlitz: Napoleon, Russia and Europe in 1799-1805", Oleg Sokolov.

He is currently working on a new book on the 1812 war of the year. The events described in it are based solely on facts - orders and other documents that have survived to this day in the Russian and French archives. At the same time, Oleg Sokolov is convinced that several sensational discoveries await readers. One of them is the plan of Napoleon’s military campaign against Russia.

Speaking of the 1812 war of the year, you need to remember that by this time Russia and France were allies. In 1807, the Tilsit peace was concluded between them. According to its conditions, Russia joined the continental blockade of England, recognized all the gains of Napoleon in Europe. She even fought on the side of France with the Austrians. And although it was more like the appearance of hostilities - during the battles between the Russians and the Austrians, the 3 soldier died - however, the relations between Moscow and Paris were officially allied.

But if Napoleon sought a long and lasting friendship with Russia, then Alexander I perceived this alliance as a temporary truce from the very beginning. And the point is not only that in society he was reproached for the shameful conditions of the Treaty of Tilsit. The Russian ruling circles were seriously worried about the growing power of the French Empire. In addition, Napoleon revived Poland, which was completely unacceptable for Russia, says Oleg Sokolov to the Voice of Russia.

"As is known, in the 1772-1795 years, Poland was divided three times between Austria, Prussia and Russia. Russia received the largest Polish territories. The country of Poland disappeared. And Napoleon restored that part of it that was once rejected in favor of Prussia and Austria Thus, by the year 1810 Poland was revived, although it was formally called the Duchy of Warsaw, "continues Oleg Sokolov.

"But without the lands that had left Russia, Poland was clearly incomplete. And from the Poles one could expect actions aimed at further restoring the country. Therefore, among the Russian ruling circles, there was a decision to strike a preventive blow to the Duchy of Warsaw, to destroy it, then revolt among those European countries that are unhappy with Napoleon’s policy, and deliver a decisive blow to France. This view, which Alexander shared, became dominant among the elite of Russian society in 1811, " rik

Napoleon about these plans told the commander of the troops of the Duchy of Warsaw, Jozef Ponyatovsky. Since February 1811, he began to throw the French emperor with letters of help, Oleg Sokolov continues.

“The Russian army is concentrated on our border,” writes Ponyatovsky. “Her task is to attack the Duchy of Warsaw and destroy it. Alexander wants to proclaim himself the Polish king. Sire, they attack us if not tomorrow, then the day after tomorrow. Save! We will do our duty and we will fight to the last, but the Russians will simply trample us. There are thousands of us 40, and thousands of them 200. ”

“Already in the 1811 year, an order was issued to evacuate Warsaw. All the archives, all the ammunition were taken out of the border. Hundreds of letters and reports fall on Napoleon’s table. 1811, he has no doubt that the Russian army is preparing to strike at the Duchy of Warsaw and then to the destruction of Napoleonic France, "- said the historian.

Indeed, in February 1811, the order was issued on the movement of Russian troops to the Polish border. Reports of the upcoming Russian attack come in Paris. And exactly one year later, in February 1812, Napoleon orders the troops of the Great Army to assemble at the borders of Russia. But what did the emperor conceive of the French? Having studied the documents, Oleg Sokolov judges this with all certainty.

"You can only believe the orders that in February-May 1812 were given by Napoleon to Marshal Davout, Eugene Beauharnais, Prince Jerome Bonaparte. There are dozens of these orders, and Napoleon’s plan is clearly visible in them. It is to defeat the Russian army on the line of the Vistula near Warsaw. Keep the offensive of the Russian army on Warsaw under its right wing, which will include the fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, eighth corps of the Great Army, and the left wing consisting of the first, second, third cavalry Yi corps, to deliver a powerful blow from the north and defeat the Russian army in Warsaw. "

"That is, this is a war in Poland, which Napoleon expected to end in about 20 days,” the historian said. “After that, Russia was supposed to conclude a victorious world, which would bring the restoration of if not all of Poland within 1772 of the year, then significant part, plus other political conditions that would guarantee the tranquility of the French Empire from the east. "

This plan remained in effect until June 1812. But neither in April, nor in May, nor in the beginning of June 1812, did the Russian army go over to the offensive. The Russian command was very well aware of what was happening in France. Scouts worked very actively. In particular, detailed reports on the movements of the French army were transmitted from Paris. And when in Moscow they saw those gigantic forces that Napoleon moved towards the Russian borders, the offensive fervor somehow subsided immediately.

“When the Russian command received information about what huge forces are gathering from the other side, their desire to attack was gone. But the Napoleonic army was already moving towards the borders. The regiments were drawn from Milan and Amsterdam, from Paris and Valencia,” Oleg Sokolov notes. Many soldiers marched three to four thousand kilometers to the designated assembly points. And when in early June this armada approached the Neman, it simply could not stop, except for locusts, in one or two days it would go all around. n army did not undertake n Napoleon made the decision to go over the Neman himself. But he was absolutely sure that the Russians were waiting for him on the other side of the river to give a decisive battle. That is, there was no talk about Moscow or Petersburg either. " .

"It was about forcing the Neman, striking the Russian army, occupying Vilna and imprisoning the victorious world. In all orders issued before June 24 - the moment of crossing the Neman, the 20-day campaign is mentioned. The fact that you need to have food for 20 days , ammunition for 20 days, etc. Even when his army crossed the Neman, the emperor had no doubt that the Russians were about to rush to meet him and there would be a battle that would decide the fate of the war. That is why Napoleon was preparing not a long war, but one uncompromising blow, after that There shouldn't have been any questions left, "said Oleg Sokolov.

Thus, Napoleon counted on a short victorious military operation. The war in Poland. The war is purely political, in order to remain with Alexander and his friends and allies after the conclusion of peace.

But the Russian army began its retreat, and all the plans of the emperor of the French collapsed. The war went completely different scenario and ended completely unpredictable for Napoleon, who did not know defeat. His military genius could not penetrate the Russian soul. And even this first lesson taught the great strategist nothing. A little later, Napoleon would be shocked by the Moscow fire — a blow from which the French emperor could not recover.
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18 comments
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  1. andrei332809
    andrei332809 6 October 2012 08: 01
    +14
    poor thing, he was forced to fight with Russia. all aggressors seek excuses for the need to educate barbarians. and psheks generally condoms, few that they wanted for themselves Lithuania, so also Kiev and Smolensk.
    from the movie "formula of love" - ​​"I understand that all the newcomers to Russia are dying near Smolensk"
  2. volcano
    volcano 6 October 2012 15: 38
    +4
    The ghouls of pseudo-history have already hesitated.

    Hitler is on wanted to fight, and defended himself
    Now Napoleon didn’t want to, but only wanted to protect Europe from rabid Russians
    What will happen next ?? Probably "research" that Batu learned about the desire of the Russians to destroy the Steppe and rushed to defend himself ...
    Such historians should be sent to Butyrka or Crosses ....... let their studies be written on the bunk.
    1. with
      with 6 October 2012 15: 47
      +13
      Quote: volkan
      The ghouls of pseudo-history have already hesitated.

      And you did not know ??
      The Great Patriotic War won America, Stalin the tyrant, Gorbachev the holy, Obama the peacemaker the list goes on, the Internet is full of articles that we are all bad and drunk, etc.
      It would be so funny if it were not so sad!
      I think the only way out is to destroy this hotbed of slander and lies !!!
      The only question is right away and with one blow or slowly, but with taste !!!
      1. Melchakov
        Melchakov 6 October 2012 16: 01
        +3
        Quote: met
        The only question is right away and with one blow or slowly, but with taste!

        I believe. This time will come. You can simply, without further ado. And you can make them suffer, seeing that
        ... that what you were building was destroyed, thinking about how I crossed that terrible meridian, they will regret that they did not finish in the 90s, they will shout what we lacked, land, power, resources, this is a damn desire to conquer these "barbarians" ... And now, we have nothing ... They will then go to where we wanted to exterminate them ...

        Found on a table in cell 46 of the American president 10 minutes after his suicide ...
        1. ATATA
          ATATA 6 October 2012 21: 22
          0
          You should see a doctor.
          I apologize, but what you wrote above has nothing to do with love for the motherland nickname patriotism.
  3. dmnatbor
    dmnatbor 6 October 2012 15: 53
    +2
    Obviously mixed up the road.
    Yes, come to my senses late.
  4. darkman70
    darkman70 6 October 2012 15: 55
    +3
    The ghouls of pseudo-history have already hesitated.

    There is such a thing. Article minus.
  5. baltika-18
    baltika-18 6 October 2012 16: 29
    +2
    Well, no one wanted to attack, even a rebuke to write to this historian was somehow reluctant, Ignore it.
  6. bask
    bask 6 October 2012 16: 40
    +2
    Yes, all fluffy and pacifist. The Russians at all ,,, threw up and exploited ,,. And Napoleon, Hitler. So ,, take a walk, went out. It’s a pity the emperors weren’t too smart. for the ruined Moscow.
  7. 3dmaxsev
    3dmaxsev 6 October 2012 17: 01
    +5
    Another attempt to denigrate our history, nothing more.
  8. NAV-STAR
    NAV-STAR 6 October 2012 17: 09
    +5
    Karl near Poltava, Napoleon near Borodino, Hitler in Stalingrad, we will beat and beat everyone.
  9. sapulid
    sapulid 6 October 2012 17: 11
    +7
    Damn, OSENTSIM WAS CREATED FOR RESCUE OF JEWS, GYPSIES AND RUSSIANS FROM DEATH FROM HUNGER IN VIEW OF VOLUNTARY FARM ....
    What else will the next "historian" write? We got it. I understand that the loot needs to be worked out, but, with a point, I don't want to. Virtual, it's easier ..
    Before our eyes, the history of Russia is stained. Moreover, Judas from our midst. Who raised this m..raz? It was necessary to castrate the parents of this p..idora.
    I. I do not like the corrupt elite, but, tear a point to anyone for their homeland.
    The people who have forgotten their history are doomed to oblivion. Whatever kind of born genus wrote, I will teach my son real history, albeit away from the homeland. I hope this does not grow out of him. Sorry for the expression, but, it’s painful.
    1. s1н7т
      s1н7т 6 October 2012 21: 23
      0
      Um. How do you know the real story?) It is so long and mercilessly distorted that the scope for innuendo is endless!
      1. bask
        bask 6 October 2012 21: 31
        0
        It’s great s1n7t. What historical insinuations are explained. If you know what kind of info you don’t share. I won’t continue, otherwise your friends will be banned.
      2. sapulid
        sapulid 7 October 2012 01: 08
        +1
        Both grandfather and grandmother went through the whole war. Moreover, one grandfather, from the Belarusian border post to Berlin. He was shot at the denunciation of the political instructor after the war. About the First Patriotic War of 1812, I heard family retelling, for I come from a Cossack family.
        What else to tell you?
        1. s1н7т
          s1н7т 7 October 2012 16: 01
          0
          Thank you enough. "On the denunciation of the political instructor after the war" - this is strong, however!
          At home, the ceremonial sword of 1812 hangs on the wall. So I, too, not only "feed on" books). But my father under Stalin studied in Romania, from where he went to Moscow for torchlight processions, talked with Ernst Bush - in a word, he considered his youth quite happy. Given that the parents are from the "former". He fought in the Marine Corps of the Black Sea Fleet, then in the assault battalion of some Ukrainian front (ashamed, I don't remember which one). Not a Komsomol member, not a communist. He treated Stalin with respect. We can say that each has its own story. But in assessing the past, one must abstract from the personal. Then there will be history, not "history".
  10. alexng
    alexng 6 October 2012 17: 12
    +2
    Once, one ghoul on the internet said that the USSR attacked Germany in 1941. But when he was asked the question: "Where did the Soviet Union attack Germany? Near Moscow? Or near Stalingrad?" Shut up. The West has already been lying to such an extent that now it has begun to get confused even in its own lies. Now the West has become an ally of Alqaida. But given that Alqaida is an invention of the West, there is nothing surprising.
  11. Igarr
    Igarr 6 October 2012 17: 28
    +6
    Poor French soldiers ...- ".. notes Oleg Sokolov. - Many soldiers walked three to four thousand kilometers to the designated assembly points."
    He took Yandex-cards, estimated the distance from Gibraltar to the border of Belarus - 3070 km left.
    Where they lodged another thousand is a mystery.
    There are orders.
    Of course have. And there is such a concept - disinformation.
    ...
    To go nuts from historians.
    And they still tell us - with a blue eye - what happened 2 thousand years ago. Three thousand.
  12. anfreezer
    anfreezer 6 October 2012 17: 30
    +3
    "Napoleon expected to finish in about 20 days." Let them chop it on their nose, but rather they’ll stick a stick in their memory for good reason (as long as someone else hasn’t done it), that they won’t call their jackals any sorties, at least blitzkrieg (Germ.), At least guerre éclair (French), but remember:
    1. andrei332809
      andrei332809 6 October 2012 18: 35
      +2
      Quote: anfreezer
      their jackals sorties

      Susanin used to drive Psheks, but now they’ll go for gps? there is no virus with the name not a trojan, but a susan?
      1. alexey garbuz
        alexey garbuz 7 October 2012 00: 12
        0
        What is the name of the airport near Smolensk?
  13. anfreezer
    anfreezer 6 October 2012 19: 02
    +4
    andrei332809 "there is no virus called not Trojan, but Susanin?" In 2008, hundreds of thousands of Web users worldwide infected their computers with a virus that spreads with free software.
    In particular, one of them was the BitAccelerator file accelerator. In addition to it, the user, without suspecting it, installed a program that, at its discretion, began to replace links in search engines. Accordingly, by setting the request he needed, the user instead of the desired pages automatically got to completely extraneous sites - for which the virus received the nickname "Susanin" in Runet. laughing
    1. andrei332809
      andrei332809 6 October 2012 19: 07
      +1
      anfreezer
      and foreign navigators will lock up? Or will they freeze with us?
  14. anfreezer
    anfreezer 6 October 2012 19: 08
    +6
    Something like that:
    1. andrei332809
      andrei332809 6 October 2012 19: 11
      +3
      thanks. mood lifted
  15. anfreezer
    anfreezer 6 October 2012 19: 21
    +3
    andrei332809 "thanks. cheered me up"..))) hi
  16. Prosto vovochka
    Prosto vovochka 6 October 2012 20: 43
    +1
    Yes, yes, all the victorious campaigns of democratic Europe against the "Russian barbarians" ended with walks of our soldiers in their capitals. Yet we are probably really barbarians and do not understand something. When they are on our territory, they burn, cut, rob and rape. And when our troops enter their territory, you can't. If you believe the historians of SMERSH, then during the hostilities in Germany for war crimes related to "inhumane treatment of the local population", somewhere around 4500 and yes four and a half thousand Soviet servicemen were convicted.
    1. andrei332809
      andrei332809 6 October 2012 21: 15
      0
      Quote: Prosto Vovochka
      time of military operations in Germany

      one grandfather told. in Germany, our modestly had fun for a day and a half. drank, had sex. then an order was issued on the moral character of the Soviet soldier, and they all behaved approximately.
      He also told how they shot Psheks without any order. Then, in one German town, they engaged in robberies, violence. He speaks, disarmed, put them to the wall and put an end to them. They didn’t punish anyone, but they didn’t reward them either. So, he says, they not only behaved roughly, but also watched others (Psheks, Czechs and others like them) so that they don’t limit
  17. aleshka1987
    aleshka1987 6 October 2012 21: 40
    0
    I read the book by A. Lashuk "Napoleon. History of all campaigns and battles". The version of Napoleon's plans presented in the article coincides with the book. Please advise what you can read for an alternative, specifically about the plans and strategy of the campaign on his part.
    1. Igarr
      Igarr 6 October 2012 22: 07
      +1
      And for what purpose are you interested, aleshka1987?
      The expanses of I-net are wide and limitless ... you can find like consonant authors (with Lapshuk .. ((on the ears))).
      So the opposite.
      There are good encyclopedias - "The history of wars. From ancient times to the present."
      There are such materials - ... http: //www.bibliotekar.ru/istoriya/205.htm ...
      Success.
  18. aleshka1987
    aleshka1987 6 October 2012 22: 35
    0
    Thanks for the links, be sure to check out. I am interested for the reason that the article received many disadvantages, which means it does not correspond or does not quite correspond to reality. My logic used to be simple: if Napoleon’s soldiers turned into idle zombies, froze, went crazy, then we can assume that Napoleon was not ready for a long campaign and a protracted war. Hopes for a quick and easy victory, underestimation of the enemy led him to collapse. It is interesting to get acquainted with the authors, who believe that he was methylating from Moscow from the very beginning.
  19. Magadan
    Magadan 7 October 2012 01: 30
    +3
    Damn, the unfortunate Hitler attacked the USSR, since the insidious and vicious Stalin was just about ready to attack the peace-loving fascists.
    Poor Napoleon was forced by a small column of 600 thousand people to reach Moscow because he .... wanted peace with Alexander, but our troops, you see, did not want peace and therefore retreated.
    The cunning Alexander Nevsky attacked the Swedes peacefully sleeping in the vicinity of Novgorod, sinking them along with the ships, and then drowned the peaceful crusaders on Lake Peipsi, who most likely also didn’t want anything bad for Novgorod, but were part of a tourist excursion group along the Golden Ring of Russia.
    In short, we barbarians. And now we cannot understand NATO in any way. In Libya, they peacefully bomb with the point bombs of the Gaddafi terrorist. They want to bring good and democracy to Syria. In Afghanistan, they raise local agriculture, well ... local farmers just can’t grow anything but poppy.
    In general, in a word, forever these Russian savages are opposed to the enlightened part of humanity and do not want to teach the right story in any way. Where the white-fluffy Napoleon and Hitler bring good and enlightenment to this dark world.
  20. Kosarar
    Kosarar 7 October 2012 08: 38
    +3
    Alexander simply could not honestly be friends with Napoleon and observe the continental blockade. Any Russian emperor who dared to do so would have been awaited by the fate of Paul I. The economic interests of the higher circles of society were tied to England. Wood and grain in exchange for colonial and industrial goods. Everyone was spitting on France with its demands.