Military Review

Army self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system "Buk"

The Buk troop anti-aircraft missile system (9K37) is designed to destroy aerodynamic targets flying at speeds up to 830 meters per second, at low and medium altitudes, at distances up to 30000 m, maneuvering with overloads up to 12 units, and in perspective - ballistic missiles "Lance". Development began in accordance with the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers from 13.01.1972. it envisaged the use of cooperation between manufacturers and developers, in the basic composition of the corresponding previously involved in the creation of the Kub anti-aircraft missile system. At the same time, the development of the M-22 anti-aircraft missile system ("Uragan") for the Navy was determined using an anti-aircraft guided missile, one with the Buk air defense system.

Army self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system "Buk"

The developer of the Buk complex as a whole has defined the Research Institute of Instrument Engineering (NIIP) of the NPO (Research and Design Association) Phazotron (general director Grishin VK) of the MRP (formerly OKB-15 GKAT). The chief designer of the 9K37 complex is Rastov AA, KP (command post) 9С470 - Valaev G.N. (then - Sokiran V.I.), SOW (self-propelled fire installations) 9A38 - Matyashev V.V., semi-active Doppler XNNXXX9 for anti-aircraft guided missiles - Akopyan I.G.

The ROM (start-charging installation) 9А39 was created in the ICD (Engineering Design Bureau) "Start" MAP (formerly SKB-203 GKAT), headed by Yaskin A.I.

Unified tracked chassis for the complex machines were developed by the OKB-40 MMZ (Mytishchi Machine-Building Plant) of the Ministry of Transport Engineering under the leadership of N. Astrova.

The development of 9М38 rockets was entrusted to SMKB (Sverdlovsk Machine Building Design Bureau) Novator MAP (former OKB-8) headed by Lyulev LV, refusing to engage the design bureau of the plant No. 134, which had previously developed a guided missile for the Kub complex.

SOC 9X18 (station detection and target designation) ("Dome") was developed at the Research Institute of Measuring Instruments of the Ministry of Radio Industry under the leadership of A.V. Vetoshko. (later - Schekotova Yu.P.).

Also for the complex was developed a set of those tools. provision and maintenance of the car chassis.

Completion of the development of anti-aircraft missile systems was scheduled for the second quarter of 1975.

But for the fastest strengthening of the air defense of the main strike force of the ground forces - tank divisions - with an increase in the combat capabilities of the "Kub" anti-aircraft missile regiments included in these divisions by doubling the channeling channel on targets (and, if possible, ensuring full autonomy of channels during operation from target detection to its destruction), Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 22.05.1974/2/9 were instructed to create the Buk anti-aircraft missile system in 38 stages. Initially, it was proposed to develop at an accelerated pace an anti-aircraft guided missile and a self-propelled firing unit of the Buk anti-aircraft missile system capable of launching 3M9 missiles and 3M3M3 missiles of the Kub-M1 complex. On this base, with the use of other means of the "Kub-M9" complex, the Buk-37 (1K1974-XNUMX) anti-aircraft missile system was to be created, and in September XNUMX, it was to be released for joint tests. At the same time, the previously prescribed terms and volumes of work on the Buk air defense missile system in full set composition were preserved.

For the Buk-1 complex, it was envisaged that, in addition to one SURN and 5 self-propelled launchers, enter the 3А4 self-propelled launcher from the Buk missile system, as part of each anti-aircraft missile battery (9 pcs.) Thus, thanks to the use of self-propelled fire installations, which cost about 38% of the cost of the remaining battery, in the Cube-M30 regiment the number of combat-ready anti-aircraft guided missiles increased from 3 to 60, and the target channels from 75 to 5.

The 9А38 self-propelled fire installation, mounted on the GM-569 chassis, as if united the functions of SURN and self-propelled PU used in the “Kub-M3” complex. Self-propelled sabotage paired with her. The combat operation of the fire installation was carried out both autonomously and during control and target designation from SURN.

9А38 self-propelled fire installation consisted of:
- digital computing system;
- 9C35 radar;
- starting device equipped with power tracking drive;
- television-optical reticle;
- ground radar interrogator working in the identification system "Password";
- telecode communication equipment with SURN;
- equipment of wire communication with SPU;
- autonomous power supply systems (gas turbine generator);
- navigation equipment, topographic binding and orientation;
- life support systems.

The weight of the self-propelled fire installation, including the mass of four-man crew, was equal to 34 thousand kg.

The progress that has been made in creating ultra-high-frequency instruments, electromechanical and quartz filters, and digital computers, made it possible to combine the functions of detection, illumination and tracking stations in the 9-35 radar. The station operated in the centimeter wavelength range, it used a single antenna and two transmitters - continuous and pulsed radiation. The first transmitter was used to detect and automatically track the target in a quasi-continuous radiation mode or, in case of difficulties with unambiguous determination of the range, in a pulsed mode with compression of pulses (linear frequency modulation is used). A continuous radiation transmitter was used to illuminate the target and anti-aircraft guided missiles. The antenna system of the station carried out a sector search by the electromechanical method, tracking the target by distance and angular coordinates was carried out using the single-pulse method, and signal processing was performed by a digital computer. The width of the antenna pattern of the tracking channel in azimuth was 1,3 degrees and in elevation - 2,5 degrees, the illumination channel in azimuth - 1,4 degrees and in elevation - 2,65 degrees. The search sector review time (in elevation - 6-7 degrees, in azimuth - 120 degrees) in offline mode - 4 seconds, in ZU mode (in elevation - 7 degrees, in azimuth - 10 degrees) - 2 seconds. The average transmitter power of the channel for detecting and tracking the target was: in the case of using quasi-continuous signals, at least 1 kW, in the case of using signals with linear frequency modulation, at least 0,5 kW. The average transmitter power for target illumination is at least 2 kW. The noise figure of direction finding and survey receivers of the station is no more than 10 dB. The transition time of the radar station between the duty and combat modes was less than 20 seconds. The station could unambiguously determine the speed of targets with an accuracy from -20 to + 10 m / s; to ensure the selection of moving targets. The maximum error in range - 175 meters, the root mean square error in the measurement of the angular coordinates - 0,5 d. The radar was protected from passive, active and combined interference. The equipment of the self-propelled fire installation ensured the blocking of the launch of an anti-aircraft guided missile when accompanied by its helicopter or aircraft.

The 9A38 self-propelled fire installation was equipped with a launching device with interchangeable guides designed for 3 3М9М3 guided missiles or for 3 9М38 guided missiles.

In the anti-aircraft missile 9М38 a dual-mode solid-fuel engine was used (the total operating time was about 15 seconds). The use of a ramjet engine was abandoned not only due to the high resistance in the passive sections of the trajectory and the instability of work at a large angle of attack, but also due to the complexity of its development, which largely determined the failure to create the “Cube” air defense system. The power structure of the engine chamber was made of metal.

The general scheme of an anti-aircraft missile is X-shaped, normal, with a wing of small elongation. The appearance of the rocket resembled shipboard anti-aircraft missiles of the Standard and Tartarus families of American production. This corresponded to strict limitations in overall dimensions when using anti-aircraft 9М38 guided missiles in the M-22 complex, which was developed for the Soviet Navy.

The rocket was carried out according to the normal scheme and had a wing of small elongation. In the front part, the semi-active GMN, the autopilot equipment, power, and the warhead are successively placed. To reduce the spread of the centering in time of flight, the solid propellant rocket combustion chamber was placed closer to the middle, and the nozzle block was equipped with an elongated gas duct, around which the steering gear elements are placed. The missile has no detachable parts in flight. The diameter of the rocket was 400 mm, length - 5,5 m, sweep - 860 mm.

The diameter of the front compartment (330 mm) of the rocket was smaller relative to the tail section and the engine, which is determined by the succession of some elements with the 3МXNNXX family. The rocket was equipped with a new homing head with a combined control system. The complex implemented a homing anti-aircraft guided missile using the proportional navigation method.

The 9M38 anti-aircraft guided missile ensured the destruction of targets at altitudes from 25 to 20 thousand meters at a distance of 3,5 to 32 km. The missile's flight speed was 1000 m / s and maneuvered with overloads of up to 19 units.

Missile weight - 685 kg, including 70-kg warhead.

The design of the rocket ensured its delivery to the troops in a final form in the transport container 9YA266, as well as operation without carrying out routine maintenance and inspections for 10 years.

From the 1975 to the 1976X1, 1X91, XNMX, 3XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX range, tests at the Emben polygon (head of the landfill B.I. Vashchenko) under the leadership of a commission headed by P. Bimbash

As a result of the tests, the detection range of the aircraft by a radar station of a self-propelled firing system operating autonomously at altitudes above 3 thousand meters - from 65 to 77 km, at low altitudes (from 30 to 100 meters), the detection range decreased to 32-41 kilometers. Detection of helicopters at low altitudes occurred at a distance of 21-35 km. When operating in a centralized mode due to the limited capabilities of the issuing target designation of SURN 1С91М2, the detection range of aircraft at altitudes of 3-7 km decreased to 44 kilometers and targets at low altitudes - to 21-28 km. In the autonomous mode, the operating time of the self-propelled fire installation (from the moment of detecting the target to the launch of the guided missile) was 24-27 seconds. The charging / discharging time of the three 9М38 or 3М9М3 anti-aircraft missiles was 9 minutes.

When firing an 9М38 anti-aircraft guided missile, the defeat of an aircraft flying at altitudes over 3 thousand meters was ensured at a distance of 3,4-20,5 kilometers, at an altitude of 30 meters - 5-15,4 kilometers. The height of the affected area is from 30 meters to 14 kilometers, and in terms of the exchange rate parameter 18 kilometers. The probability of hitting an aircraft with one guided missile 9М38 - 0,70-0,93.

The complex adopted in 1978 year. Since the 9А38 self-propelled fire installation and the 9М38 anti-aircraft missile were the means to complement the Kub-М3 anti-aircraft missile system, the complex was given the name Cube-М4 (2К12М4).

Self-propelled 9А38 firing units were manufactured by the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant MRP, and the 9М38 anti-aircraft guided missiles were manufactured by the Dolgoprudny Machine-Building Plant MAP, which had previously produced 3М9.

The Kub-М4 complexes, which appeared in the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces, significantly increased the effectiveness of the air defense of the tank divisions of the Soviet Armed Forces.

Joint tests of the Buk air defense system in the full specified composition of assets took place from November 1977-th to March 1979-th year at the Embeni testing ground (headed by VV Zubarev) under the leadership of the commission headed by Yu.N. Pervov.

Fighting means of the Buk anti-aircraft missile system had the following characteristics.

The command point 9C470 installed on the GM-579 chassis provided reception, display and processing of data on targets from the 9C18 station (detection and targeting station) and 6 9A310 self-propelled fire installations, as well as from higher command posts; the selection of dangerous targets and their distribution between self-propelled fire installations in automatic and manual modes, setting their sectors of responsibility, displaying information on the presence of anti-aircraft guided missiles on fire and launch-charging installations, on the letters of transmitters of the illumination of fire installations, on work on targets, on mode work station detection and targeting; the organization of the complex with interference and the use of anti-radar missiles; documenting the workout and work calculation The command point processed messages on 46 targets located at altitudes up to 20 thousand meters in a zone with a radius of 100 thousand meters per station review cycle and sent up to 6 targeting to self-propelled fire installations (accuracy in elevation and azimuth - 1 degree, in range - 400-700 meters). The mass of the command post, including the crew of 6 people, is no more than 28 tons.

Coherent-pulse three-coordinate dome detection and targeting station (9С18) of the centimeter range electronically scanning the elevation angle in the sector (set by 30 or 40 degrees) with mechanical (in a given sector or circular) rotating the antenna in azimuth (using a hydraulic drive or electric drive). The 9C18 station was intended for detecting and identifying air targets at a distance of up to 110-120 kilometers (with a height of 30 meters - 45 kilometers) and transmitting information about the air situation to the command point 9С470.

Depending on the presence of interference and the established sector, in the elevation angle, the speed of viewing the space for a circular view was 4,5 - 18 seconds and for a review in the 30 sector 2,5 degrees - 4,5 seconds. The radar information was transmitted to the command post 9C470 via the telecode line in the amount of 75 marks during the review period (it was 4,5 seconds). RMS errors in measuring the coordinates of the targets: in elevation and azimuth - no more than 20 ', in range - no more than 130 meters, resolution in elevation and azimuth - 4 degrees, in range - no more than 300 meters.

To ensure protection against impact interference, carrier frequency tuning between pulses was used, from response interference — the same plus the blanking of range intervals over the automatic pickup channel, from asynchronous pulse interference — blanking of the range sections and change of the slope of the linear-frequency modulation. A detection and target designation station with noise barrage interference of self-protection and external cover of specified levels ensured detection of a fighter at distances of at least 50 m. M. The station provided wiring of targets with a probability of at least 0,5 against a background of passive interference and local objects using a self-compensated selection circuit of moving targets wind speeds. The detection and target designation station was protected from airborne radar missiles by programmatically tuning the carrier frequency in 1,3 seconds, switching to a circular polarization of the probe signal or to the blink mode (intermittent radiation).

The 9С18 station consisted of an antenna post consisting of a reflector of a truncated parabolic profile and an irradiator of a waveguide line (provided an electron beam scanning in an elevation plane), a rotator, an antenna addition device; transmitting device (average power 3,5 kW); receiving device (noise figure to 8) and other systems.

All the equipment of the station was located on a modified self-propelled chassis "about. 124" of the SU-100П family. The tracked base of the detection and target designation station differed from the chassis of other means of the Buk anti-aircraft missile complex, because the Kupol radar was originally set up to develop outside the anti-aircraft complex - as a means of detecting the divisional link of the Ground Forces.

The transfer time of the station between marching and combat positions was up to 5 minutes, and from duty to work mode - about 20 seconds. The mass of the station (including the calculation of 3 people) - up to 28,5 tons.

In terms of their design and purpose, the 9А310 self-propelled fire installation from the 9A38 self-propelled fire installation of the Cube-M4 (Buk-1) CMS has reached the number of CMX-CMN-1, CMX, CMN, CMN, CMN, X91, 3X2 item 25С3 and ROM 9А470. Also, on the launcher 9А39 there were not three, but four anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М310. The transfer time of the installation from marching to martial position was less than 9 minutes. The transfer time from the duty to the operating mode, in particular, after changing positions with the equipment turned on, was up to 38 seconds. Charging of the 5А20 fire installation with four anti-aircraft guided missiles from the launch-charging installation was done in 9 minutes, and from a transport vehicle - 310 minutes. The mass of the self-propelled fire installation, including the crew of 12 man, was equal to 16 tons.

The length of the self-propelled fire installation - 9,3 meters, width - 3,25 meters (in the working position - 9,03 meters), height - 3,8 meters (7,72 meters).

The 9А39 launcher installed on the GM-577 chassis was designed to transport and store eight anti-aircraft guided missiles (on the 4 launch device, 4 on stationary lodgments), launch of the 4 guided missiles, self-loading of its launcher with four missile templates, and the templates of the subcontractors, which had to pull out the sub-cores of the subcontractors, and the subgroups of the subcontractors of the subcontractors. missiles from a transport vehicle (charging time 8 minutes), from soil cradles and transport containers, discharging and on the launching device of a self-propelled 26 fire installation of anti-aircraft guided missiles. Thus, the start-up installation of the Buk anti-aircraft missile system combined the functions of a TZM and self-propelled launcher of the Kub complex. The starting-charging installation consisted of a starting device with a tracking actuator, a crane, lodgments, a digital computer, equipment for topographic binding, navigation, telecode communication, orientation, power supply units and energy supply. The mass of the installation including the crew of 4 man - 3 tons.

The dimensions of the start-up installation: length - 9,96 meters, width - 3,316 meters, height - 3,8 meters.

The KP complex received from the command point of the Buk anti-aircraft missile brigade (Polyana-D4 automated control system) and from the detection and target station data on the air situation, processed them and issued instructions on self-propelled firing systems that carried out search and seizure for automatic tracking When the target entered the affected area, anti-aircraft guided missiles were launched, and the missile guidance was based on proportional navigation, which provided high precision guidance. The homing head issued a command to the radio fuze for short-range arming. When approaching 17 meters, the warhead was undermined by a command, and if the radio-fuse failed to work, the second rocket was launched.

Compared with the Kub-М3 and Kub-М4 anti-aircraft missile systems, the Buk air defense missile system had higher operational and combat characteristics and provided:
- simultaneous shelling of up to six targets by the battalion, and, if necessary, the performance of independent combat missions up to 6 in the case of autonomous use of self-propelled firing units;
- greater detection reliability due to the organization of a joint review of the 6 space by self-propelled firing units and a detection and targeting station;
- increased noise immunity due to the use of a special type of illumination signal and the onboard computer of the homing head;
- greater effectiveness of hitting targets due to the increased power of the anti-aircraft guided missile warhead.

According to the results of tests and simulations, it was determined that the Buk anti-aircraft missile system ensures shelling of non-maneuvering targets flying at altitudes from 25 meters to 18 kilometers at speeds up to 800 m / s, at distances from 3 – 25 km (at speeds up to 300 m / s - up to 30 km) with course heading up to 18 kilometers with a probability of hitting one guided missile - 0,7-0,8. When firing maneuvering targets (overloads up to 8 units), the probability of hitting was 0,6.

Organizational Buk anti-aircraft missile systems were reduced to rocket brigades consisting of: a command post (a command and control center from the Polyana-D4 automated control system), 4 anti-aircraft missile divisions with their 9-470 command posts, 9XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX-XXXXXXXXXXXX-XXXXXXXXXX-XXXXXXXXX-XXXXXXXXXX communications and three anti-aircraft rocket batteries (each with two self-propelled fire installations 18А9 and one starting-charging installation 310А9), the maintenance and support units.

The Buk anti-aircraft missile brigade was controlled from an army air defense command center.

The Buk complex for arming the air defense forces of the ground forces in 1980 took part in the production of combat equipment of the Buk complex in the cooperation of the Kub-МХNUMX air defense system. New tools - 4C9 gearbox, 470А9 self-propelled firing units and 310С9 detection and targeting stations were produced by the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant MRP, and the 18А9 start-charging devices at the Sverdlovsk Machine-Building Plant named after them. Kalinin MAP.

In accordance with the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers of the 30.11.1979, the Buk anti-aircraft missile system was upgraded to increase its combat capabilities and protect the complex’s electronic equipment from anti-radar missiles and jamming.

As a result of tests that were carried out in February-December 1982 of the year at the Embeni test site (headed by V. Zubarev) under the direction of a commission headed by BM Gusev, it was found that the upgraded Buk-M1 compared to the anti-aircraft missile system The Buk provides a large area of ​​aircraft destruction, can shoot down an ALCM cruise missile with a probability of hitting one guided missile more than 0,4, Hugh Cobra helicopters 0,6-0,7, hovering helicopters 0,3-0,4 at distances from 3,5 to 10 kilometers.

In a self-propelled fire installation, 36 uses the lettering frequency of the backlight instead of 72, which contributes to an increase in protection from intentional and mutual interference. Recognized 3 classes of targets - ballistic missiles, airplanes, helicopters.

Compared with the command post 9C470, the CP 9C470М1 provides simultaneous reception of data from its own detection and targeting station and 6 targets from the air defense command point of a tank (motorized rifle) division or from the command post of an air defense anti-aircraft missile system.

Compared to the 9А310 self-propelled fire installation, the 9А310М1 installation provides detection and lock-in of an automatic tracking target at long ranges (approximately 25-30 percent), as well as recognition of ballistic missiles, helicopters and airplanes with a probability of more than 0,6.

The complex used a more advanced station detection and targeting "Dome-M1" (9С18М1), which has a flat elevated phased antenna array and a self-propelled tracked chassis GM-567M. One-type tracked chassis is used at the command post, self-propelled fire installation and starting-charging installation.

The detection station and target designation has the following dimensions: length - 9,59 meters, width - 3,25 meters, height - 3,25 meters (in the working position - 8,02 meters), weight - 35 tons.

The Buk-М1 complex provides for effective technical and organizational measures to protect against anti-radar missiles.

The combat means of the Buk-M1 air defense system are interchangeable with the same-type means of the Buk complex without any modifications. The staff organization of technical units and combat formations are similar to the Buk anti-aircraft missile system.

The technological equipment of the complex consists of:
- 9В95М1Э - machines of the automated test mobile station based on the ZIL-131 and trailer;
- 9В883, 9В884, 9В894 - repair and maintenance machines based on Ural-43203-1012;
- 9В881E - maintenance machine based on the Ural-43203-1012;
- 9Т229 - transport vehicle for 8 anti-aircraft guided missiles (or six containers with guided missiles) based on KrAZ-255B;
- 9Т31М - mobile crane;
- MTO-ATG-М1 - maintenance workshop based on ZIL-131.

The Buk-М1 complex adopted for use the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces in 1983 and its mass production was established in cooperation of industrial enterprises that produced the Buk anti-aircraft missile system.

In the same year, the naval anti-aircraft missile system entered service fleet M-22 "Hurricane", unified with the Buk missile system for 9M38 guided missiles.

Complexes of the Buk family under the name Gang were proposed to be supplied abroad.

During the “Defense 92” exercise, the Buk family of anti-aircraft missiles carried out successful target shooting based on the P-17, Zvezda ballistic missile and MLRS Smerch missiles.

In December 1992, the President of the Russian Federation signed a decree on the further modernization of the Buk air defense system - the creation of an anti-aircraft missile system, which was repeatedly presented at various international exhibitions under the name of "Ural".

In 1994-1997, the cooperation of enterprises headed by the Tikhonravov Research and Development Institute carried out work on the Buk-M1-2 anti-aircraft missile system. Thanks to the use of the new 9M317 missile and the modernization of other air defense systems, for the first time, the ability to destroy tactical ballistic missiles "Lance" and aviation missiles at a range of up to 20 thousand meters, high-precision elements weapons and surface ships at a distance of up to 25 thousand meters and ground targets (large command posts, launchers, aircraft at airdromes) at a distance of 15 thousand meters. The effectiveness of the destruction of cruise missiles, helicopters and airplanes. The boundaries of the affected areas increased in distance to 45 kilometers and in height to 25 kilometers. The new rocket provides for the use of an inertial-corrected control system with a radar semi-active homing head, guided by the proportional navigation method. The rocket had a launch mass of 710-720 kilogram with a mass of XU 50-70 kilogram.

Externally, the new 9М317 rocket differed from the 9М38 in the smaller wing chord length.

In addition to the use of an improved rocket, it was planned to introduce into the ZRK system a new facility - a radar station for target illumination and missile guidance with an antenna installed at a height of up to 22 meters in the working position (a telescopic device was used). With the introduction of this radar station, the combat capabilities of the air defense system for the destruction of low-flying targets, such as modern cruise missiles, are significantly expanded.

The complex includes the presence of a command post and two types of fire sections:
- four sections, including one upgraded self-propelled fire installation, carrying four guided missiles and capable of firing four targets at the same time, and a launcher with 8 guided missiles;
- two sections, including one radiolocation station for illumination and guidance, which can also ensure simultaneous firing of four targets, and two launch-charging installations (each with eight guided missiles).

Two variants of the complex were developed - mobile on GM-569 tracked vehicles (used in previous modifications of the Buk air defense missile system), as well as KrAZ transported by cars and on semi-trailers with semi-trailers. In the latter version, the cost was reduced, but the maneuverability and the deployment time of the anti-aircraft missile complex increased from the march from 5 minutes to 10-15.

In particular, the Start ICD during the modernization of the Buk-M SAM system (Buk-М1-2 and Buk-М2 complexes) were developed the 9А316 launcher and the 9ПXNNXX launcher on the tracked chassis, as well as PU 619А9 on a wheeled chassis.

The development process of the Kub and Buk families of anti-aircraft missile systems as a whole is an excellent example of the evolutionary development of military equipment and weapons, ensuring continuous increase in the capabilities of the air defense of the ground forces at relatively low costs. This path of development, unfortunately, creates the prerequisites for a gradual one. lag. For example, even in promising versions of the Buk air defense system, a more reliable and safe scheme for the continuous operation of missiles in the transport and launch container, all-vertical vertical launch of guided missiles introduced by other second-generation anti-aircraft missile systems did not find application. But despite this, in difficult socio-economic conditions, the evolutionary path of development has to be considered the only possible one, and the choice made by the developers of the Buk and Kub complexes is the right one.

For the creation of the Buk anti-aircraft missile system Rastov A.A., Grishin V.K., Akopyan I.G., Zlatomrezhev I.I., Vetoshko A.P., Chukalovsky N.V. and others were awarded the USSR State Prize. The development of the 1 Buk-M anti-aircraft missile system was noted by the RF State Prize. Kozlov Yu.I., Ektov VP, Schekotov Yu.P., Chernov V.D., Solntsev SV, Unuchko V.R. and etc.

The main tactical and technical characteristics of anti-aircraft missile systems such as "BUK":
The name - "Book" / "Book-М1";
The range of damage is from 3,5 to 25-30 km / 3 to 32-35 km;
The height of the affected area is from 0,025 to 18-20 km / 0,015 to 20-22 km;
The affected area by parameter is up to 18 / up to 22;
The probability of hitting a fighter with one guided missile is 0,8..0,9 / 0,8..0,95;
The probability of hitting a helicopter with one guided missile is 0,3..0,6 / 0,3..0,6;
The probability of hitting a cruise missile is 0,25..0,5 / 0,4..0,6;
The maximum speed of the targets hit - 800 m / s;
Reaction time - 22 seconds;
The speed of the anti-aircraft guided missile - 850 m / s;
Missile mass - 685 kg;
The mass of the warhead - 70 kg;
Channeling on the target - 2;
Canal for missiles (on target) - to 3;
Deployment / collapse time - 5 min .;
The number of anti-aircraft missiles on a combat vehicle - 4;
Year of adoption - 1980 / 1983.

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  1. Diesel
    Diesel 5 October 2012 09: 11
    Cool complex! good Such a compact, and silisha rushing))) The most for air ambushes)
  2. Leisure
    Leisure 5 October 2012 10: 18
    In the third photo, we got a terrible advertisement of Austrian airlines.
    1. The centurion
      The centurion 5 October 2012 12: 29
      Quote: Lazer
      In the third photo, we got a terrible advertisement of Austrian airlines.

      that’s probably why they don’t need advertising, three years ago they were safely eaten by the Lufthansa.
    2. galeo88
      galeo88 7 October 2012 08: 42
      Great photo, just right to intimidate "poor" Europe with angry Russians. :))))
  3. Max
    Max 5 October 2012 10: 39
    The probability of hitting a fighter with one guided missile is 0,8..0,9 / 0,8..0,95;
    The probability of hitting a helicopter with one guided missile is 0,3..0,6 / 0,3..0,6;

    Why is the probability of helicopter hitting lower, and significantly?

    And how is the control of the rocket, strictly correcting the flight by radars or a TV picture?
  4. borisst64
    borisst64 5 October 2012 14: 25
    Four rockets are equipped with a crane in 16 minutes. I would like to see these acrobats!
    1. Komsomolets
      Komsomolets 11 November 2012 11: 17
      In my battery, one calculation performed overloading from ROM guides to SDA guides in 12 minutes, and the second in 13.
  5. yacht
    yacht 5 October 2012 16: 45
    Quote: max
    The probability of hitting a fighter with one guided missile is 0,8..0,9 / 0,8..0,95;
    The probability of hitting a helicopter with one guided missile is 0,3..0,6 / 0,3..0,6;

    Why is the probability of helicopter hitting lower, and significantly?

    The hovering helicopter does not see the radar, in this case only the rotating blades of the helicopter help.
    1. gregor6549
      gregor6549 5 October 2012 17: 27
      What kind of radar does a hovering helicopter not see? This is anything but radar.
      1. 73petia
        73petia 6 October 2012 00: 26
        The stationary helicopter is not visible against the background of stationary local objects. Trees with branches swaying in the wind, irregularities in the landscape, poles, etc. The SDC in order to see the helicopters should be much more difficult. "Kuba" has SDC with PPC on potentioscopes. In theory, he also should not see hovering helicopters. But maybe during the revision of the "Cuba" SDC was remade. And the "Buk" SDC is more cunning. By the way, helicopters did not see "Shilka" either. And we have already seen "Tunguska".
      2. yacht
        yacht 6 October 2012 00: 39
        Especially for you I was not too lazy to find. smile фильм "Смотр". ЗРК «БУК-М2» в войсках", если лень смотреть весь фильм, то смотрите с 15 минуты, там как раз о том как видит радар зависший вертолёт. Кстати фигура высшего пилотажа "Кобра Пугачёва" из той же оперы.
        1. 73petia
          73petia 6 October 2012 03: 06
          Quote: 73petia
          Fixed helicopter not visible

          I agree I wrote it wrong. Then I tried to fix it, but it was too late, the text was no longer edited. I actually wanted to say that a hovering helicopter is a difficult target for a radar. And the fact that "Buki" all saw helicopters, I know. Not only M-2, but also the very first ones. Which were also called "Cube M-4".
          “Buk” here I incorrectly call not the whole complex, but SOU 9A38 and 9A310. And I did not see any helicopters from "Cuba". As well as "Shilka". Their SDC is simple.
          1. yacht
            yacht 6 October 2012 11: 13
            73petia I'm sorry, I wrote the answer to the post gregor6549, slip on my part, you need to write to whom you are addressing.
            I’m not a specialist in radar, it’s also clear that radars can be different, but if air defense specialists say that they don’t see a fixed (hovering) air target, then they probably are, they know better smile , and even helicopter pilots do not use the same hovering tactics from Budun, but as they say for every tricky ass, there is ... correctly, the helicopter rotor. It rotates (moves around the axis) and the radar works along it. It is clear that this is a difficult goal and not every radar is available. And then you correctly pointed out the helicopter's ability to camouflage itself against the landscape. All these factors make the helicopter a difficult target for air defense.
            1. Komsomolets
              Komsomolets 11 November 2012 11: 31
              yacht "Buk" works great on helicopters and not only. For stationary objects too. In particular, at the Ashuluk training ground, I'm married to escorting a TV tower at a distance of 50 km, since this is a good radio contrast target. And on the Black Sea, they took ships for escorting in general.
      3. Komsomolets
        Komsomolets 11 November 2012 11: 23
        I have not read the article, as I studied and served at the Buk. The fact that he does not see the helicopters is complete nonsense. And he sees them not in the SDC, but in the SOI mode (quasi-continuous radiation). In this mode, the hovering helicopter is perfectly visible, it is taken for escort due to the rotating blades.
        1. STALGRAD76
          STALGRAD76 April 24 2013 15: 36
          ovzkru or smolensk? what year?
  6. gregor6549
    gregor6549 5 October 2012 17: 23
    Of all the Buk modifications, the M2 modification, which includes radars with HEADLIGHTS, can be called relatively modern. The launcher and the rocket itself has long been an archaic,
    Further. The time for reloading the launcher generally negates the time of deployment and folding of the complex. Those. fired at one maximum of two targets, drive the transport loader from the nearby bushes (which is at least ten minutes) and spend 20 minutes reloading. Those. it takes about half an hour to recharge, and then if no one interferes, which is unlikely. Further. The presence of a radar on the "face" of the launcher makes this launcher an excellent bait for PRS. Well, the probability of hitting certain targets (helicopters and cruise missiles) in the range from 0.3 to 0.6. mean in real life hitting the sky with your finger. Those. all these modifications clearly show the desire of the developers to push the technique of the mid-70s to the mid-21st century. The desire, of course, is understandable, but ...
    1. leon-iv
      leon-iv 5 October 2012 17: 40
      What about M3?
      1. orfo
        orfo 5 October 2012 19: 12
        Syria - 20 Buk-M1-2 air defense systems [20], as of 2010 [21]. 8 9K40 Buk-M2E systems were delivered from Russia in 2011 [16].

        Do they exist in iron?
      2. gregor6549
        gregor6549 6 October 2012 08: 22
        I did not notice the fundamental difference between M2 and M3. Yes, the radars have become better, including the increased detection range of "low-flying" by raising the antenna post, but the launcher itself, as it was the Achilles' heel of the complex, remained.
        1. leon-iv
          leon-iv 6 October 2012 09: 46
          PU as it was the Achilles heel of the complex remained.
          And you do not know on the hero will be a packet vertical?
    2. Komsomolets
      Komsomolets 11 November 2012 12: 24
      gregor6549 your statement is not only not competent, but also offensive to me. Before writing, we bothered to get acquainted with the complex. In Buka there are no launchers, there are no transport-loading machines. The battery has 16 missiles that can be shot continuously and potentially destroy up to 16 targets. Well, the battery is fighting in the composition of the division in it up to 48 missiles, respectively, so tell me where there are a maximum of two targets? There is a whole range of measures about protection from PRR (more correct than PRS) on Buka, in particular, tracking along the television optical sight with radiation off, target designation from the combat control point of the division, moving around the position with the equipment on to change position, etc. .
      About the likelihood of defeat, as ours have always underestimated it, like all the characteristics in general. I personally shot a target missile to a simulator of a cruise missile launched from a distance of 55 km, flying with an envelope of terrain at an altitude of 100 m at a speed of more than 1600 km / h !!! and successfully hit her at a distance of 15 km. In real RL, the speed is almost half as much, the reflecting surface is longer, and the time to search for it is correspondingly longer. And the last, there was nothing of the kind in the world and there is none now.
      And with the "Buk-M2" in a row, there is even nothing to put .......
  7. ruslan7608
    ruslan7608 5 October 2012 18: 50
    On a wheeled basis, it looks more attractive, but patency is not very.
    1. 73petia
      73petia 6 October 2012 00: 33
      Yah. Wheeled some kind of awkward, cumbersome. And for shooting, he needs to throw out his "paws". I like the caterpillar better.
  8. grizzlir
    grizzlir 6 October 2012 09: 06
    As a tanker, I can’t judge the performance characteristics of interceptor missiles and guidance systems, but the base on which these installations are located is striking.All air defense systems were installed on an armored tracked chassis to cover tank regiments. In this regard, the question arises: what did the creators of the Shell-guided when they put the installation on Kamaz. However, there was a development of the Shell-S based on a tracked vehicle, but there is no information about its release.
    1. yacht
      yacht 6 October 2012 11: 32
      Quote: grizzlir
      In this regard, the question arises: what guided the creators of the Shell-S, when they put the installation on Kamaz

      The wish of the customer, who, in turn, was guided by the price of the complex, and the complex itself is a module that can, if desired, be installed on any chassis, including a tracked one.
      In addition, the Carapace is designed not only to cover armored vehicles, but also, for example, to cover the S-300 in the rear, well, why in this case you need a tracked chassis ..
      1. 73petia
        73petia 6 October 2012 15: 29
        We were guided by the wishes of the customer. The wheeled version was ordered by the Arabs in the desert. And we had a tracked version, and a stationary and towed one. But the military was not interested. The Arabs were interested. When we worked out the wheeled version, then our military settled in. The wheeled Buk M-2E was also made for the "hillock". "E" means export.
  9. Mr.Fox
    Mr.Fox 13 October 2012 20: 52
    I would not dare to fly Austrian Airlines after the photo above :)
  10. Odessa16
    Odessa16 15 December 2012 02: 14
    That's because of this machine became interested in air defense technology. A very powerful machine - it is almost impossible to get around it - neither on the bottom, nor on the top. Yes, and mobile - you can’t break through the Tomahawks. In any possible war - the most long-lived complexes. S-400/500 will be primarily hollowed - in the very first days they will be devoured. But such small-nimble cars will live for a very long time - until victory or surrender. It is necessary to increase their combat capabilities - to beat higher and further. With the same mobility and secrecy.
    I've read Science and Technology - their version of the US war with Syria. There it is precisely such anti-aircraft systems (Buki, Cuba, Armor, Wasps) that inflict the most serious blow to enemy aircraft, shooting down 8 Raptors. After which the imperialists retreat ...