Military Review

History of the military uniform. The gray cloth problem

180
History of the military uniform. The gray cloth problem

Southern officers in gray cloth. Shot from the movie "Gettysburg" (1993)


"Hey soldier, have you met him,
My dear friend?" -
“He was dressed in khaki, went into secret.
Look for another guy."

"Hey soldier..." R. Kipling. Translation by V. Vasiliev

History uniforms. In general, everyone knows that the “protective uniform” in the army appeared for the first time in the British colonial troops who fought in Afghanistan and India. And the very word "khaki" in translation from the Urdu language means nothing more than "dust, earth." That is, it was a "dusty, light gray" uniform. And the “Spanish tobacco color” uniform worn by British soldiers in South Africa is nothing more than a tribute to the local loess-like soil.

In different countries, it was this khaki color that was adopted as the main protective color. But there were also such armies in which soldiers and officers flaunted in gray. And he protected them no worse than any other "protective color". But when, where, in what war and in which army did this color first become the main color of a military uniform? This is what our story will be about today...

And it so happened that in 1775 the British colonies in North America were tired of being dependent on the mother country, and they revolted. Immediately the question arose about the army, in which the volunteers signed up, as, by the way, the Boers in Africa, dressed in everything ... "home". But there were also differences! In America, there were many shooters who wore shirts made of tanned deerskin and the same trousers, and shirts, and trousers, were often also decorated with multi-colored fringe. And it was this "form" that became the most common in the army of George Washington. But ... being a traditional man, alas, he did not understand his happiness and therefore stood up for his army to look no worse than the British. That is, she was dressed in the fashion of the late XNUMXth century!


Soldiers of the army of George Washington: 1. Soldier of the 14th Massachusetts Regiment, 1776 2. Soldier of the 1st South Carolina Regiment, 1778 the regiment, which had exactly the same form, had the motto "Liberty" (Liberty) or "Liberty or death" (Liberty or death). 2–3. Soldiers of the 5nd Pennsylvania Regiment, 2. Uniform options varied from company to company. This is just one example of the greatest complexity in equipping the troops of Congress. The first soldier is armed with a French rifle of the 1776 model, 1746 m long; it can be recognized by its "cow leg" stock and leash attachments on the left side. The second soldier is armed with a French rifle of the model already in 1,59; strap attachments are located under the stock. The third soldier is holding the Committee of Safety Musket, copied from the famous British Brown Bess musket. 1754. Soldier of the Legion of Count Pulaski. 6. Banner of a separate battalion of Westmoreland County (Pennsylvania). 7. Banner of the 8rd Connecticut Infantry Regiment. Here it is slightly enlarged, its true size was only 3x0,90 m. 1. Banner of the 9st Pennsylvania Line Infantry Regiment. Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funken "Encyclopedia of weapons and military costume. Wars on the American Continent of the 1th-2003th Centuries. War for independence. Civil War. American-Mexican War. Infantry. Navy. Exploration of the Wild West. M.: "Astrel", 23. S. XNUMX

But fashion is fashion, tradition usually replaces reason, and in November 1775 Congress decided to dress the army ... in brown cloth uniforms, because it was the easiest to get! But this cloth was not enough for everyone. Therefore, in a number of regiments they simply dyed their shirts red and green. The officers were tied with colored scarves, and ... the army was ready.

In 1779, Washington proposed different colors for the regiments of all 13 states, but Congress reduced all this diversity to four primary colors on the lapels, and so brown cloth dominated, albeit in a variety of shades. The instrument cloth could be white, red, pink, fawn, gray, green, blue - whichever one could get. Against the background of the British, French and German troops, dressed in their national uniforms, the American army looked faded. But she won, proving that victory on the battlefield does not always depend on the uniform!

By the way, assistance from France was provided not only by troops, but also by uniforms! 88 uniforms were ordered there, and although not all were delivered before the end of the war, Washington's army dressed at least a little in French-style uniforms, that is, white culottes, waistcoats and dark blue uniforms with red lapels.


Soldiers of the American Army 1784–1810 1. Soldier of the 1st sub-legion of Wayne's Legion. 2. Soldier of light infantry. This is what American soldiers looked like when they defeated the detachment of the Indian leader Tecumseh, who was in the British service, at the Battle of Fallen Timbergs on August 20, 1794. Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funken "Encyclopedia of weapons and military costume. Wars on the American Continent of the 2003th-47th Centuries. War for independence. Civil War. American-Mexican War. Infantry. Navy. Exploration of the Wild West. M.: "Astrel", XNUMX. S. XNUMX

True, quite a few years passed, and in 1812 the war with England resumed. And again, the army did not have enough cloth of the "correct colors", and instead of it they began to buy the "wrong", but cheap gray cloth. But since it came in small batches, and the cloth makers dyed it as it was convenient for them, the batches differed in color, so that one could see the form not only gray, but also black, beige or even brown! But gray dominated the troops. And, of course, suede pants have not disappeared anywhere either. They were recruits from the West. The shako in 1812 took the form of the British "Waterloo shako" (it was also called the "Belgian shako") made of felt or leather.


Full dress uniform of the U.S. Army Dragoon Regiments 1833–1851 was beautiful, not uncomfortable. But they wore it, and even as a field one. And all because it had a strong psychological impact on the hearts of the simple-minded Indians! Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funken "Encyclopedia of weapons and military costume. Wars on the American Continent of the 2003th-51th Centuries. War for independence. Civil War. American-Mexican War. Infantry. Navy. Exploration of the Wild West. M.: "Astrel", XNUMX. S. XNUMX

But even under Washington, it was possible to standardize the cartridge bag. It was supposed to hold 20-30 rounds of ammunition, and it weighed almost 3 kg. But even here it was not without theft - they stole the skin from which it was sewn. Therefore, the "canister" spread - a container made of tin, resembling a box for kitchen utensils!


Military uniforms after 1813 and up to 1835 resembled European ones: a blue uniform, a shako with a sultan, light gray trousers with a loose collar: 1–3. Staff officer, chief officer and private. 4. Shooter in a gray uniform. 5. Grenadier 1825. Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funken "Encyclopedia of weapons and military costume. Wars on the American Continent of the 2003th-55th Centuries. War for independence. Civil War. American-Mexican War. Infantry. Navy. Exploration of the Wild West. M.: "Astrel", XNUMX. S. XNUMX

In 1852, the trousers became sky blue, and the uniform became dark blue, single-breasted, with a stand-up collar and epaulettes with fringe on the shoulders. The sultans of the Napoleonic era on the shako were replaced by a simple pompom in the color of the military branch. And since 1855, the shako itself has changed and turned into a hat with brim. Moreover, in 1861 it was indicated: in the infantry, raise the left corner up, in the cavalry - the right one. Also after 1860, the “bummer cap” (“marauder's cap”) came into fashion. But it was simplified even more in 1862 and became the very famous “kepi”, which is what most people associate with the headdress of the American Civil War.


Dragoons in marching uniform, 1848. Rice. from the book V. Vuksic, Z. Grbasic. Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC-AD1914. L.: Cassell, 1994. P. 197

About what kind of war it was, we will not talk here. It is only important to emphasize that it was very bloody. On average, 430 soldiers died per day, which was higher than the losses in all subsequent US wars, including the war in Korea. Big losses mean you need to dress and put on a lot of soldiers to make up for them. Already at the very beginning of the war, President Lincoln requested 75 thousand soldiers from Congress and received ... 100 thousand! In total, the States dressed 1 infantry regiments and 548 cavalry! And yet, there were also militia (volunteer) regiments, created and armed with the money of cities, states and ... banks! They wrote and spoke about “our regiments” with pride also because the Americans themselves served in them, while foreigners from Europe were primarily enrolled in the federal army.


These are the overcoats worn by northern soldiers in the cold. "Military uniform". M.: Slovo, 2001, p. 33

And here’s what’s even funny: although the government gave numerous advantages to the regular army soldiers (in particular, they could take advantage of the homestead law), many Americans preferred to serve in the volunteer regiments of cities and states. They paid more there, the discipline was less strict, the atmosphere was more friendly, but most importantly, they attracted many with their bright and colorful uniform! That is - if you die, then ... beautifully dressed!


Uniforms of the New York Volunteer Regiments. "Military uniform". M.: Slovo, 2001 p.33

Volunteers of some formations flaunted smart uniforms, similar to the one worn by the Zouaves - the French who fought in North Africa, but with various additions "on their own".


1. Uniform of the 1st Regiment of Rhode Island Volunteers. 2. Uniform of the 2nd Regiment of Rhode Island Volunteers. 3. An officer in the uniform of the 22nd New York Regiment, the so-called Gray Unionist regiment, which originally wore a gray uniform with a red collar and cuffs. The regiment was financed by New York banks and insurance companies. But over time, everything mixed up in it, and someone was left with only gray pants. 4. Officer of the New York volunteers. One of the options for uniforms according to the picture of those years. 5. Private of the same regiment. 6–8. Uniforms of soldiers of the 7th Regiment of New York State Volunteers and the US National Guard. Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funken "Encyclopedia of weapons and military costume. Wars on the American Continent of the 2003th-70th Centuries. War for independence. Civil War. American-Mexican War. Infantry. Navy. Exploration of the Wild West. M.: Astrel, XNUMX. S. XNUMX

By the way, it was possible to pay off the draft by paying $300 to the treasury in the North, and in the south those whose plantations had more than 20 or even 15 slaves were exempted from the draft in order to have security from the rear.


Officers and rank and file of the army of northerners in blue and blue uniforms. Frame from the movie "Gettysburg" (1994)

The typical uniform of the northerners was dark blue indigo uniforms, blue trousers and caps. The officer rank was indicated on shoulder straps, the general rank was determined by the placement of buttons on the uniform and the stars on the cap and shoulder straps, the buttons on the uniform were three in two rows, and a light silk scarf was tied on the belt. The uniform of the cavalry consisted of a short jacket with a yellow piping. In winter, infantrymen wore a faded blue or gray overcoat with a cape. The same overcoats relied on New York volunteers.


Southern Army Artilleryman. Rhett Butler could have served in such a uniform when he enlisted in the Confederate Army ... Frame from the movie "Gettysburg" (1994)

The uniform of the Confederates at the same time was a gray frock coat, a gray cap and blue trousers. However, the clothes of the southerners varied greatly in color and cut - mainly due to supply difficulties. That is why gray became the main color of the uniforms of the army of the southerners, and the material for them was cheap brownish-gray cotton fabric of coarse dressing for the summer and gray cloth for autumn and winter. Instead of a kepi, a hat was relied on in the summer. The gunners' caps were red.


Southerners in dress uniform, 1861. But in reality, this was very rarely worn ... In the background is the Confederate Capitol building in Richmond. Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funken "Encyclopedia of weapons and military costume. Wars on the American Continent of the 2003th-87th Centuries. War for independence. Civil War. American-Mexican War. Infantry. Navy. Exploration of the Wild West. M.: Astrel, XNUMX. P.XNUMX

In general, the uniform of their soldiers was cheaper for the southerners than the uniform of the northerners, and most importantly, the infantry, dressed in gray uniforms, was less noticeable from a distance. But ... at that time no one really appreciated this know-how.


The coat of a general in the Confederate army. Uniforms of the New York Volunteer Regiments. "Military uniform". M.: Slovo, 2001, p. 35

By the way, in the army of the southerners, as later in the army of the Boers, who just did not serve. A lot of volunteers fought in it, for whom uniforms, even from gray canvas, were not enough. Therefore, they dressed in all sorts of things and often fought just like partisans: they staged horse raids on the rear of the northerners!


Raid of the irregular cavalry of the southerners. Illustration from the book by Liliana and Fred Funken "Encyclopedia of weapons and military costume. Wars on the American Continent of the 2002th-75th Centuries. War for independence. Civil War. American-Mexican War. Exploration of the Wild West. M.: Astrel, XNUMX. S. XNUMX

Later, gray uniforms will also appear in the armies of the Old World. But this is a separate topic for another story.

To be continued ...
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  1. Catfish
    Catfish 23 May 2022 04: 22
    +11
    Good morning friends! smile

    Good article, for which the Author and thanks! good
    Didn't quite understand:
    They wrote and spoke about “our regiments” with pride also because the Americans themselves served in them, while foreigners from Europe were primarily enrolled in the federal army.

    For some reason, I always thought that foreigners served only in the Confederate army.

    A frame from a famous film, on the left is a corporal (if I'm not mistaken) of the Northern army.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 23 May 2022 05: 26
      +13
      In the movie "Gangs of New York", migrants were "shaved" into the army on the decks of the ships on which they sailed to the New World !!!
    2. kalibr
      23 May 2022 06: 14
      +8
      Quote: Sea Cat

      For some reason, I always thought that foreigners served only in the Confederate army.

      Just the opposite. Alexey has a good answer above.
  2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 May 2022 04: 28
    +17
    Beautifully illustrated work, thank you!
    Vyacheslav Olegovich did not reveal one more thing. The use of captured uniforms by southerners, followed by repainting them with boiled walnut shells. However, they sometimes also painted their uniforms. So the "walnut" color (dirty brown) prevailed in the confederate army.
    1. kalibr
      23 May 2022 06: 15
      +8
      Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
      using boiled walnut shells.

      You know... forgot. All the time kept in mind and forgot. Oh....
      1. depressant
        depressant 23 May 2022 09: 16
        +4
        And it was possible to dye the fabric with onion peel. The technology is known and not very complicated. Same color. Sometimes onion skins are added even when boiling the broth to get a beautiful rich color. Or the onion "in uniform" is added during cooking.
        1. kalibr
          23 May 2022 10: 39
          +8
          Quote: depressant
          Or onion "in uniform" is added during cooking

          Thankful! Thanks for the recipe of the day. The day before yesterday I brought a lot of radishes with tops from the dacha. We cooked a soup with tops (as with nettle or sorrel, there is no difference) very tasty. Then I read the recipe for Italian medieval pesto from bota and made it. 70 g of finely chopped tops, 30 g of cheese, 30 g of walnuts, a clove of garlic, a little salt, five tablespoons of olive oil and in a blender!!! It turns out not a sauce, but such a ... pasta, very similar to wasabi. Very delicate and spicy taste. Yesterday at the dacha I ate again, today I eat - and I advise you to try to cook. Buy a bunch of radishes with tops and... do it!
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 23 May 2022 13: 22
          +1
          Lyudmila Yakovlevna, good day. We used onions, for me tsibula, used to paint the testicles, and the "munders" (we were told) did not add onions. Nettles, yes, but onions ... I don’t remember this. We preferred to eat onions with potatoes.
          1. depressant
            depressant 23 May 2022 14: 50
            +3
            Yes, in our family, eggs were dyed with onion peel, it was like that. And so that the drawing turned out, parsley leaves were tied to the eggs with a thread)))
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 23 May 2022 16: 08
              +2
              "the picture turned out" is familiar
  3. Wildcat
    Wildcat 23 May 2022 05: 06
    +13
    hi
    Southern officers in gray cloth. Shot from the movie "Gettysburg" (1993)
    - a good frame from the film, and once the Americans are in the frame, they are wearing Stetson hats!
    Many parts of the US Army trace their history from cavalry units, here you can’t go anywhere without a Stetson (cords on it and "acorns" are a different story). Stetson is a good thing, and if it’s good, then it’s possible to use it soldier right now.
    Well, if the cavalrymen, then where without spurs ?! laughing
    Fortunately, the Field Charter allows both spurs and stetson to be worn with a uniform - and this is not a joke.

    So, imagine, for example, Afghanistan, in the yard of the Global War on Terrorism. But there are traditions in the cavalry of tradition - they found a horse and reward it with "golden spurs" (spurs, their color and shape are a separate story).
    In different poses are awarded.
    No boots, but "combat boots" will do too!


    Well, how do you get a stetson, in which many get into service? Here, the main thing is to choose the right recipe for the Stetson “break-in”. In the same Afghanistan, friends can only help with beer and beans, it seems:


    In places where alcohol is a little easier, beer, vodka, whiskey, even Kalua, IMHO, are used. Everyone participates, no one "hardships and deprivations" of service, even for women, makes it easier.
    The main thing is that the stetson should "break" and "sit" well!






    And some poetry:


    Such are the features of the form of the cavalry ...
    hi
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 23 May 2022 13: 32
      +2
      Kamrad Wildcat ,, and what are these "horns" on the hat? In the last video?
      1. Wildcat
        Wildcat 23 May 2022 14: 23
        +7
        A cord is tied on the hats (the color of the cord - black, "gold", "silver", yellow - differs for military personnel of different ranks), and the horns are the tips of the cord, the so-called "acorns". Something like bullets from a machine gun, with which military personnel of different armies like to decorate the cords on the back of their berets.

        There are still different versions of the knots of this cord, but this is quite an "unwritten tradition" or "non-standard", which is described in such an argot that I do not understand at all.

        Funny description of a Stetson cocktail. In the video "Unit E breaks in their Stetson May 31" the recipe includes IMHO: sliced ​​apples, energy gatorade, beer, vodka, whiskey, Kalua liqueur and some instant coffee. laughing

        There are even informal recommendations for the "event administrator". Like, we need to tell the newcomers the history of the cavalry, explain the connection of drinks with reality ... (google translation): "In order to properly conduct this event, senior stetson owners and spur owners have several responsibilities: first, establish the ground rules. Your new soldiers will drink this mixture, so keep it clean Try to refrain from throwing raw eggs into it, chewing tobacco, saliva or cigar ash laughing . At least try laughing laughing . Further, while pouring alcohol, he must somehow represent the Cavalry. For example, "In honor of Garriwen's massive sacrifices in the icy hell that was Korea against the massive and savage red hordes that fell to regimental blades, we're adding this powerful and insidious extract known as Soju" or "The Gulf War taught us that with the addition of our tanks, our Bradleys and our planes, we had a worthy replacement for our old cavalry horses. To welcome war we add sand, and for our new dedicated workhorses we add their life force, JP-8". (replaced by grain alcohol)." lol https://www.cavhooah.com/pages/stetsons
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 23 May 2022 17: 40
          +1
          Our old expression "show off" comes to mind. Somehow more familiar than the current one: "show off"
          1. Wildcat
            Wildcat 23 May 2022 19: 40
            +4
            Rather, it was a “non-standard”, which the authorities guessed to bring into a safe framework (as opposed to some of the denied customs of “branding”).
            Or an initiation rite, if you will.

            Two generations of relatives told me - military doctors that artillery soldiers of the SA and the RF Armed Forces drank liquid from the "knurlers" of guns on certain days, it seems. They regularly got into the hospital, but they drank ... It would be better if they drank beer from (clean) cartridge cases, IMHO, even with subsequent dousing of the head, under the supervision of the father commanders.
            1. militarist63
              militarist63 24 May 2022 23: 56
              +1
              "unauthorized", which the authorities guessed to bring into a safe framework (as opposed to some of the denied customs of "branding")
              However, when they are put on a stool, before attaching the spurs, it would be nice for them to walk along the "rolls" with a buckle ... and ours, with a hammer and sickle star! laughing laughing And then, be so kind as to give you spurs! ... soldier
    2. militarist63
      militarist63 24 May 2022 01: 37
      +1
      Many parts of the US Army trace their history from cavalry units, here you can’t go anywhere without a Stetson (cords on it and "acorns" are a different story). Stetson is a good thing, and if it’s good, then it’s possible to use it
      Well, in the first video, judging by the "Changing Chickens" chevrons, this is the 101st Airborne Division ... Although this division was formed in World War II on the basis of the US 101st Infantry Division, and not the cavalry ... what
      1. Wildcat
        Wildcat 24 May 2022 02: 32
        +4
        There's a story that I personally don't understand.

        The governing documents state directly: "for the cavalry." In the morning, when I made a post, I even came across a video where foreigners were given spurs after the "spur course" (spur ride).

        And there was also an incomprehensible moment associated with the transfers of soldiers by unit (who served where and who has the right to a stetson and spurs, and who does not).

        And there is still an incomprehensible moment of the formation of units. IMHO, in the 101st Airborne Forces there are at least a few cavalry request divisions (2021):
        1st Battalion, 32nd Cavalry Regiment (1st Squadron, 32nd Cavalry Regiment ("Bandits"))
        1st Battalion, 75th Cavalry Regiment (1st Squadron, 75th Cavalry Regiment ("Widowmakers"))
        1st Battalion, 33rd Cavalry Regiment (1st Squadron, 33rd Cavalry Regiment ("War Rakkasans"))
        2nd Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment (2nd Squadron, 17th Cavalry Regiment ("Out Front")).

        That is, it is likely that among the paratroopers of the 101st division there are cavalry paratroopers. request
        IMHO, it is they who are engaged in these "cavalry traditions" what
        101st Airborne Division Air Assault–Spur Ride
        https://usdefensestory.com/101st-airborne-division-spur-ride/
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 24 May 2022 06: 04
          +3
          Quite interesting too
        2. militarist63
          militarist63 24 May 2022 23: 48
          0
          That is, it is likely that among the paratroopers of the 101st division there are cavalry paratroopers. request
          IMHO, it is they who are engaged in these "cavalry traditions"
          Each paratrooper-"cavalryman" of the 101st division for such a horse, to maintain traditions !!! wink laughing laughing laughing
  4. Korsar4
    Korsar4 23 May 2022 05: 53
    +8
    it was possible to pay off the draft by paying $ 300 to the treasury

    "And the one who paid off the attack,
    He will bring shells to us "(c).

    1. Catfish
      Catfish 23 May 2022 07: 09
      +10
      Hello, Sergey! smile

      "An avalanche has come upon us enemies,
      Rows of bayonets, fire lead flurry,
      We defended our rabbi,
      He smartly sold cartridges to us. "(c)
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 23 May 2022 07: 16
        +6
        Good morning, Constantine!

        This is how it goes in life.
        One - the beauty of the uniform.
        Others go the other way.
        1. depressant
          depressant 23 May 2022 08: 13
          +9
          And the North won because it strove for the warm South, and the South lost because it didn’t really want to go to the cold North wassat )))
          Good morning dear friends!)))
          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 10: 09
            +9
            And the North won because it strove for the warm South,
            Southerners, then stunned, from the influx of tourists .. laughing hi
            1. depressant
              depressant 23 May 2022 10: 17
              +4
              Aha! From hot Africa
              The northerners were happy with their "tourists". Because the "tourists" were Europeans and created an additional electorate in the elections. "Tourists" from Africa were not an electorate, which in itself deprived the southern states of political equality with the northern ones.
              1. Daniil Konovalenko
                Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 10: 21
                +6
                "Tourists" from Africa were not the electorate
                They were guest workers laughing Who have already committed two terrible crimes: without a passport, homeless ... laughing
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 23 May 2022 11: 02
                +5
                "Tourists" from Africa were not the electorate

                And they traveled third class. laughing

                However, life sometimes breaks off amazing tricks. request


                Good morning Luda! smile
                1. depressant
                  depressant 23 May 2022 11: 11
                  +1
                  Good morning, Kostya! )))
                  I'm in a hurry on business, but for now you explain what kind of statue, who, where, why and for how much wassat )))
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 May 2022 11: 17
                    +4
                    September 8 in Rinda (the capital of Virginia, once the capital of the Confederation) in the city center dismantled an equestrian statue of General Robert E. Lee, who led the Confederate army during the American Civil War.

                    "Electorate", and not only black.
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 23 May 2022 12: 31
                      +1
                      The English surname Lee has always surprised me. Something in it is either Chinese or Korean. Vivien Leigh again...
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 12: 47
                        +5
                        Vivien Leigh again...


                        And Lee Harvey Oswald! laughing

                      2. vladcub
                        vladcub 23 May 2022 13: 51
                        +5
                        Kostya, welcome. Does he have Carcano in his hands? The optical sight is not visible.
                        PS. What do you know about that carbine?
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 14: 34
                        +4
                        The Modello 1891 rifle (better known as Carcano, or Parravicino-Carcano) was the main Italian rifle of the First and Second World Wars. It was produced in versions of both the actual rifle (Italian Fucile) and the carbine (Italian Moschetto). Presumably, it was from this type of carbine that the 35th US President John Fitzgerald Kennedy was killed.

                        Rifle characteristics:
                        Weight, kg 3,78
                        Length, mm 1282
                        Barrel length, mm 780
                        Cartridge 6,5 × 52 mm Carcano
                        7,35×51 mm Carcano
                        Caliber 6,5
                        Sighting range, m 2000
                        Type of ammunition Cartridge pack for 6 rounds.

                        Oswald carbine.
                      4. vladcub
                        vladcub 23 May 2022 15: 54
                        +5
                        In my opinion, the "Oswald carbine" was 6,5 mm?
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 16: 40
                        +6
                        Yes, Oswald had a 6,5 mm carbine.
                        A rifle of the same type was later chambered in 7,35x51mm Carcano.

                        Left to right: 7,92x57mm, 6,5x52mm and 7,35x51mm
                      6. vladcub
                        vladcub 23 May 2022 17: 31
                        +3
                        Kostya, you should know better. I only read, and you read and "matsal"
                      7. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 20: 36
                        +2
                        A rifle of the same type was later chambered in 7,35x51mm Carcano.

                        My friend, a search engine, dug up packs for them on the Karelian Isthmus. In 1939-40, the Italians delivered almost 100 thousand of them to the Finns. Carcano Modello 38 6 cartridges in a pack. Moreover, Max (that's his name) did not know what he had dug up - he called me to identify him!
                        So, our Vyacheslav Olegovich even wrote an article about them, with his own mustachioed person in the title role. wink drinks
                        https://topwar.ru/104363-karabin-manliher-karkano-oruzhie-ochen-srednee-no-zato-svoe.html
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 21: 02
                        +2
                        I still remember the article, and the mustachioed person with a rifle at the ready. smile
                        Where did you put the ammo? Now, this is a rarity. I remember from "Mannerheim" I dragged a completely stuffed disk from "Suomi" for forty rounds of 9x19 GECO, so my friends and buddies stole it, I myself had nothing left, though there was nothing to shoot from.)))
                      9. Wildcat
                        Wildcat 23 May 2022 15: 05
                        +5
                        hi
                        The carbine, of course, is an interesting thing. But the question is more interesting: why is one bullet almost intact, and the other, the “third”, literally fell apart.
                        There is a very funny answer - "it fell apart because it had to fall apart."
                        A good piece of art on the subject:
                        https://b-reading.ru/read/tretja-pulja
                      10. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 17: 59
                        +4
                        Lewis Norman's book "The Sicilian Specialist" also gives an interesting version of the background of the events of that time. If you haven't read it, I highly recommend it.
                      11. Senior seaman
                        Senior seaman 23 May 2022 12: 53
                        +5
                        Quote: depressant
                        The English surname Lee has always surprised me. Something in it is either Chinese or Korean.

                        Lee (English Lee, Leigh) - English surnames, derived from the Middle English word lea, meaning "meadow", "forest clearing".
                        Quote: depressant
                        Vivien Leigh again...

                        And Annabel...
                        It's been a long time, it's been a long time
                        In the kingdom of the seaside land:
                        There lived and blossomed the one that was always called,
                        Called Annabelle Lee
                        I loved, was loved, we loved together,
                        This is the only way we could live.
                      12. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 13: 05
                        +6
                        Lee (English Lee, Leigh) - English surnames, derived from the Middle English word lea, meaning "meadow", "forest clearing".

                        Some of us who have watched the smutty animated series South Park may also remember "General Eric Cartman Lee." laughing
                      13. Fat
                        Fat 23 May 2022 13: 25
                        +6
                        There are also songs about Laura Lee yes Greetings Ivan. One of them, however, in a modernized, more tolerant version, was performed by E. Presley (Love Me Tender)
                      14. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 20: 04
                        +3
                        There are also songs about Laura Lee

                        Andrey Borisovich, in July 2016 I was lucky enough to be at a holiday in Staraya Ladoga - there was a "show of calling Rurik" with subsequent competitions of our reenactors. good There, a girl's folk group also performed a song about Lorelei, however, in the language of English Germans. But it also worked! drinks
                      15. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 23 May 2022 14: 42
                        +5
                        Quote: depressant
                        The English surname Lee has always surprised me. Something in it is either Chinese or Korean.

                        Oh yes ... remember, the future Admiral Willis Augustus Lee in Annapolis, for his surname and passion for the Far East, even received the "Chinese" nickname "Ching" - which he carried through the years. In the night battle at Guadalcanal, this nickname served its purpose, confirming that it was the same Lee on the link.
                        This is Ching Lee - you musn't fire fish at me!
                        © Admiral Lee - who tried to attack him with American TKA
                      16. ycuce234-san
                        ycuce234-san 23 May 2022 19: 02
                        +2
                        Old English and Old English names are even more unfamiliar to contemporaries. The name Cynewulf, for example.
                      17. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 20: 01
                        +2
                        The name Cynewulf, for example.

                        And the Welsh? drinks The last independent ruler of Wales was Llywelyn ap Gruffydd.
              3. Fat
                Fat 23 May 2022 12: 44
                +7
                Hello, Lyudmila, good day, colleagues. There were "black" regiments in the US Army.
                The 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment is the first regular military unit in US history to be composed entirely of African Americans, with the exception of officers. The 54th Regiment was created in 1863 and took part in the Civil War between the northern and southern states.
                After the end of hostilities in the US Army, regular units were created, consisting of black cavalrymen (see buffalo soldiers). In 2008, the unit was recreated as an integral part of the Massachusetts National Guard, performing ceremonial functions (54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment).


                Assault on Fort Wagner
                1. depressant
                  depressant 23 May 2022 14: 55
                  +3
                  In general, they figured out the name Lee. In our opinion - Lugovoi. It reminds me of someone... wassat )))
              4. vladcub
                vladcub 23 May 2022 13: 41
                +3
                "were not an electorate," and now they have become an aggressive electorate.
                The current blacks are not "Uncle Tom" and not "Mommy", remember, "Blown in the Wind"?
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 23 May 2022 14: 55
                  +3
                  Quote: vladcub
                  The current blacks are not "Uncle Tom" and not "Mommy", remember, "Blown in the Wind"?

                  So in Gone with the Wind, the current aggressive electorate was also - remember the scene of the attack on Scarlett?
                  She saw a tall white ragamuffin and a squat, gorilla-like negro with powerful shoulders and chest. Scarlett hastily whipped her horse's reins and drew her pistol. The horse started to run away, but the white man waved his hand, and the horse shied away.
                  “Lady,” he said, “have you got a quarter?” I am very hungry.
                  "Get out of the way," Scarlett said, perhaps more firmly. - I have no money. Well, let's go.
                  But the man resolutely grabbed the horse by the bridle.
                  - Drag her! he shouted to the negro. “She must have the money in her bodice!”

                  A typical BLM company is a white leftist and a black one. smile
                  1. vladcub
                    vladcub 23 May 2022 16: 02
                    +2
                    'typical BLM company' lacks latinos and fagots
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 23 May 2022 09: 05
          +3
          "Farewell, unwashed Russia,
          The country of slaves, the land of lords,
          And you, blue uniforms,
          And you, their devoted people. "(with)
          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 11: 14
            +6
            As the Lermontov scholars established, in the stanza "And you, blue uniforms," ​​the punctuation is not correct, in real life it should be like this: "And you are blue uniforms,"
        3. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 10: 57
          +8
          This is how it goes in life.
          One - the beauty of the uniform.
          Others go the other way.

          But as always - earthly disorder
          dictates its ruthless law.
          When one is surplus value,
          then to others - broth from hard-boiled eggs
          ("The trust that burst", Karachentsov / Smeyan).

          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 11: 10
            +5
            So it's a good movie, isn't it?
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 11: 27
              +6
              So it's a good movie, isn't it?

              Daniel, I confess, did not look. recourse Just looked through the music, this song was remembered. yes Their voices, of course, the manner of performance - gorgeous. There are so many things to look through ... Here, "Dead Souls" also stalled - with Kalyagin. sad And then you have to look at this one. Soviet classic. The best. drinks
              1. Daniil Konovalenko
                Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 11: 41
                +4
                Nah...a worthwhile movie worth watching.. smile
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 11: 47
                  +5
                  Nah...a worthwhile movie worth watching..

                  Yes, I understand! yes Now I put this selection of songs in my headphones, I need to download it.
                  1. Daniil Konovalenko
                    Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 11: 52
                    +4
                    And there all the songs are like a selection, even verses, performed by M. Muromov .. smile
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 11: 57
                      +4
                      Was Dunaevsky a composer?
                      1. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 06
                        +5
                        In general, yes, Dunaevsky composer, authors N. Olev, L. Filatov, but I don’t know who wrote the couplets for Muromov
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 23 May 2022 11: 52
                +7
                Hi, Nikolay! smile
                Better "Business people" reconsider, more benefit and pleasure.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 11: 58
                  +9
                  Better "Business people" reconsider, more benefit and pleasure.

                  (about the hand):
                  - When does it bother you worse, in the morning or at night?
                  - At night, when the work is most.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 May 2022 12: 11
                    +6
                    And this is -- No, Sam, sand is a poor substitute for oats!
                2. vladcub
                  vladcub 23 May 2022 16: 23
                  +4
                  I agree. There was something to see. And Nikulin is lovely there.
                  In fact, Nikulin all the roles were good. Do you remember, in "Come to me Mukhtar": "we will try"
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 May 2022 16: 42
                    +3
                    In my opinion, Nikulin said about the dog: "He will try." smile
                    1. vladcub
                      vladcub 23 May 2022 17: 34
                      +2
                      Been watching for a long time. It seems that he said we will try, but maybe not?
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 23 May 2022 11: 28
            +5
            And who is Smeyan? Adomaitis filmed with Karachentsev there. And in general, films about Americans should be made better by Americans, we understand them no more than they understand us. Although Gaidai's "Business People" turned out very well, this film was not shot at the Odessa Film Studio.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 11: 34
              +8
              And who is Smeyan? Adomaitis filmed with Karachentsev there.

              Pavel Smeyan sings for him. Our rock singer of the 80s.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 23 May 2022 11: 53
                +5
                Well, you know, I'm a complete layman in the rock music of the eighties, I was not at all interested.
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 23 May 2022 16: 30
                  +1
                  "not at all interested" similarly. Somehow I'm not very interested
            2. Daniil Konovalenko
              Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 11: 43
              +5
              Adomaitis filmed.
              A. Demnenko spoke for him, P. Smeyan sang .. The film, quite successful, is no worse than Gaidaevsky ..
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 23 May 2022 11: 49
                +4
                The film, quite successful, is no worse than Gaydayevsky ..

                I will not argue, each of us reads books in his own way.
                1. Daniil Konovalenko
                  Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 11: 58
                  +5
                  Quite a good script, according to the stories of O. Henry .. Once again. the film was shot based on the stories .. Gaidai, took the stories as a basis, added gags .. But it's pointless to compare these two films .. If you want .. Gaidaevsky is divided into three parts that are not interconnected .. The trust, about the adventures of crooks, is connected in one story.
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 12: 01
                    +5
                    But comparing the two is pointless.

                    I think yes.
                    1. Daniil Konovalenko
                      Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 10
                      +5
                      One way or another, in the Trust, a constellation of actors: Kuravlev, Basov and others .. Yes, and the film was disassembled into phrases .. 12 hours! Gentlemen drink and eat!
                  2. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 May 2022 12: 19
                    +5
                    Dear Daniel, I don't need to tell you about these films, I've seen both of them. I know books about Henry almost by heart. You like Trust and it’s great. But comparing these films really makes no sense.
                    1. Daniil Konovalenko
                      Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 30
                      +4
                      He spat straight into the soul, Kostya .. Yes, I like both the Trust and Business People and Smoke and the Kid, another film, according to the stories of O. Henry, it was filmed there based on several stories .. sorry I don’t remember the name, I don’t like it, only the film "Kings and cabbage ", after reading the book, I expected more from the film ... but, alas, it didn’t work out .. Georgians in the role of Latinos .. Yes, and we won’t, O. Henry .. measure .. laughing hi
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 12: 45
                        +4
                        Well, we have the same attitude towards "Kings and Cabbage", and you say - "spit", after all, I'm not a camel, but a cat, albeit in some places a sea one. smile drinks
                      2. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 57
                        +5
                        Well, if the film is really unsuccessful .. neither Dzhigarkhanyan, nor Karachentsev, Gaft, or even his role, but the lithos speaking with a Caucasian accent, saved him, this is too much .. drinks
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 13: 02
                        +5
                        Yes, with such an author and with such a powerful trinity, it takes a special talent to make such a dump. wassat
                      4. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 13: 08
                        +5
                        He has two not bad films, Bumbarash and Laugh the Clown .. maybe there are more, but I only saw these two and Kings .. probably O. Henry is not his ...
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 13: 19
                        +2
                        I immediately liked Bumbarash, the film is extraordinary and somehow does not fit into the general clip of Soviet films about Citizen. Even Zolotukhin is there, although I am "not very good" at this actor, as Brother said. smile
                      6. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 13: 31
                        +5
                        There, all the actors are in place .. Instead of Zolotukhin, they were supposed to shoot Kononov, but Zolotukhin persuaded the director ..
                      7. mister-red
                        mister-red 30 May 2022 23: 30
                        +1
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        Even Zolotukhin is there, although I am "not very good" at this actor, as Brother said.

                        Zolotukhin there protso getting into the top ten.
                        and yes, he doesn’t have many good roles in films, but the actor is interesting and original. I remember him as a schoolboy in the film Package and For the rest of my life.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 30 May 2022 23: 58
                        0
                        Yes, I also remember "The Package", and the film itself is good.)))



                        There and Novikov noted. smile
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 23 May 2022 16: 40
                +2
                For me, Gaidai is higher. Perhaps because I'm addicted to his comedies?
            3. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 11: 49
              +5
              Although Gaidai's "Business People" turned out very well, this film was not shot at the Odessa Film Studio.

              "The Man from the Boulevard des Capucines" also turned out to be atmospheric. drinks Well, at the end of the Mironov-Boyarsky duet. good
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 23 May 2022 11: 57
                +4
                I saw him, but, for the life of me, I don't remember at all. And I perceive Boyarsky only in the role of a wild cat Matvey, this is his role, but otherwise, no matter who he plays, he still remains Boyarsky. smile
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 23 May 2022 17: 15
                  +2
                  "in the role of a wild cat Matvey" there he is inimitable. "my method is simple. I don't like to pull a cat's tail"
              2. Daniil Konovalenko
                Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 03
                +5
                Here you can recall "Armed and Very Dangerous", "Smok and the Kid" by Jack London, the Balts filmed, by the way, look, it was shown on TV once and that's it ..
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 12: 11
                  +3
                  Balts filmed, by the way, look

                  From the Balts, for some reason, I immediately remember "Favorite" with Litsitis. yes
                  1. Daniil Konovalenko
                    Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 18
                    +5
                    There is a good film Mirage .. I really like the Baltic "dudetectives".
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 12: 35
                      +5
                      There is a good film Mirage .. I really like the Baltic "dudetectives".

                      Is this where the make-up "Niva" plays the role of a collector's armored car, and the villain, after a robbery, illuminates her chest? wink I saw a glimpse, but really did not look. recourse
                      1. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 47
                        +4
                        I did not pay attention to these details, in general a good film ..
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 12: 59
                        +5
                        the role of the cash-in-transit armored car is played by the made-up Niva

                        Exactly, he is the one.

                        There and "Sturmgever" starred in the role of M16

                        But I did not find a photo of the "illuminated" chest. wink
                      3. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 13: 13
                        +3
                        But I did not find a photo of the "illuminated" chest.

                        And you enter the name of the actress in the search engine ... wink laughing
                        There and "Sturmgever" starred in the role of M16

                        Somewhere else they starred in this role ... "Solo Voyage", or something ... Or "Gangsters in the Ocean" - generally a perestroika film.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 13: 24
                        +6
                        And you enter the name of the actress in the search engine.


                        Oh, well, it’s time to waste it in FIG, that I haven’t seen boobs. laughing

                      5. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 20: 10
                        +5
                        Oh, well, it’s time to waste it in FIG, that I haven’t seen boobs.

                        I saw, I saw, of course, I don’t even doubt it at all, and I touched it - numerously, especially and intricately! fellow bully We believe, we believe, Uncle Kostya! stop
                        Oh.. belay (he mentally gathered his strength, folded his hands in prayer)... may the esteemed administration of our site forgive me! request Not for myself - for the general educational level of the Sea Cat I do it! hi Here, Mirdzu Martinsone from the film "Mirage" - he is in karma! laughing drinks
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 20: 54
                        +3
                        Damn, how can a girl be called by that name !? wassat
                        Mirzdochka, Mirzdenochek, Mirzdyulinka... You'll break your fucking tongue! I tried to speak out loud and as a result lost my way. Nightmare! belay
                        You got my level! laughing drinks
                      7. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 21: 52
                        +2
                        You got my level!

                        You can start bowing to me! tongue drinks
                      8. hohol95
                        hohol95 24 May 2022 11: 26
                        +2
                        "The whole world in your pocket"
                        James Hadley Chase
                        The film only added a political "component". And so almost one to one with the book.
                      9. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 24 May 2022 12: 31
                        +2
                        James Hadley Chase

                        Gorgeous author! Its plots unfold in the USA, although Chase himself .. has never been there!
                        Stone Jungle is also a very good book.
                  2. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 May 2022 12: 27
                    +3
                    Alas, I didn’t see it, but I devoured the book avidly, I generally like Dick Francis. smile
                  3. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 May 2022 12: 50
                    +3
                    Now I talked to Masha, she saw "Favorite" and she liked it, I trust her, she "hooked" me on Dick Francis.
                  4. vladcub
                    vladcub 23 May 2022 17: 20
                    +2
                    First of all, I remember: "The Last Relic", and then: "Servants of the Devil", "Favorite" and something else with Banionis
          3. vladcub
            vladcub 23 May 2022 13: 55
            +3
            Karachentsev was magnified
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 23 May 2022 07: 45
      +8
      The lease was canceled in 1864. The system flourished just as legitimately:
      Substitutes furnished by draftees -- replacing yourself with another person
      Substitutes furnished by enrollees - replacing yourself with another person.
      There is no desire to fight - find yourself a replacement!
      I read that gypsies did this in Russia. In order not to give up their recruits, they paid the Russian community for a recruit! And he was sent to serve instead of a gypsy ...
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 10: 07
        +7
        So did the Russian communities, buying recruits on the side. And A.V. Suvorov, and wrote to the headman, they say, not to give his fictitious soldiers, but it’s better to chip in and buy.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 12: 03
          +4
          And A.V. Suvorov, and wrote to the headman, they say, not to give his fictitious soldiers to the soldiers, but it is better to chip in and buy.

          Interestingly, his "arrangement of the wedding" of the serfs (when he divided into two lines and married) - is this true, or a bike? request
          1. Daniil Konovalenko
            Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 13
            +6
            It’s like an isolated case, he came to one of the villages, and there, the beans, both male and female, got angry, Alexandra Vasilyevich, well, he married in this way. But not a pattern, he encouraged marriages, gave money, cattle ..
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 12: 27
              +5
              This is like an isolated case, he came to one of the villages, and there, the beans, both male and female, got angry, Alexandra Vasilyevich, well, he married in this way.

              - It's like his ... voluntarism! laughing
              By the way, after ascending the throne, Pal Petrovich distributed several thousand state peasants to his close associates. And not because he was a sadist - he sincerely believed that a good landowner would be better off for a peasant than on his own. The emperor was informed that the newly minted serfs accepted this news with joy ...
              1. Daniil Konovalenko
                Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 33
                +4
                Apparently we've had enough ...
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 12: 39
                  +3
                  Apparently we've had enough ...

                  God knows. Arakcheev flogged the same, but also supported with grain. Although Radishchev's "Journey ..." did not appear out of nowhere.
                  1. Daniil Konovalenko
                    Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 50
                    +3
                    Arakcheev flogged the same, but also supported with grain.
                    A whip and a carrot .. yes, and flogged, thoroughly .. and the peasants, after the flogging, if they survived, were happy with a bag of grain ... smile
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 12: 57
                      +4
                      A whip and a carrot .. yes, and flogged, thoroughly .. and the peasants, after the flogging, if they survived, were happy with a bag of grain ...

                      Feudalism, Daniil ... Neither add nor take away ... And with the yard girls, I think, the vast majority of them amused themselves.
                      Field Marshal M.F. Kamensky even suffered for his senile amorousness.
                      1. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 12: 59
                        +4
                        Bullying .. women still give birth ...
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 13: 10
                        +5
                        Bullying .. women still give birth ...

                        The eldest son of Kamensky created for himself a whole serf theater, where the guilty "actors" were behind the scenes in such a way that their cries became the property of the public in the hall.
                        There was also such Izmailov - the nephew of the very Izmailov who passed Peter the Third, demoralized and brought to nervous diarrhea, as a glass container.
                        So, Izmailov-nephew gathered a whole harem of young girls. It seems, however, then he ended badly, and, moreover, he was convicted. Valery wrote about him, EMNIP. Something like that... negative
                      3. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 13: 14
                        +5
                        Yeah, art to the masses of the nobility, flogging, serf actors .. laughing and now tears, oh, oh, what kind of people were forced to go abroad ...
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 13: 29
                        +5
                        Yeah, art to the masses of the nobility, flogging, to serf actors .. laughing and now tears, oh, oh, what kind of people were forced to go abroad ...

                        But what a vile Count Kutaisov Evgeny Leonov played! laughing "Fortress actress". good
                      5. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 13: 33
                        +5
                        By the way, one of my favorite movies as a kid... smile I really cared about the main characters in the movie. Hmm .. you review Soviet films and notice that Soviet actors play better and better ..
                      6. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 13: 34
                        +5
                        By the way, loved in childhood

                        As a child, my favorite was "Striped Flight". It can also be parsed into quotes. drinks
                        Hmm .. you review Soviet films and notice that Soviet actors play better and better ..

                        The films themselves were better.
                      7. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 13: 41
                        +3
                        Somehow they showed it in a cinema, on the first screen (back in Soviet times), usually such films were shown in a small hall .. but here .. it’s still an amazing film .. By the way, I would have reviewed a lot on the big screen now .. smile
                      8. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 13: 47
                        +5
                        By the way, I would have reviewed a lot on the big screen now ..

                        Perhaps it would be worth it for our filmmakers to do this ...
                      9. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 13: 51
                        +4
                        And this is possible and the dough can be cut, but our PR people will not be able to cope with this, so that the film would be shown a second time, in .... XNUMX years .. it takes strength to apply .. and where do the current ones come from ..
                      10. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 14: 34
                        +5
                        And this is possible and the dough can be cut, but our PR people will not be able to cope with this, so that the film would be shown a second time, in .... XNUMX years .. it takes strength to apply .. and where do the current ones come from ..

                        Before May 9, every year, films from the war are shown in cinemas. Why not do it with other good Soviet films?
                        Moreover, now many of our cinema workers, I think, are in very difficult conditions. There is no Western content ... Schedules are generally dark at night. Just a few sessions a day.
                      11. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 14: 38
                        +4
                        Chinese and Korean films will be screened laughing
                      12. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 15: 01
                        +3
                        Chinese and Korean films will be screened

                        North Korean. wink
                        Remember, the action movie "Order No. 027" was cool? good And what a beautiful girl there played a scout in the camp of the damned bourgeois - mercenaries of the capitalists. winked
                        Kim Hye-son (Yes, that's how it's spelled).

                        here she is:
                      13. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 15: 10
                        +3
                        I'm ashamed to admit, but I haven't seen a single Korean film, from the word at all. laughing
                      14. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 15: 15
                        +3
                        I'm ashamed to admit, but I haven't seen a single Korean film, from the word at all.

                        I watched it as an adult, in 2014. Funny. Moreover, the film is from 1986, but the Koreans are still at war with the Koreans. Bourgeois Koreans are armed with M3 "Grizgan" of the 40s. Lots of fights!
                        In the photo - the machine gun has already changed its owner, and now it is in the hands of a Juche warrior.
                      15. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 15: 26
                        +3
                        And that this machine is one for the whole movie? smile
                      16. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 15: 31
                        +2
                        And that this machine is one for the whole movie?

                        No, I just found this photo off the Internet.
                        There, all the bourgeois were armed with WWII-era swag - the weapons that were squeezed out of them during the Korean War. "Grizgans", then, EMNIP, M1 Carbine carbines, something else ...
                      17. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 15: 34
                        +3
                        Aaaaa, that is, there were enough weapons for the kina .. smile
                      18. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 20: 13
                        +2
                        Aaaaa, that is, there were enough weapons for the kina ..

                        Duc, we had so many weapons for the kina taken away from the Nazis that in films about the war, the "Germans" were armed without exception with MP-40s. And, in general ... not so either! request
                      19. Wildcat
                        Wildcat 23 May 2022 15: 23
                        +7
                        laughing
                        You can start with a movie about a tank, a cow and a plane:


                        or something more serious:
                      20. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 15: 28
                        +3
                        or what's worse

                        There is also an epic Chinese film "Signal to collect" (another name is "In the name of honor"). How the communists fight the Kuomintang.
                      21. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 17: 00
                        +2
                        This is how it was necessary to shoot down the adversaries !!! good Only when did they manage to bend the cannon? belay Or this factory idea!? wassat laughing
                      22. Wildcat
                        Wildcat 23 May 2022 17: 19
                        +3
                        Only when did they manage to bend the cannon? belay Or this factory idea!?
                        - there was a duel "bazooka against 85 mm" ... But the racing cow intervened!
                        I won't spoil it, but I recommend watching it. winked
                      23. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 17: 24
                        +2
                        Thanks, where can I find it?
                      24. Wildcat
                        Wildcat 23 May 2022 19: 27
                        +3
                        Here is one of the options:
                        https://my.mail.ru/mail/batxaan00/video/_myvideo/3603.html
                      25. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 19: 30
                        +2
                        I'll try to look.)))
                      26. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 16: 55
                        +2
                        In Soviet times, films were divided into three simple categories:
                        1) Movies are good.
                        2) Movies are bad.
                        3) And Chinese films.

                        "- Comrade Wan! I caught a spy!
                        Well done, Zin! This is very important!!!" (c)

                        Because, humanly, there was no way to duplicate them. laughing
                      27. Fat
                        Fat 23 May 2022 17: 35
                        +5
                        There is another classification. smile
                        1. About the war
                        2. About love
                        3. Trade union
                        Greetings, Konstantin.
                      28. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 17: 53
                        +4
                        Hi Andrew! smile

                        Everything about the war was held under the heading "Cinema and the Germans." laughing
                      29. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 23 May 2022 23: 51
                        +3
                        “Their first question was “Free Africa!”
                        And then about me - in the “miscellaneous” part ”(c).
                      30. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 May 2022 15: 04
                        +4
                        And Indian.
                      31. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 15: 08
                        +5
                        And Indian.

                        Oh, that's right, how could we forget! belay And everyone dances and sings! fellow

                      32. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 May 2022 15: 12
                        +5
                        Song and dance ensemble
                        Indian Army. Raj Kapoor?
                      33. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 15: 18
                        +3
                        Indian Army. Raj Kapoor?

                        Yeah, and also Zita and Gita.
                      34. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 15: 13
                        +7
                        While the rays of the setting sun color the mushroom of a nuclear explosion, in pink colors, I will sing my farewell song. laughing
                      35. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 15: 18
                        +5
                        While the rays of the setting sun color the mushroom of a nuclear explosion, in pink colors, I will sing my farewell song.

                        Daniel... already.... for the soul!!!! aaaaaa .... crying sobbing .... well said! drinks
                      36. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 15: 31
                        +6
                        Further, there are songs, shmantsy, dances .. Unexpectedly, the explosion turns into a cloud from it, a warm gentle rain falls .. and all the ruins bloom, and people come to life .. well, something like that .. laughing
                      37. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 15: 36
                        +3
                        Suddenly, the explosion turns into a cloud from it, a warm gentle rain falls .. and all the ruins bloom, and people come to life .. well, something like this

                        We haven't talked about North Korean cartoons yet! laughing
                      38. Daniil Konovalenko
                        Daniil Konovalenko 23 May 2022 16: 04
                        +4
                        Wow, there it is.. laughing
                      39. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 17: 21
                        +2
                        What, are there any? belay
                      40. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 17: 06
                        +5
                        Yeah. Have you seen "The Law and the Fist"? Awesome spectacle!!! good

                        Dancing barefoot on broken bottles

                        With shooting from the hip like a fan wassat

                        But everyone dances and sings. laughing
                      41. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 May 2022 17: 25
                        +4
                        Dancing barefoot on broken bottles
                        There was in some book from my childhood, the memories of a young Leningrad woman about the Tashkent evacuation.
                        Uncle Kostya, I will interrupt communication for a while, and draw conclusions for myself, based on the results of yesterday's forum.
                      42. Catfish
                        Catfish 23 May 2022 17: 19
                        +5
                        So in the "Striped Flight" the author of the script was Viktor Konetsky, in my youth I read his books. good

                        And he can scatter any book into quotes.
                      43. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 May 2022 15: 59
                        +4
                        The youngest son of the Olenins was hacked to death by the peasants with axes. Here is such a hello to grandmother "Poltorachikha" ...
                      44. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 16: 10
                        +4
                        The youngest son of the Olenins was hacked to death by the peasants with axes. Here is such a hello to grandmother "Poltorachikha" ...

                        Was he hacked to death for his grandmother's actions, or did he slander himself?
                      45. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 May 2022 16: 14
                        +3
                        Was he hacked to death for his grandmother's actions, or did he slander himself?
                        Himself.
                      46. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 17: 03
                        +1
                        Himself.

                        And what did he do?
                      47. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 23 May 2022 17: 12
                        +1
                        Available sources do not say that the archives need to be rummaged.
                        But as for me, Alexei Alekseevich fell into misanthropy, against the backdrop of failure in comparison with his older brothers. Although, he was an excellent topographer and cartographer.
                  2. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 24 May 2022 21: 48
                    +1
                    "Journey ..." did not appear from scratch.
                    It is, of course, true, but Pushkin went over the Journey well, rather critically. Available in academic edition.
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 24 May 2022 22: 03
                      +1
                      It is, of course, true, but Pushkin went over the Journey well, rather critically. Available in academic edition.

                      Sergey, welcome! Bongo (Linnik) congratulated? It's his birthday today! good drinks
                      Pushkin ... you know, I have a double opinion about him ... He was still that clown, by and large ... And yes - a serf-owner! It seems that he climbed the yard girls ... wink
                      Well, something like that, I hope this will not affect our communication with you. yes With respect, Nicholai! drinks
                      If it doesn't make it difficult, please ask for quotes from Pushkin. I need to rate! drinks If I'm wrong, I'll sincerely apologize! yes drinks
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 25 May 2022 07: 59
                        +1
                        Okay, I'll give you a quote by tonight. No one denies the class character of the writings of "our everything", it was highly unprofitable to live by purely literary work, how much debt Alexander Sergeevich did! (There was no Union of Writers yet.) And he wrote a purely economic slogan - "Inspiration is not for sale / But you can sell a manuscript!"
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 25 May 2022 08: 34
                        0
                        how many debts Alexander Sergeevich has done!

                        Cards, debts, two barrels! drinks
                      3. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 25 May 2022 08: 33
                        +1
                        Here, I just found it. A.S. Pushkin, vol. VII, criticism and journalism, publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1949. "Journey from Moscow to St. Petersburg", pp. 268 - 305. Pushkin drove in the opposite direction to Radishchevsky and described all the same places, diluting it all with reflections. He drove for 6 days, cursing the road because of its quality. A specific example, the chapter "Russian hut". Radishchev believes that nothing can be more terrible (the head of the "Peshki Station" no longer existed during Pushkin), where Radishchev worries about the fate of a Russian peasant who did not consume sugar and compares him with unfortunate African slaves (did Radishchev see them?) - on that Pushkin objects on page 288 - there have been changes since that time - "a pipe in every hut, glass has replaced a stretched bladder, generally more cleanliness, convenience, which the British call comfort." Well, this is Pushkin's time, but here's what he caught Radishchev on - he, "forcing his mistress to complain about hunger and crop failure, ends the picture of need and disaster with this line: and began to plant bread in the oven. It is obvious that Radishchev wrote a caricature." And a lot of other similar things are scattered throughout the text.
                      4. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 25 May 2022 10: 22
                        +2
                        And many more things like this are scattered throughout the text.

                        Interesting! Did not know! Thank you! good
              2. Senior seaman
                Senior seaman 23 May 2022 12: 59
                +4
                Quote: Pane Kohanku
                sincerely believed that a good landowner would be better off for a peasant,

                Pure truth.
                The fact is that the "landlord" peasants were dealt with by the owners, and the "state" officials. And how this brotherhood knows how to "care" is well known.
                Again, wait, road, bridge and other duties usually fell to the share of the state.
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 23 May 2022 13: 12
                  +4
                  Pure truth.

                  Ivan, welcome! But at the same time, Pal Petrovich also tried to streamline relations between peasants and landowners - the so-called. "decree on a three-day corvee". How it was carried out on the ground is another matter ... The tsar is far away, but the master is close ...
  5. depressant
    depressant 23 May 2022 09: 40
    +5
    It turns out that the plants that give the greatest coloring effect grow mainly in hot climates. The concentration of dyes in them is greater than in those that grow in the north. That is why the art of dyeing fabrics, starting from ancient times, developed in Asia, Africa and America, and only then did advanced dyeing technologies spread to countries with a temperate climate.
    Of course, Europe has always dyed fabrics too. But a set of plants, such as, for example, woad and mignonette, gave a faded, unstable color.
  6. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 23 May 2022 11: 22
    +10
    By the way, in the army of the southerners, as later in the army of the Boers, who just did not serve. A lot of volunteers fought in it, for whom uniforms, even from gray canvas, were not enough. Therefore, they dressed in all sorts of things and often fought just like partisans: they staged horse raids on the rear of the northerners!

    Heh heh heh ... given the similar cut of uniforms, problems with identification "in the field" arose even for cavalry dressed in uniform. Remember the famous scene at Sergio Leone - "blue or gray"? wink
  7. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 23 May 2022 11: 29
    +9
    I remember the episode with the blue and gray uniforms in the movie "The Good, the Bad and the Ugly"

    The phrase "God is against us and he hates idiots" sunk into my soul for a long time. smile
  8. Tests
    Tests 23 May 2022 12: 43
    +5
    depressant (lyudmila yakovlevna kuznetsova), dear, I do not agree with you. In Babylon and Egypt, it was already possible to dye cotton, and in the Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Tver and Novgorod regions there was still a glacier at all and did not melt. Flax has not yet been sown, there is no hemp and nettle, birch, oak, alder and even pine have not yet grown, bushes, shrubs, grasses, mosses, lichen and mushrooms I don’t remember. And the skin of a reindeer can not be dyed on the banks of the Don River.
  9. hohol95
    hohol95 23 May 2022 13: 01
    +5
    Margarita Guminenko
    Features of the US Army at the beginning of the war. Ethnic composition of the armies of the North and South
    "Table 1. The national composition of the Union army in the war 1861-1865.
    Quantity Percentage Origin
    1 000 Whites born in America
    516 000 Germans, of which about 23,4 were born in Germany
    210 000 African Americans. Approximately equal proportions of freedmen from the North and former slaves from the South *
    20 0000 9,1 Irish
    90 000 Dutch
    50 000 Canadians
    50 000 Born in England
    40 000 French or Canadian French. About half were born in the US, the other half in Quebec
    20 000 Scandinavians (Norwegians, Swedes, Finns and Danes)
    7 000 - Italians
    7 - Jews
    6 - Mexicans
    5 - Poles
    4 - Native Americans (Indians)
    Table 2. Foreign Forces in the Confederate Army in the War of 1861-1865
    Quantity Origin
    40 Canadians
    13 Hispanic Americans
    3 Jews
    15 Indians"
  10. bk0010
    bk0010 23 May 2022 14: 45
    +1
    But she won, proving that victory on the battlefield does not always depend on the uniform!
    Won? As far as I remember, the US army constantly raked from the British. And she survived because the British could not catch up with her before they ran out of money allocated to suppress the rebellion.
    uniform - dark blue, single-breasted,

  11. ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 23 May 2022 19: 28
    +4
    But even under Washington, it was possible to standardize the cartridge bag. It was supposed to hold 20-30 rounds of ammunition, and it weighed almost 3 kg. But even here it was not without theft - they stole the skin from which it was sewn. Therefore, the "canister" spread - a container made of tin, resembling a box for kitchen utensils!


    They stole, by the way, according to God: tin in those days was still quite expensive, and, for example, tin roofs were still rare - tiles ruled the ball. They could even make a wooden box, well known to us from classic tool boxes.

    [media=https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/old-wooden-tool-box-full-tools-554534917]