Military Review

Small hovercraft "Bison"

In 2011, the Russian Navy decided to refuse and no longer buy small Zubr hovercraft, pr. 12322. Instead, for the needs fleet it is planned to build new vessels of a dynamic and non-dynamic type of keeping afloat, which will be used on various landing vessels, including helicopter carriers of the Mistral project. According to the Izvestia newspaper, which cites its sources in the country's military-industrial complex, the new landing ships will be smaller in size than the existing Bison. Other technical details of promising land-based delivery vehicles have not yet been announced. Meanwhile, the Russian Navy is still armed with 2 ships of this project - Evgeny Kocheshkov and Mordovia. They are part of the Baltic Fleet and will be maintained in combat until they fully exhaust their resources. Another 4 landing "Bison" are currently in service with the Greek Navy.

The development of Zubr hovercraft (MDKVP) began in the USSR in 1978, and the first production ship entered the fleet 10 years later in 1988. The ship could take on board 10 armored personnel carriers with a total weight of up to 131 tons and 140 paratroopers or 8 infantry fighting vehicles weighing up to 115 tons or 3 main combat tank weighing up to 150 tons. Instead of military equipment on the "Bison" could fit 366 more paratroopers. Over the entire production period of the Zubr MDKVP, 14 such vessels were produced. Of these, only 2 ships remain in service with the Russian fleet. According to the Yantar shipbuilding company, both Russian Bison are in need of major repairs.

At the same time, there are currently no funds for upgrading and carrying out ship repair, therefore all funding is spent only on keeping the landing craft in combat condition. According to representatives of the Yantar plant, each of the MDKVP Zubr has 5 gas turbine engines installed, each of which is 4 000 hours. New power plants can only be purchased at the Zorya-Mashproekt plant at a price of approximately 1 million dollars per unit.
Small hovercraft "Bison"

In the middle of 2011, China began to show interest in these ships. According to Rosoboronexport, China acquired the 4 ship of the 12322 project from Ukraine. At the same time, Russia's intellectual property rights on this ship were violated. In addition to the "Bison" themselves, the PRC became the owner of almost all technical documentation, which will allow the Celestial Empire to organize its own production of air-cushion landing craft at its shipyards.

MDKVP "Bison"

Currently, the Bison is the largest hovercraft in the world. This ship is able to travel 300 nautical miles with the speed of a passenger car. This is quite enough to cross the Black Sea, to cover the enemy’s coastal fortifications with a firing salvo and to land the marines with all their weapons and armored vehicles. Few people know today, but initially the Zubr was designed as a strike boat that was to be armed with powerful cruise missiles. Another project that could be called fantastic was also worked out. Zubr could become the basis for a mobile strategic installation with a nuclear weapons on board. However, in the end, the amazing ability of such vessels to move equally by water and by land forced the military to change their plans. The ship was landing

The 12322 Zubr small air-cushion landing ship project (MDKVP) is designed to receive aboard marine infantry units with military equipment from the unequipped or equipped coast, as well as transporting them by sea and disembarking on the coast of a potential enemy. At the same time, the ship could carry out fire support for the airborne troops, as well as the transportation of anti-ship mines and the laying of minefields. Aircraft "Zubr" are the largest in the world. They are able to go ashore, overcome trenches, ditches, move through marshland, land troops in the depths of enemy defenses. For MDKVP "Bison" for landing, about 70% of the entire length of the coastline of the seas and oceans of the Earth is available.

Design features

The contours of the small landing ship "Zubr" are characteristic of vessels with a small ratio of length to width. Its body and superstructure are welded and made of light alloys. The cargo hold of the ship has a bow and stern ramp and runs along the entire hull of the ship. The superstructure is located in the middle of the hull. In addition to the cargo hold, there are no special facilities on the ship, therefore, the ship has a very small navigation autonomy - just 5 hours.

The bearing part of the ship's hull, which ensures its unsinkability and durability, is a rectangle-shaped pontoon. The superstructure located on it by special longitudinal bulkheads is divided into 3 parts. The middle part with tank lanes and ramps serves to accommodate the landing technique, and the airborne units are used to accommodate the main and auxiliary power plants of the ship, crew accommodation, landing, as well as systems of protection against weapons of mass destruction and life support. Ventilation, heating and air conditioning systems are used in the premises to accommodate the landing party, the crew, as well as at the combat posts; heat and sound insulating coatings and structures made of vibration-damping material are used. In this case, the crew of the vessel is provided with all the necessary conditions for a comfortable diet and rest.

The hull of an airborne amphibious assault ship is all-welded and made of a high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum-magnesium alloy. Bunk flexible fencing (mounted elements and flexible receiver) are used to hold the air cushion under the hull of the amphibious assault ship, as well as to ensure the necessary height of the Bison above the supporting surface (ground clearance).

Main power plant

The main power plant consists of 5 high-temperature gas turbine engines - gas-turbine engines of the M-70 type, with a total power of 50 000 HP. Of these 5 engines: 2 worked on fan drives with 4 blower units of type HO-10, and 3 GTEs were located in the outer nacelles and set in motion 3 four-blade reversible screws having 5,5 diameter and located in special ring-mounted nozzles. In addition, Zubr had 2 power stations, each of which consisted of 2-s gas turbine generators having a power of 100 kW and main switchboards.


The control of the ship was centralized, automated, remote and could be carried out from the main control station, as well as the central control station and a number of remote controls. For navigation, the 12322 ships were equipped with 2 radar stations, a magnetic and gyro compass, a drift bed, satellite navigation equipment, and a decca receiver and indicator system, a central gyro system, a radio direction finder, and night and day vision sights.

The existing complex of communication devices allowed us to provide reliable telegraph and telephone communications in the VHF, HF, UHF bands, as well as receiving, documenting and printing meteorological, navigation and other data.

Armament and payload

The maximum carrying capacity of the ship reached 150 tons and ensured the transportation of any military equipment and personnel within this restriction. To accommodate the personnel of the landing on the ship was provided 4 space for 140 seats. If necessary, the room for military equipment could be converted to transport the personnel of the landing force in full gear, this made it possible to place an additional 360 man on the ship. Instead of landing, the ship could take on its 78 anti-ship mines.
"Evgeny Kocheshkov" of the Baltic Fleet of the Russian Navy, 2008-2009.

For fire support of the assault forces at the time of disembarkation, as well as for self-defense, an armament complex was installed on the ship as part of the 2-x installations for firing unguided missiles 140-mm MS-227 “Fire” (132 ammunition) and two 30-mm six-barreled artillery installations AK-630 (3 000 rounds of ammunition) with a fire control system and 1 x 2 PU MTU-2 SAM "Needle-1М" (8 to 32 ЗУР). For the implementation of electronic warfare at the Zubr, the Slabing complex was used, and for setting minefields, a portable kit was used, which allows to install from 20 to 78 mines, depending on their type.

The air-cushion landing ship Zubr has become one of the fastest ships in the world. Even the designers themselves do not know the real limits of his speed. During the sea trials, the ship was dispersed to 70 nodes and then it was considered that this was not the limit. But at the same time at high speeds the ship had a little-studied effect - the meanness of the flexible cushion fence. In the event of such a situation, the designers provided for the blocking mode in critical modes of movement along the turn radius and in speed.

It is worth noting that the outstanding achievement of the Zubr-type hovercraft is the combination of sufficient payload, high speed and unique amphibiousness. According to some military experts, the ships of the 12322 Zubr project are ahead of their time for many years.

Technical characteristics MDKVP "Bison":

Displacement - 555 tons;
Length - 57,3 m;
Width - 25,6 m;
Height - 21,9 m (highest at VP)
Draft - 1,5 m;
The power plant - 5 GTE M-71, power in 10 000 HP each
Maximum speed - 60 nodes (111,12 km / h);
Sailing speed at 55 speed nodes - 300 miles, at the same speed without load - 1000 miles;
Crew: 31 man (command personnel - 4, personnel - 27);
Armament: mm 140 rocket launcher - MS-227 "Fire" - pcs. 2; 6XX30-mm AK-630М artillery system - 2 pcs., 1 x 2 anti-aircraft missile system PU MTU-2 ADMS Igla-1M;
Airborne capacity:
1) to 3 MBT with a total weight of 150 tons, 80 marines;
2) to 10 BTR mass up to 131 tons or 8 BMP and 140 marines;
3) Instead of military equipment, you can take on an extra 366 paratrooper man (about 500 paratroopers in total).

Information sources:
-http: //
-http: //
-http: //

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. snek
    snek 3 October 2012 09: 23
    Just recently, the news was about Ukraine selling bison to China. Soon, it seems, they will be put on stream in China.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 3 October 2012 17: 29
      Ash day, otherwise why it was necessary to flirt with alternatively gifted in another plant.
      Now everything is there ass, and the Chinese are in chocolate.
  2. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 3 October 2012 09: 28
    Ships that are interesting in all respects, which have no analogues in the world, but our zhovo-bokvitnye brothers, once again a small fraction of the fat and the vodka sold with offal and the ships themselves and technical information.
    1. White
      White 3 October 2012 09: 37
      I’m already tired of writing the same comment - look at you before insulting us. If Russia was so strongly against this deal, why are you supplying components for the Chinese Bison (the same skirt) without any questions.
      And look at the J-11 and its history.
      1. snek
        snek 3 October 2012 09: 48
        I agree with Comrade White - if something is in the ownership of the country, then selling it (or doing something else with it) is the problem of its leadership. Our only thing is that Ukrainian military-technical cooperation with China is the cultivation of a common competitor in the arms market.
      2. biglow
        biglow 3 October 2012 09: 56
        stop making excuses. They stole it so. We hope that the Chinese do not have enough intelligence to build these ships.
        1. snowball
          snowball 15 October 2012 15: 38
          and don’t hope - they will build ...
    2. Tirpitz
      Tirpitz 3 October 2012 09: 50
      Sergey, you sold them so much equipment and weapons that 20 bison will not block it. You need to look at yourself, and then at others. Minus.
      1. Sakhalininsk
        Sakhalininsk 3 October 2012 09: 59
        But who argues, for the sake of God sell the equipment itself, but why sell technical documentation?
        1. Civil
          Civil 3 October 2012 11: 41

          but sho, but fat but e))))
        2. carbofo
          carbofo 3 October 2012 17: 31
          The funny thing is, they have not built a single one yet, but they have already thrown off the docks!? , and here on those accident, insurance costs 0 and the docks on hand, chocolate !!
          Just perfect, don’t you?
    3. bamboo
      bamboo 3 October 2012 11: 27
      And I always said that you can only bargain in the market,))
      all that will not be restored or new will be made; everything is sold illiterate !!!
      If only I would be advised chtoli)))
      1. carbofo
        carbofo 3 October 2012 17: 32
        The main thing is to snatch.
  3. biglow
    biglow 3 October 2012 09: 55
    strange that they refused to produce them. An ideal means for peacekeeping operations, part of the enemy will run away from noise
    1. dimanf
      dimanf 3 October 2012 10: 28
      Quote: biglow
      it is strange that they refused to produce them

      too often, our elite do such strange things.
      it smacks of a deliberate collapse of the country's defenses.
      but in terms of the number of promises, they are ahead of the whole planet.
      1. carbofo
        carbofo 3 October 2012 17: 34
        Theft is called, but a country, but who needs it, who has remained from the masters to live in their homeland, but not fraternize with fraternity.
  4. Suvorov000
    Suvorov000 3 October 2012 11: 00
    Gyyyyy it will be cool 4 "Bison" unexpectedly land on the controversial Senkaku Islands, only the stars on the sides are yellow
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 4 October 2012 10: 47
      When this happens, it will not be so funny, because only sure that he will dismiss everyone will go to war
  5. rkka
    rkka 3 October 2012 12: 31
    I’m wondering, how does the crew move around the deck while moving? They are not drawn into the fans?
    1. wasjasibirjac
      wasjasibirjac 3 October 2012 16: 50
      and while walking on the deck you can walk calmly, because she's under the roof. and you shouldn’t walk on the roof - it will blow away
    2. snowball
      snowball 15 October 2012 15: 46
      the question is wrong, but the right one shakes how much in the bison, because after landing from the squid, some fighters flee to vomit for the nearest bush am
  6. hohryakov066
    hohryakov066 3 October 2012 12: 46
    What I will probably never understand is the constantly arising disputes between Ukrainians and Russians on absolutely all occasions! What's the point in accusing each other of selling these ships, unique for their time, to China, and they both did it clearly not from a good life. If you see in everything the "Hand of Moscow" or "The intrigues of ho --- s" then we will be fucked one by one by all and sundry! At least on this site, let's go without such arrivals!
    1. dimanf
      dimanf 3 October 2012 13: 28
      Quote: hohryakov066
      If you see in everything the "Hand of Moscow" or "The intrigues of ho --- s" then we will be fucked one by one by all and sundry!

      and certain forces count on this.
      and judging by the squabbles on this site. they succeed.
  7. Very smart
    Very smart 3 October 2012 14: 24
    Colleague, do you know what "Great Power Chauvinism" is? This is it. But if Russia without Ukraine remains a great power, then Ukraine without Russia will not be very good. And to thrust your ambitions into ..., to take a step forward in the interests of your country and people is very difficult, almost impossible! And if you add the loss of money to this, then politicians will sit on the naked well ... but proudly, like eagles on the toilet about ... Well, you know. At the same time, Ukraine did not behave very decently during the Georgian conflict, with the same sales of weapons left over from the USSR, etc. And to work in Russia is a nice thing. And all words about friendship are not backed up by concrete actions. Three Slavic countries should be together - that's the only way !!! And Russians are very offended when "Like cabbage - so chum-chum, but how to work - so me !!!"
    1. dimanf
      dimanf 3 October 2012 14: 43
      Quote: Very smart

      Colleague, do you know what "Great Power Chauvinism" is? This is it. But if Russia without Ukraine remains a great power, then Ukraine without Russia will not be very good. And to thrust your ambitions into ..., to take a step forward in the interests of your country and people is very difficult, almost impossible! And if you add the loss of money to this, then politicians will sit on the naked well ... but proudly, like eagles on the toilet about ... Well, you know. At the same time, Ukraine did not behave very decently during the Georgian conflict, with the same sales of weapons left over from the USSR, etc. And to work in Russia is a nice thing. And all words about friendship are not backed up by concrete actions. Three Slavic countries should be together - that's the only way !!! And Russians are very offended when "Like cabbage - so chum-chum, but how to work - so me !!!"

      do not confuse ordinary people and rotten leaders! except rabid Bandera. ordinary normal people live in Ukraine. same as in Russia!
      1. snowball
        snowball 15 October 2012 15: 48
        I support for all 100
  8. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 3 October 2012 14: 37
    In my opinion, the ships are very necessary and quite successful, and abandoning them is not a big decision, at least if you do not suspect the worst ...
    1. TRex
      TRex 4 October 2012 06: 49
      Such ships are needed for conducting rapid landing operations on small theater of operations. Ideal for Black Sea Fleet, Caspian Flotilla, Baltic Fleet. Probably, such a task arose in 2008 before the Black Sea Fleet command, but there is no technology anymore - the DKVP brigade was previously based in Donuzlav ...
      .Now we have Mistrals - we will fly in the ocean zone.. and what happens under the nose is somehow not from the hand, the scale is not the same. And domestic can be on needles.
  9. Ahmar
    Ahmar 3 October 2012 15: 56
    and as usual such a technique was drained: (((
  10. CARBON
    CARBON 3 October 2012 17: 03
    For the Chinese, the technique will be just right. Just force the Taiwan Strait, with a breeze! 55 knots is 1,5-2 hours. Damned neighbors!
    The strait of Taiwan connects the South China and East China Seas. The strait is about 400 km long and 130–380 km wide. The mainland coast of the strait is indented by bays with many islands, on the Taiwanese side the coast is flat.
    1. Mikado
      Mikado 3 October 2012 19: 22
      With a "breeze" will not work, the article described all the advantages very well, but the main and main disadvantage was forgotten. These vessels (hovercraft) have very poor seaworthiness in comparison with other ships, they go to sea only in good weather.
  11. crambol
    crambol 3 October 2012 23: 58
    A question for specialists - what is the specific power ratio in comparison with other means of landing?
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 4 October 2012 10: 55
      Do you understand what you asked?
      take a look yourself :
      Project 106 small landing craft
      356 tons / 2 diesel / 3D12 600 hp / 10 knots / 1200 miles at 10 knots

      Landing ship project 12322 "Bison"
      555 tons / 5 GGTA / 5 × 10 000 l. s./60 knots (111,12 km / h) / 300 nautical miles

      it turns out the specific power per ton.
      1- 3.37 hp per ton
      2- 90.09 hp per ton.
      Or did you mean something else?

      Medium landing ships of projects 770, 771 and 773 800 tons 5.5 hp ton
      In fact, the term is more suitable for tanks, there are obviously dependencies
  12. Andrei
    Andrei 4 October 2012 00: 24
    Yes, the news is not pleasant ... the ship has such opportunities .... and they don’t even want to upgrade those that exist .... evil is not enough ... but on the account that Ukraine sold documentation to the Chinese, I don’t believe that Russia did not know about this ... that means that this information is not very appreciated in our country .... if we wouldn’t like it to happen it wouldn’t be allowed (I recently wrote something else, the article is just about selling ... I changed my mind ...if anything)
  13. AIvanA
    AIvanA 4 October 2012 08: 16
    And I got the feeling that these two ships will be sold to someone, since there are such opportunities and demand, and the marines will be adjusted to the capabilities of expensive pelvis called Mistral.
  14. Romeohihnic
    Romeohihnic 4 October 2012 13: 53
  15. Romeohihnic
    Romeohihnic 4 October 2012 13: 55