Today, fortunately, the understanding of the need for tanks in the Armed Forces. Discussions shifted to the sphere of issues of their modernization, quantity and quality, new combat properties and requirements. More recently, tanks were created taking into account the military doctrine, focused on preparedness for a large-scale war using nuclear weapons. Their tactical and technical characteristics included the following requirements:
- resistance to the shock wave of a nuclear explosion;
- ensuring high security of the crew during operations on contaminated areas;
- conducting rapid frontal (or flank) attacks due to the powerful tank "fist";
- the possibility of suppressing any enemy defense with fire from cannons and machine guns.
Soviet tanks T-64, T-72 and T-80 fully meet these requirements. No wonder the T-80 was called the “Channel” for its high mobility.
Modern T-80U and T-90А, as before, retain a number of advantages over foreign tanks. First, it is the ability to fire guided missiles with a long range of destruction, located in the combat pack of the automatic loading of tanks. Secondly, the use of automated loading of the gun made it possible to reduce the crew of the tank to three people and at the same time to ensure an increased rate of fire of the gun. Finally, it is impossible to disregard the traditionally smaller dimensions and weight of our tanks, which additionally provides both a lower probability of their detection and destruction, and greater mobility.
It is worth noting that guided missiles and an automated loader gun were used for the first time in world practice on domestic tanks. We became pioneers in the search for ways to improve crew protection: the combined booking, active protection complexes (KAZ) and optical-electronic suppression (QEP) were tested and put into production. The complex tasks of reducing the radar visibility of tanks are solved: anti-radar coatings developed for T-80 are polymer composite materials of the interference type. The principle of operation of such coatings is based on the mutual damping of electromagnetic waves reflected from the outer and inner surfaces of the coatings, which ensures a reduction in the detection range by almost 5.
Let's not forget that in our country, for the first time in the world, we also put a tank with a gas turbine engine into production and introduced an auxiliary gas turbine power plant.
At the same time, one cannot but admit that there is a lag of the national tank fleet from the tank parks of some foreign countries not only by military-technical level (according to some experts, 1,9 times), but also by quantitative indicators (for example, in our Armed Forces Only 5% of modern T-80U and T-90А tanks, in NATO countries of similar machines - 40%).
In addition, the nature of hostilities in recent decades has changed significantly. Afghanistan and Chechnya, South Ossetia and other recent military conflicts have shown that other demands are placed on tanks. There are new trends in development associated primarily with the adaptation of the design of armored vehicles to actions in populated areas and cities, in forest and mountain ranges, where there is no talk of mass use of tanks. The priority is given to the requirements for protection (security), especially when firing from extremely close distances and from above, improved visibility and “sight” (including at night), crew awareness in combat situations and the possibility of autonomous actions, mobility and transportability, and even comfort.
Highlighting the priority need to enhance protection, one cannot but recognize the need to balance the requirements for the tank. Powerful weapons, including those based on new physical principles, will undoubtedly take their rightful place, as well as a significantly improved fire control system (FCS) adapted to them. For such a system is needed and extensive information about the combat situation. Naturally, its processing and analysis can be performed by computer technology with high automation, since the information comes through numerous channels in the mode of the current time.
Necessary (and this is not a tribute to fashion) innovations of "network-centricity", it is urgently needed to improve the interaction of armored vehicles with other participants in military operations: aviation, rifle units and other realities of the tactical level (up to unmanned aerial vehicles). Equipping armored vehicles with information-controlled systems (such as ICS, CIUS) should increase the efficiency of combat work at times. There is no doubt that the new requirements in the performance characteristics should be of a different order. An expert forecast can indicate probable numbers. So, the firing range of guided missiles and armor-piercing shells can double by a rate of fire of at least 15-18 rds / min.
If the tank mass is less than 50, its armor protection will increase (along with active protection equipment), and the use of new materials will raise its equivalent thickness by 1,5.
Given the high power density (due to the use of high-powered engines - 1800 — 2000 hp and more), a maximum speed of at least 90 km / h with a power reserve of 600 km and more will be possible. Such a high power supply of the tank - the basis of the new generation of weapons, and its improvement (while boosting power) will give a tangible effect on fuel economy.
In this regard, it is worthwhile to once again return to the tank GTE. It is possible that not all readers know that, in accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 02.03.96-227 dated 15, the development of a promising tank GTE with a capacity of 1800 — 2000 hp was planned. with specific fuel consumption 170 — 206 g / ls. For comparison: in the B-84 diesel engine T-72, this value is 182 — 191,1 g / hp.h. (according to TU - 182 + 5%), for the GTE of the T-80 tank - 220 g / hp.h.
A promising GTE with a mass of 1200 kg was to be placed in the engine compartment with a volume of 3,8 м3. It was planned to carry out its layout on a two-shaft scheme, including a two-stage compressor and the same high-pressure turbine. Combustion chamber was planned to perform remote. It was assumed the presence of a regenerator. Such an engine should have become an element of a complex power plant in the form of a single unit, where, apart from the GTE, all engine systems (air cleaning, cooling, compressed air), as well as electromechanical transmission and electric power systems for new weapon systems were located.
Without going into details of such studies abroad, I will only give comparative characteristics of the specific fuel consumption of engines of the same power (1500 hp), including a promising gas turbine engine, built, according to data in the open press, in the United States. It is stated that the specific consumption of the LV-100-5 engine is 210 g / kWh, or 154 g / hp.h. Impressive!
Alexander Shevchenko, the head of the GABTU of the Ministry of Defense, spoke about these and many other aspects when answering questions from the Ekho Moskvy radio station. In particular, assessing the sufficient and necessary number of armored personnel carriers, he indicated that a program of qualitative optimization was approved in the Armed Forces. Developed plans for recycling, upgrades and repairs, which are brought to industry and financed. Referring to interaction with foreign partners, Shevchenko stressed that time dictates the need for closer cooperation and even the ability to buy something that is “critical” for us and does not contradict national interests.
Comparative characteristics of specific fuel consumption of modern and prospective engines
As for their own promising developments, they, according to experts of GABTU, should be built on the basis of unified combat platforms and on a competitive basis. Moreover, the ideology of the “open side” (or “open architecture”) is proclaimed, when the BTV chief designer chooses systems and units from his opponents on an alternative basis. And yet the final, evaluative, is the quality-cost effectiveness criterion. This approach is applicable to the production of BTV and its modernization.
Close to the concept of US Army prospects. Thus, the basis of the BTV should be a family of new armored vehicles, developed in the framework of the FCS program on a single combat platform consisting of tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, self-propelled guns, robotic and a number of other machines. Armored combat vehicles will be equipped with additional modular armor with active protection. The basis of combat effectiveness lays the principle: first to see, first to make a decision, start to act and decisively seek victory. To implement these principles, the corresponding requirements were developed: rapid response (“responsive”) and high maneuverability (“agile”), etc.
The power unit of the promising GTES and the design scheme of the promising GTE
Similar principles confess and we. Now that the unified corporation OAO NPK Uralvagonzavod has been created, there is a real opportunity to expand the promising areas in tank design, to clearly articulate the requirements for upgrading armored troop-guns. It is good for business when there are reliable partners and strict opponents. It is time not to look for the guilty, but to concentrate the common efforts of both the military and the military industrial complex on the creation of truly new models that are ahead of competitors in their technical solutions.
In this regard, I will quote the authoritative professional in the domestic tank building S. Maev: "The commander of the ground forces should establish contact with the military industry, and not make ill-considered statements." Moreover, responding to the statements of some military about the futility of the T-95 tank, the chairman of ROSTO / DOSAAF, and in the recent past, the head of the GABTU and Rosoboronzakaz Sergey Mayev said: "If we had put this T-95 tank next to" Leopard of the Future " then all of Europe would have gasped when they saw what solutions are used in this tank ... I assure you that the T-95 will be available to the Germans and Americans only ten years later ”(“ On the eve ”, 21.03.2011).
The author already had to write about the development of a prospective tank of limit parameters (CCI) * at the JSC Spetsmash, created on the basis of a research and experimental reserve of design bureaus, where the unified chassis “Object 299” with a 7katkovoy undercarriage and front-end logistics was used as a base. In the future, as the power plant can be used gas turbine engine power 1400 — 1500 hp. (with possible boost to 1800 — 2000 hp). At the same time, taking into account the possibilities of the block-modular design of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Spetsmash OJSC developed a whole unified family, which makes it possible to obtain a wide range of promising tracked combat and auxiliary vehicles with minimal financial costs and in a short time.
This family includes military and civilian models with different levels of protection: for example, for “front-line” vehicles that are in direct contact with the enemy, or for vehicles not participating in combat operations, but capable of successfully operating in natural disasters, industrial accidents and catastrophes, in conditions of radiation and chemical contamination.
Longitudinal section of the tank limit parameters (CCI)
Option CCI with a guided missile vertical launch
MTO unified chassis
Layout heavy infantry fighting vehicle
The adopted flexible modular layout of the family makes it possible to convert military vehicles into civilian without any problems, due to the volume of armored elements with anti-radiation cavities. This is another example of layout unification.
When using a single chassis as a unified platform, new opportunities are opened up to apply a single control complex, a system of remote fire-fighting equipment teams, and a life support system.
We list the main machines from the announced family.
Let's start with the machine closest to the layout decisions of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry - a tank with controlled armament of a vertical start. The main differences in this version relate to the fighting compartment, which houses the 30 containers with missiles for various purposes to provide direct combat support. They are isolated from other equipment with special screens. Top ammunition securely closed armored covers and elements of dynamic protection. In a combat situation, the covers are lifted, after the launch of the missiles, they close. Day-night television sights have an independent exchange rate review, as they are installed in the frontal mini-tower with auxiliary armament.
Another example is a machine designed for conducting combat operations as in a single battle formation with tanks, as well as when conducting long autonomous combat operations — a heavy infantry fighting vehicle. Here, in addition to the 30 mm caliber cannon, the 12,7-mm Kord machine gun and the AGN-30 grenade launcher were installed.
In the car with a capacity of 11 people, it is planned to accommodate, in addition to ammunition, water and food, masking equipment, tents and even mining equipment. The mass of the heavy BMP is up to 50 tons, the power reserve is 500 km, the maximum speed is 71,5 km / h.
Using the accumulated experience on a unified combat platform with an increasing pace, it was possible to continue work on the development of the family. Thus, the development of a complex of machines for engineering support and maintenance was carried out (the “Kit” theme). The design was carried out on the order of the UNIV Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (with the share participation of the Emergencies Ministry of the Russian Federation) in accordance with the government resolution No. 11.03.1991-90 from 24. Unfortunately, in 1996-1997's. due to lack of funding, these works were terminated.
The complex included a lashing machine and a control and reconnaissance machine.
The control and reconnaissance machine performs the tasks of engineering reconnaissance of the terrain, roads and various objects, the degree of their destruction, contamination with radioactive and chemical substances, as well as the remote control of the barrier machine.
Brief TTX control and reconnaissance vehicles
Mass t to 50
Remote control distance km 2
The attenuation of gamma radiation, krat. Xnumx
Autonomy of work day 25
including full isolation mode 10
Speed, km / h: -maximum ... 60
- working 0-14
Auxiliary power unit ..... GTA-24
The control and reconnaissance machine is equipped with a complex of technical vision and remote control, radiation and chemical reconnaissance devices, equipped with a dozer blade, a manipulator, a winch, a hazard zone marking device, and capable of performing gas-electric welding.
The second machine of the complex is a lashing machine, remotely controlled. It is intended for clearing the terrain, dismantling rubble, destroyed building structures, collecting and loading contaminated soil and objects. For these purposes, it is equipped with a bulldozer with an adjustable blade and interchangeable two-maxillary working body, a manipulator with a universal grip and a set of interchangeable equipment (hydraulic hammer, explosion generator).
Brief TTX stripping machines
Mass t to 50
- with direct control, people Xnumx
- with remote control, crewless
Remote control distance, km 2
Attenuation of gamma radiation, fold 200
Autonomy of work day 25
including in complete isolation mode, h 10
Speed, km / h: -maximum 60
- working 0-14
Auxiliary power unit GTA-24
Machine control and intelligence
Longitudinal section of the command and reconnaissance machine
Crew jobs management and intelligence
Remotely controlled lashing machine
Longitudinal section of a remotely controlled vehicle
Unified chassis complex special machines
Simultaneously with the listed machines, work was carried out to expand the family on a single unified chassis in a crewless crew version. Such a set of machines and technical means for engineering support was intended both for the usual conditions of rescue operations during man-made disasters, and for actions during large-scale accidents at nuclear and chemical hazardous enterprises, during earthquakes and terrorist attacks.
On a unified chassis in a special volume for various equipment was supposed to place replacement modules of water and foam, pulsed and powder fire extinguishing, degassing and decontamination, as well as modules with fueling equipment and for the transport of contaminated cargo.
The experience gained, a large scientific and technical reserve of recent years in the field of tank construction, as well as the development of dual-use facilities, self-propelled high-powered artillery systems and other special equipment, has made it possible to form a technical image of a whole family of promising vehicles, which can be developed in the near future financial costs.