Military Review

The family of machines on a single basic unified combat platform

In recent years, fundamental changes in theoretical and practical views on ensuring national security have taken place, and the priorities of military-technical policy and the tasks of the military-industrial complex have changed. The presidential decree from 5.02.10, No. 146 (On the Russian Federation’s military doctrine p46 “k”), defines the task of the defense industrial complex - “the development and production of promising systems and models of weapons and military and special equipment, improving the quality and competitiveness of military products”.

The family of machines on a single basic unified combat platform

Today, fortunately, the understanding of the need for tanks in the Armed Forces. Discussions shifted to the sphere of issues of their modernization, quantity and quality, new combat properties and requirements. More recently, tanks were created taking into account the military doctrine, focused on preparedness for a large-scale war using nuclear weapons. Their tactical and technical characteristics included the following requirements:
- resistance to the shock wave of a nuclear explosion;
- ensuring high security of the crew during operations on contaminated areas;
- conducting rapid frontal (or flank) attacks due to the powerful tank "fist";
- the possibility of suppressing any enemy defense with fire from cannons and machine guns.

Soviet tanks T-64, T-72 and T-80 fully meet these requirements. No wonder the T-80 was called the “Channel” for its high mobility.

Modern T-80U and T-90А, as before, retain a number of advantages over foreign tanks. First, it is the ability to fire guided missiles with a long range of destruction, located in the combat pack of the automatic loading of tanks. Secondly, the use of automated loading of the gun made it possible to reduce the crew of the tank to three people and at the same time to ensure an increased rate of fire of the gun. Finally, it is impossible to disregard the traditionally smaller dimensions and weight of our tanks, which additionally provides both a lower probability of their detection and destruction, and greater mobility.

It is worth noting that guided missiles and an automated loader gun were used for the first time in world practice on domestic tanks. We became pioneers in the search for ways to improve crew protection: the combined booking, active protection complexes (KAZ) and optical-electronic suppression (QEP) were tested and put into production. The complex tasks of reducing the radar visibility of tanks are solved: anti-radar coatings developed for T-80 are polymer composite materials of the interference type. The principle of operation of such coatings is based on the mutual damping of electromagnetic waves reflected from the outer and inner surfaces of the coatings, which ensures a reduction in the detection range by almost 5.

Let's not forget that in our country, for the first time in the world, we also put a tank with a gas turbine engine into production and introduced an auxiliary gas turbine power plant.

At the same time, one cannot but admit that there is a lag of the national tank fleet from the tank parks of some foreign countries not only by military-technical level (according to some experts, 1,9 times), but also by quantitative indicators (for example, in our Armed Forces Only 5% of modern T-80U and T-90А tanks, in NATO countries of similar machines - 40%).

In addition, the nature of hostilities in recent decades has changed significantly. Afghanistan and Chechnya, South Ossetia and other recent military conflicts have shown that other demands are placed on tanks. There are new trends in development associated primarily with the adaptation of the design of armored vehicles to actions in populated areas and cities, in forest and mountain ranges, where there is no talk of mass use of tanks. The priority is given to the requirements for protection (security), especially when firing from extremely close distances and from above, improved visibility and “sight” (including at night), crew awareness in combat situations and the possibility of autonomous actions, mobility and transportability, and even comfort.

Highlighting the priority need to enhance protection, one cannot but recognize the need to balance the requirements for the tank. Powerful weapons, including those based on new physical principles, will undoubtedly take their rightful place, as well as a significantly improved fire control system (FCS) adapted to them. For such a system is needed and extensive information about the combat situation. Naturally, its processing and analysis can be performed by computer technology with high automation, since the information comes through numerous channels in the mode of the current time.

Necessary (and this is not a tribute to fashion) innovations of "network-centricity", it is urgently needed to improve the interaction of armored vehicles with other participants in military operations: aviation, rifle units and other realities of the tactical level (up to unmanned aerial vehicles). Equipping armored vehicles with information-controlled systems (such as ICS, CIUS) should increase the efficiency of combat work at times. There is no doubt that the new requirements in the performance characteristics should be of a different order. An expert forecast can indicate probable numbers. So, the firing range of guided missiles and armor-piercing shells can double by a rate of fire of at least 15-18 rds / min.

If the tank mass is less than 50, its armor protection will increase (along with active protection equipment), and the use of new materials will raise its equivalent thickness by 1,5.

Given the high power density (due to the use of high-powered engines - 1800 — 2000 hp and more), a maximum speed of at least 90 km / h with a power reserve of 600 km and more will be possible. Such a high power supply of the tank - the basis of the new generation of weapons, and its improvement (while boosting power) will give a tangible effect on fuel economy.

In this regard, it is worthwhile to once again return to the tank GTE. It is possible that not all readers know that, in accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 02.03.96-227 dated 15, the development of a promising tank GTE with a capacity of 1800 — 2000 hp was planned. with specific fuel consumption 170 — 206 g / ls. For comparison: in the B-84 diesel engine T-72, this value is 182 — 191,1 g / hp.h. (according to TU - 182 + 5%), for the GTE of the T-80 tank - 220 g / hp.h.

A promising GTE with a mass of 1200 kg was to be placed in the engine compartment with a volume of 3,8 м3. It was planned to carry out its layout on a two-shaft scheme, including a two-stage compressor and the same high-pressure turbine. Combustion chamber was planned to perform remote. It was assumed the presence of a regenerator. Such an engine should have become an element of a complex power plant in the form of a single unit, where, apart from the GTE, all engine systems (air cleaning, cooling, compressed air), as well as electromechanical transmission and electric power systems for new weapon systems were located.

Without going into details of such studies abroad, I will only give comparative characteristics of the specific fuel consumption of engines of the same power (1500 hp), including a promising gas turbine engine, built, according to data in the open press, in the United States. It is stated that the specific consumption of the LV-100-5 engine is 210 g / kWh, or 154 g / hp.h. Impressive!

Alexander Shevchenko, the head of the GABTU of the Ministry of Defense, spoke about these and many other aspects when answering questions from the Ekho Moskvy radio station. In particular, assessing the sufficient and necessary number of armored personnel carriers, he indicated that a program of qualitative optimization was approved in the Armed Forces. Developed plans for recycling, upgrades and repairs, which are brought to industry and financed. Referring to interaction with foreign partners, Shevchenko stressed that time dictates the need for closer cooperation and even the ability to buy something that is “critical” for us and does not contradict national interests.

Comparative characteristics of specific fuel consumption of modern and prospective engines

As for their own promising developments, they, according to experts of GABTU, should be built on the basis of unified combat platforms and on a competitive basis. Moreover, the ideology of the “open side” (or “open architecture”) is proclaimed, when the BTV chief designer chooses systems and units from his opponents on an alternative basis. And yet the final, evaluative, is the quality-cost effectiveness criterion. This approach is applicable to the production of BTV and its modernization.

Close to the concept of US Army prospects. Thus, the basis of the BTV should be a family of new armored vehicles, developed in the framework of the FCS program on a single combat platform consisting of tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, self-propelled guns, robotic and a number of other machines. Armored combat vehicles will be equipped with additional modular armor with active protection. The basis of combat effectiveness lays the principle: first to see, first to make a decision, start to act and decisively seek victory. To implement these principles, the corresponding requirements were developed: rapid response (“responsive”) and high maneuverability (“agile”), etc.

The power unit of the promising GTES and the design scheme of the promising GTE

Similar principles confess and we. Now that the unified corporation OAO NPK Uralvagonzavod has been created, there is a real opportunity to expand the promising areas in tank design, to clearly articulate the requirements for upgrading armored troop-guns. It is good for business when there are reliable partners and strict opponents. It is time not to look for the guilty, but to concentrate the common efforts of both the military and the military industrial complex on the creation of truly new models that are ahead of competitors in their technical solutions.

In this regard, I will quote the authoritative professional in the domestic tank building S. Maev: "The commander of the ground forces should establish contact with the military industry, and not make ill-considered statements." Moreover, responding to the statements of some military about the futility of the T-95 tank, the chairman of ROSTO / DOSAAF, and in the recent past, the head of the GABTU and Rosoboronzakaz Sergey Mayev said: "If we had put this T-95 tank next to" Leopard of the Future " then all of Europe would have gasped when they saw what solutions are used in this tank ... I assure you that the T-95 will be available to the Germans and Americans only ten years later ”(“ On the eve ”, 21.03.2011).

The author already had to write about the development of a prospective tank of limit parameters (CCI) * at the JSC Spetsmash, created on the basis of a research and experimental reserve of design bureaus, where the unified chassis “Object 299” with a 7katkovoy undercarriage and front-end logistics was used as a base. In the future, as the power plant can be used gas turbine engine power 1400 — 1500 hp. (with possible boost to 1800 — 2000 hp). At the same time, taking into account the possibilities of the block-modular design of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Spetsmash OJSC developed a whole unified family, which makes it possible to obtain a wide range of promising tracked combat and auxiliary vehicles with minimal financial costs and in a short time.

"299 Object"

This family includes military and civilian models with different levels of protection: for example, for “front-line” vehicles that are in direct contact with the enemy, or for vehicles not participating in combat operations, but capable of successfully operating in natural disasters, industrial accidents and catastrophes, in conditions of radiation and chemical contamination.

Longitudinal section of the tank limit parameters (CCI)

Option CCI with a guided missile vertical launch

MTO unified chassis

Layout heavy infantry fighting vehicle

The adopted flexible modular layout of the family makes it possible to convert military vehicles into civilian without any problems, due to the volume of armored elements with anti-radiation cavities. This is another example of layout unification.

When using a single chassis as a unified platform, new opportunities are opened up to apply a single control complex, a system of remote fire-fighting equipment teams, and a life support system.

We list the main machines from the announced family.

Let's start with the machine closest to the layout decisions of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry - a tank with controlled armament of a vertical start. The main differences in this version relate to the fighting compartment, which houses the 30 containers with missiles for various purposes to provide direct combat support. They are isolated from other equipment with special screens. Top ammunition securely closed armored covers and elements of dynamic protection. In a combat situation, the covers are lifted, after the launch of the missiles, they close. Day-night television sights have an independent exchange rate review, as they are installed in the frontal mini-tower with auxiliary armament.

Another example is a machine designed for conducting combat operations as in a single battle formation with tanks, as well as when conducting long autonomous combat operations — a heavy infantry fighting vehicle. Here, in addition to the 30 mm caliber cannon, the 12,7-mm Kord machine gun and the AGN-30 grenade launcher were installed.

In the car with a capacity of 11 people, it is planned to accommodate, in addition to ammunition, water and food, masking equipment, tents and even mining equipment. The mass of the heavy BMP is up to 50 tons, the power reserve is 500 km, the maximum speed is 71,5 km / h.

Using the accumulated experience on a unified combat platform with an increasing pace, it was possible to continue work on the development of the family. Thus, the development of a complex of machines for engineering support and maintenance was carried out (the “Kit” theme). The design was carried out on the order of the UNIV Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (with the share participation of the Emergencies Ministry of the Russian Federation) in accordance with the government resolution No. 11.03.1991-90 from 24. Unfortunately, in 1996-1997's. due to lack of funding, these works were terminated.

The complex included a lashing machine and a control and reconnaissance machine.

The control and reconnaissance machine performs the tasks of engineering reconnaissance of the terrain, roads and various objects, the degree of their destruction, contamination with radioactive and chemical substances, as well as the remote control of the barrier machine.

Brief TTX control and reconnaissance vehicles
Mass t to 50
3 crew
Remote control distance km 2
The attenuation of gamma radiation, krat. Xnumx
Autonomy of work day 25
including full isolation mode 10
Speed, km / h: -maximum ... 60
- working 0-14
Engine GTD-1250G
Auxiliary power unit ..... GTA-24

The control and reconnaissance machine is equipped with a complex of technical vision and remote control, radiation and chemical reconnaissance devices, equipped with a dozer blade, a manipulator, a winch, a hazard zone marking device, and capable of performing gas-electric welding.

The second machine of the complex is a lashing machine, remotely controlled. It is intended for clearing the terrain, dismantling rubble, destroyed building structures, collecting and loading contaminated soil and objects. For these purposes, it is equipped with a bulldozer with an adjustable blade and interchangeable two-maxillary working body, a manipulator with a universal grip and a set of interchangeable equipment (hydraulic hammer, explosion generator).

Brief TTX stripping machines
Mass t to 50
- with direct control, people Xnumx
- with remote control, crewless
Remote control distance, km 2
Attenuation of gamma radiation, fold 200
Autonomy of work day 25
including in complete isolation mode, h 10
Speed, km / h: -maximum 60
- working 0-14
Engine GTD-1250G
Auxiliary power unit GTA-24

Machine control and intelligence

Longitudinal section of the command and reconnaissance machine

Crew jobs management and intelligence

Remotely controlled lashing machine

Longitudinal section of a remotely controlled vehicle

Unified chassis complex special machines

Simultaneously with the listed machines, work was carried out to expand the family on a single unified chassis in a crewless crew version. Such a set of machines and technical means for engineering support was intended both for the usual conditions of rescue operations during man-made disasters, and for actions during large-scale accidents at nuclear and chemical hazardous enterprises, during earthquakes and terrorist attacks.

On a unified chassis in a special volume for various equipment was supposed to place replacement modules of water and foam, pulsed and powder fire extinguishing, degassing and decontamination, as well as modules with fueling equipment and for the transport of contaminated cargo.

The experience gained, a large scientific and technical reserve of recent years in the field of tank construction, as well as the development of dual-use facilities, self-propelled high-powered artillery systems and other special equipment, has made it possible to form a technical image of a whole family of promising vehicles, which can be developed in the near future financial costs.

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  1. Kars
    Kars 3 October 2012 10: 05
    Pictures look good, it's a pity that I have seen them for a couple of years.
    Well, as they say, wait 2013 - let's see in hardware.
    1. Joker
      Joker 3 October 2012 13: 05
      Up to 2015 years wink
      The Ministry of Defense announced a delay in the release of the latest model of armored vehicles
      Ground forces of the Russian Federation will receive the latest models of armored vehicles based on the Armata, Typhoon and Boomerang platforms only after the 2015 of the year. This was stated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation, Colonel General Vladimir Chirkin. It was previously planned that the entry into the troops of the latest “armored horses” will begin from the beginning of the 2015 year. Experts attribute the delay to continuing problems caused by the technological backwardness of the defense industry, lack of transparency in procurement, and corruption.

      Fundamentally new families of standardized models of armored vehicles are created as part of the implementation of the state armament program until the 2020 year. The postponement was preceded by a fierce struggle between the General Staff, which announced a five-year moratorium on the procurement of Russian armored vehicles, and Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin. The military refused to purchase at least the next five years the products of Russian tank factories for the reason that it is outdated and does not meet modern requirements. Rogozin accused the military of "unpatriotism." As a result, the parties reached a compromise - instead of purchasing obsolete, according to the military, T-90 and BTR-90 tanks, Uralvagonzavod placed an order in the summer to modernize T-72 tanks developed in Soviet times in the amount of 6 billion rubles. However, this did not clarify the fate of a promising battle tank created on the basis of the Armata family of armored vehicles.

      The development of a new “miracle weapon” began only two years ago, after the army team rejected the so-called “195 product” developed by the Ural Design Bureau of Transport Engineering, in which considerable funds had already been invested. The main reason is the high price of “supertank”, which exceeded 400 million rubles. Moreover, it is the high cost and low quality of the products of the domestic “defense industry” that are called the military main reasons for the regular failure to meet the deadlines for signing contracts with the defense industry. This year is also expected to shift the timing of the defense order. So far, only naval weapons, multiple launch rocket systems, and aircraft have been fully contracted. With armored vehicles, uncertainty continues to persist.
      1. leon-iv
        leon-iv 3 October 2012 13: 27
        after 15 years, a series of 13 first samples.
  2. novik225
    novik225 3 October 2012 10: 37
    mdya .... and that's all in the early 90's !!!
    Only there are a couple of questions to the layout:
    - Front-mounted MTO coupled with frontal armor will not load the front rollers too much?
    - A crew of two will cope with the tasks? In the pictures of the new platform, they seemed to draw 3 crew members placed in a row.
  3. Skiff
    Skiff 3 October 2012 10: 47
    A variant of the CCI with a vertical launch guided missile weapon, a cool machine would have turned out.
    1. novik225
      novik225 3 October 2012 10: 55
      and what concrete to cram there? Anti-tank? Anti-aircraft What?
  4. bask
    bask 3 October 2012 12: 46
    Such armored vehicles are simply necessary. And now, the more the better. Only to equip brigades, not piece by piece, but as a whole. With all the auxiliary equipment. BREMy and so on ..
  5. Kpox
    Kpox 3 October 2012 13: 07
    The modularity gives the uniformity of tools / spare parts for service and a great suitability for modernization. The main thing is to put "allowances" into the platform for future upgrades :).
  6. Karmin
    Karmin 3 October 2012 19: 23
    Quote: novik225
    The family of machines on a single basic unified combat platform
    Layout heavy infantry fighting vehicle

    The heavy machine-gun BMX for the XNUMXst century looks wild
  7. flanker7
    flanker7 3 October 2012 20: 56
    Given the high specific power (due to the use of high-power engines - 1800-2000 hp and more), a maximum speed of at least 90 km / h will become possible

    Aim to break the speed record? With an engine of 1100l / s on the T80, we accelerated to 80-90 km / h, but only on a straight line, any maneuvering was generally impossible (just scary) ...
    1. avdkrd
      avdkrd 4 October 2012 15: 37
      not that scary - very scary, but we tried and .... took off our shoes. In general, I heard that in the training there is (maybe there was) a version without a tower, with a transparent cabin, for training, and the teachers and the students dispersed this lightweight to 120.
      1. flanker7
        flanker7 4 October 2012 22: 31
        Risky you guys! I also heard with such a machine, they said that they’re using it for training ....
  8. mind1954
    mind1954 3 October 2012 22: 27
    No matter what, thank you very much for the article !!!
  9. Sars
    Sars 4 October 2012 06: 00
    Under conversations about economy and unification there is a complete divorce of a state scale!
    To do on the basis of a fifty-ton battle tank BMP, ARV, and BRM the same as making a pleasure boat on the basis of an aircraft carrier.
    The cost of manufacturing and the cost of operating new equipment will simply be several times greater than if you would have made a normal MBT and a universal platform (another) for other military needs!
    Billions of rubles will go not to defense, but to the pockets of oligarchs and politicians.
    1. vorobey
      vorobey 4 October 2012 10: 05
      Quote: SarS
      Under conversations about economy and unification there is a complete divorce of a state scale!
      To do on the basis of a fifty-ton battle tank BMP, ARV, and BRM the same as making a pleasure boat on the basis of an aircraft carrier.
      1. vorobey
        vorobey 4 October 2012 10: 06
        Everything has already been invented, and proved effective.
        1. vorobey
          vorobey 4 October 2012 10: 16
          Notice the chassis one. so I don’t see anything stupid. By the way, there are wheel options for light vehicles. But there will be no BRM on a heavy platform - this is really not rational.
          1. borisst64
            borisst64 4 October 2012 12: 34
            As a rule, chassis of obsolete tanks are used for such special vehicles, there are many available, and for such equipment the requirements are still lower than for a tank on the front line.
            1. vorobey
              vorobey 5 October 2012 10: 59
              Quote: borisst64
              they use the chassis of obsolete tanks, there are many available, and for such a technique the requirements are still lower than for a tank on the front line.

              absolutely right. and rightly so that the T90 is not going to the troops now. Already wrote my thoughts on this subject.
        2. Sars
          Sars 4 October 2012 14: 58
          Dear Vorobey, IMR, ARVs based on our existing tanks have proved to be normal. Why make new cars, much more expensive, heavier and more powerful? Is there a need for this?
          Would you do that for yourself?

          I am very confused by the idea of ​​BMP with anti-shell armor.
          Imagine the state of an infantryman who jumps out of a protected corps under enemy bullets.
          Well, even make BMPs with powerful reservations, why such dimensions?
          Or maybe the developers will offer BMP for thirty fighters?
          And one more thing with a universal platform.
          No matter how it happened with a Kalashnikov assault rifle.
          In order to move to a new level of armament in fifteen years, it will be necessary to replace all armored vehicles.
          1. vorobey
            vorobey 5 October 2012 10: 50
            Quote: SarS
            Dear Vorobey, IMR, ARVs based on our existing tanks have proved to be normal. Why make new cars, much more expensive, heavier and more powerful? Is there a need for this?
            Would you do that for yourself?

            separate plus for this. earlier than in 10-12 years, these machines are based on reinforcement and will not be until the chassis is completely replaced.

            Quote: SarS
            Well, even make BMPs with powerful reservations, why such dimensions?
            Or maybe the developers will offer BMP for thirty fighters

            I am for the BMP to be both on an average base and on a heavy one. By the way, the combination of the terminator and BMP is very suitable as a machine for directly supporting tanks in battle. This is if we take the tactics of combined arms combat when breaking through the front line. because the infantry 300-400 m in dismounting has to be overcome under fire, and even possible through passages in minefields and barriers. and when you dismount right in front of the front edge for a hundred-150m, with the firepower of the terminator it is already more interesting. Yes, and RBU with the support of artillery fire can be reduced.
  10. mongoose
    mongoose 4 October 2012 10: 53
    sparrow, maybe the question is unification of the platforms? their service in parts?
    1. vorobey
      vorobey 5 October 2012 10: 53
      Quote: mongoose
      maybe the question is unification of platforms? their service in parts

      and this, too, and in a battle with the backlog of the rear, a wrecked car as a donor can be used for three to 4 units.

      At this stage, with the advent of Almaty and Kurgan, God forbid that we could provide the urgent needs of the cutting edge in technology.