Military Review

By the anniversary of the end of the first world war

21
The next anniversary of the end of the First World War is approaching. Soon a century of blowjob from the time when 8 November 1918, in the Compiegne Forest, was a truce, which put an end to the most senseless slaughter stories of humanity. Let us briefly and succinctly enumerate some significant moments of this war, comprehend some of the results of this epoch-making event and extrapolate the lessons of this colossal geopolitical catastrophe for our possible future.

World War I was very different in character from previous and subsequent ones. The previous decades before the war in military affairs were characterized primarily by the fact that in their development weapon defense sharply gone ahead compared with the offensive weapon. On the battlefield, a rapid-fire magazine rifle, a rapid-fire rifled breech-loading gun, and of course a machine gun began to dominate. All these weapons were well combined with powerful engineering preparation of defensive positions: solid trenches with communications, thousands of kilometers of barbed wire, strong points with dugouts, pillboxes, bunkers, forts, fortifications, etc. Under these conditions, any attempt by the troops to attack ended in a catastrophe such as the defeat of the Russian army in the Mazovian swamps or turned into a merciless meat grinder, as under Verdun. The war for many years has become less manoeuvrable, trench, positional.

By the anniversary of the end of the first world war


But military people tirelessly sought solutions. Have appeared Tanks, armored cars, armored trains, bombers, chemical weapons, mortars and flamethrowers began to be used in large quantities. Theorists developed the theory of deep offensive operation, later called the Blitzkrieg theory in the German version. In the Russian army, this work was led by the best minds of the General Staff. In pursuance of new theoretical ideas, two shock armies began to form in Russia, one for the Western and the other for the South-Western fronts. In the Russian version, they were called horse-mechanized groups. Dozens of armored trains, hundreds of armored cars and airplanes were built for them. Several hundred thousand units of special uniforms were sewn, leather - for pilots, crews of armored squads and armored trains, as well as special uniforms for cavalrymen with red for 1 army and blue for 2 army breeders and original headdresses, cap-heroes. Stockpiled a huge amount of weapons and ammunition. All this wealth was stored in special warehouses along the Moscow-Minsk and Moscow-Kiev highways. The offensive was planned for the summer of 1917. At the beginning of this year, the best cavalry officers and techies were recalled from the front and at military schools they began to be taught to conduct war in a new way. In both capitals, dozens of training centers for the training of crews were created, tens of thousands of literate workers, technicians and engineers were mobilized from enterprises, removing their reservation. But they did not have much desire to fight, and the anti-war propaganda of the Cadets, liberals and socialists completed the job. In fact, the soldiers of these metropolitan training regiments and armed with Kerensky, to protect the revolution from front-line soldiers, the workers then carried out the October Revolution. But the property and weapons accumulated for the Russian shock armies were not in vain. Leather and Mausers were very fond of the Chekists and commissars, and the cavalry uniform went for uniforms 1 and 2 of the cavalry armies and red commanders and then became known as Budennovskaya.

Unprecedented losses and several years of great trench seating led to demoralization of the existing armies, then led to mass desertion, riots and revolutions, and ultimately ended with the collapse of the powerful empires of the Russian, Austro-Hungarian, German and Ottoman. And, despite the victory, apart from them, 4 mighty colonial empires, British and French, began to collapse and began to collapse.

But the real winner in this war was the United States of America. They profited unspeakably on military supplies, not only swept clean all the gold reserves and budgets of the Entente powers, but also imposed on them enslaving debts. Having entered the war at the final stage, the United States grabbed not only a substantial share of the laurels of victors, but also a bold piece of reparations and indemnities from the vanquished. It was America's finest hour. Only a century ago, US President Monroe proclaimed the doctrine of "America for the Americans" and the United States entered into a stubborn and merciless struggle to squeeze the European colonial powers from the American continent. But after the Versailles Peace, no single power could do anything in the Western Hemisphere without the permission of the United States. It was a triumph of visionary strategy and a decisive step towards world domination.

It should be said that not only the United States turned out to be lucky in this war. At least 4 more powers came out after it strongly strengthened materially, morally and physically. These are Canada, Australia, Argentina and Japan. But their further fate and history are very different and instructive, including for today's Russia.

Let's start with a sweet Anglo-Saxon couple, whose fate is very similar and safe. This is Canada and Australia. Being at that time the British dominions, they were forced to take part in military operations on the side of the Entente. But their main task was the supply of weapons, materials, raw materials and food for the warring countries. Having already autonomous budgets from the metropolis, they made a good profit on this. It was then that the raw orientation of their economies was clearly delineated. But unlike our reckless intellectuals, who never know what they want and what they fight for, the role of the raw material appendage of the world economy did not upset and puzzled the Canadian and Australian publics. Rather the opposite. These countries very successfully directed the proceeds to increase the extraction of raw materials, its deeper processing and infrastructure development. For example, up to 20-ies from the Pacific coast to the Atlantic, in Canada it was possible to pass only through the territory of the USA. Trans-Canadian highways began to be built in the 20-e years. The Great Depression and World War II introduced new adjustments. Realizing the vulnerability of a purely commodity-oriented orientation, both countries implemented extensive import substitution and self-sufficiency programs. Since 60, they practically everything that they consume, produce under their world brands and is of very high quality. At the same time, the export of these goods, including advanced mining equipment, vehicles, equipment, etc., as we say, finished products is relatively small. The basis of exports are still food, raw materials and semi-finished products. Imports are also relatively small. Such a structure and orientation of the economy allows these countries to have stable surpluses in all spheres of economic activity for decades and is the basis of the model of sustainable development of these countries. At the same time, their home-grown intelligentsia does not sing endless and mournful goat songs about the raw materials appendage, probably also with their minds there is a surplus.

Argentina showed a different approach. Coming out of World War I, the richest (after the USA) country of the American continent, she failed to convert this wealth into the concept of sustainable development. Argentina sent almost all acquired consumption. He won the slogan: “we produce a lot of food, we export it, we will buy everything else”. This proved to be counterproductive and as a result, the country missed its historic chance. Only in the 80-s, after the final collapse of Peronism, did the country actually adopt the Canadian-Australian model of development for itself and now began to catch up with varying success.

But the Japanese were the coolest. They also profited immensely on supplies, they became sick with the deadly virus of megalomania, which is known to be worse than a venereal disease and is hardly cured. Loud-voiced local patriots came to power everywhere, starting with the village council and ending with the state council under the emperor. This imperial euphoria ended in a terrible military-political catastrophe in 1945. For its very nasty behavior, the country was lowered below the baseboard in all areas. And she would have been there today, but they were lucky a second time. After the communists came to power in China and with the beginning of the Korean War, Japan turned into the near rear of the western kaolition, with all the ensuing benefits. The Vietnam War and the endless conflict of China and Taiwan have further strengthened this status and forgive the Japanese. They used the chance adequately and made a giant spurt in 60-80-e. But megalomania does not pass without a trace, and they again began to rave about leadership in the Asia-Pacific region. The punishment was not long in coming, and in 90-s the world masters staged a major crisis for them, thus recalling the proximity of the plinth and holding it for almost 2 for decades. But it looks like a growing US-China rivalry will soon be forgiven again.

Well, now in the above examples we will try to draw conclusions for ourselves. But:
- Appealing to the mind of patriots is absolutely meaningless. They constantly and chronically itching face. Even the very instructive defeat of the USSR in the Cold War did not cure them of this disease, that there are tragic examples of Japan or Germany for them. Therefore, for them the most important thing is not even to fight, but just to eat. Well, their manic passion is constantly peeing against the wind, it is generally a separate issue.
- It is even more senseless to appeal to the mind of the defeatists, collaborators, compradors, Westernizers and liberal activists. They have only our enemies are always right, holy and blameless, and for them the most important thing is not so much the worship of the West, as the pathological desire to lick this very West in the ass. For them in this article there is no example to follow, for them it is in Georgia.
- Appealing to the minds of the possessors, the thieves, the thieves, the glutton and motov also does not make much sense. Their main slogan: "after us even the flood." For them, the example of post-war Argentina is not at all instructive, but very positive and desirable.
I appeal to the mind of the working class of pragmatists who are not indifferent to the fate of our country and its people, and at the same time the nonsense of gorlopanov, demagogues and dogmatists are alien. And from the point of view of this very pragmatism, it is useful to carefully look at the experience of Canada and Australia in creating a model of sustainable development.

And a no-brainer that we are quite different, namely:
- firstly, we are not Anglo-Saxons and never were, we will not and will not be able to. This is no comment.
- secondly, we are not US satellites and we will never be with them any more, although we could have been. Comments are relevant here. At the end of 80, the beginning of 90, an incredible surge of Americanism and difficult to explain piety in front of the West occurred in the popular consciousness of the USSR. From the height of the years I have experienced, I can’t even clearly explain to myself the gnoseology of this phenomenon and will simply refer to the symptoms of mass psychosis. In this case, it does not matter. It is important that America and the West have missed this unique chance, against the background of mass reverence, to make the entire post-Soviet space, including Russia, its satellite. Instead, they declared the USSR defeated, and its people had to kneel down, sprinkle ashes on their heads and together begin to lick the West in the ass, as the Germans and the Japanese once did. But the Russians, with the exception of Vlasovites and compradors, did not want to do this, if only because they were not defeated, they were simply betrayed. The Americans did not understand that even then, Russia was the only country in the world capable of destroying the United States, although at the cost of its own life. But god with them, it is their mistake, for which they will have to pay dearly. And in the most direct, and not figuratively, gold and banknotes. Since they didn’t have enough sense then to get an alliance and friendship with Russia by kindness and affection, they would have to try to buy it, but not the fact that we are stormy.
- thirdly, our countries still have quite different size, scale and volume of muscles
But we have much more in common with Canada and Australia:
- first, we have huge and underdeveloped territories, with huge resources
- secondly, relatively numerous, but rare in terms of the size of the territory and the population very unevenly distributed throughout the territory
- thirdly, the harsh climate and it does not matter that in Canada and Russia to-50, and in Australia to + 50, raw materials have to be used on a rotational basis, there are few people who want to live in these conditions
- in the fourth, a huge export of raw materials and semi-finished products
- in the fifth, these countries give us a worthy, and most importantly, useful and adequate example of the effective development of a raw materials economy. These examples are fundamentally different from the useless examples from the development of countries with completely different natural, climatic, demographic, economic, mental and other conditions that are replicated and imposed by Gaidarast.
- in the sixth, a similar type of mentality. We are Asians, but with European multi-ethnic roots, they are also not local, but the roots are also European and by no means mono-ethnic. The mental type is also very important. I, for example, deliberately excluded South Africa from the example to follow (they also made a good profit of that war) only because of the mentality of its population, which is unique in its turretlessness.

But for the rest, we need to pull ourselves up strongly and above all in matters of import substitution and the termination of unjustified export of capital abroad, which by the way is quite connected. Moreover, our country has actually, albeit intuitively, already embarked on this path of implementing the Canadian-Australian model of sustainable development.

A lot has already been done on import substitution. Development programs have been successfully implemented and the import of poultry meat, eggs, bread products, pipes, metal-roll, nuclear and power engineering products, and helicopters has almost ceased, and these industries are exported. Programs are being implemented and the share of imports of cars, electronics, household appliances, pork meat, metal products 3 and 4 redistribution, some types of equipment is rapidly decreasing. More needs to be done. Every year, huge amounts of money are exported abroad to pay for imports of metallurgical, mining, engineering, agricultural, food processing equipment, beef, ships and airplanes, clothing and footwear. In these areas, the share of domestic producers is undeservedly small. These import substitution programs are under development or only at the beginning of implementation.
In this case, following the example of our counterpart, you should not go too far. They do not force the production and export of finished products. They, for example, have several places where deposits of iron ore and coking coal are located nearby. It would seem that God himself ordered to build a metallurgical plant there and take out the finished products. But they prefer to export coal and iron ore concentrate, and let the metal from these concentrates be produced in China, Korea, and Japan. There are several reasons for this.
- at current prices from the extraction and enrichment of raw materials, a good and stable income
- with the development of production for more advanced processing of raw materials for export, along with value added, there remains “smoke and dirt” in the country and many other undesirable environmental problems that require high costs for waste disposal and emissions
- relatively small population in these countries. If in the mining industry there is a relatively high labor productivity, which does not require large imports of labor, then with the excessive development of the manufacturing industry for export, large imports of labor from Asia are required, which introduces many undesirable demographic problems.
So in these questions there is something to learn from them. Therefore, attention should be focused primarily on import substitution, and not on the production of finished products for export.

A separate topic is the export of capital abroad. Here the horse did not roll. The massive and unpunished flight of disgraced oligarchs with fantastic, stolen capital abroad simply enrages the public consciousness, regardless of the level of education and life. The people simply crave punishment for renegades, the power is inactive. The opposition, in terms of theft, is even worse than power. Yes, and with our people is not all clear, this is not the lamb of God. As Count Arakcheev used to say, the main occupation of Russian subjects is that they steal, and at least half of their subjects, from young to old, from poor people to oligarchs, are being stolen. It would be half the trouble if they were spending their stolen goods in Russia, building houses, summer cottages, factories, buying things, going to sanatoriums, to the Black Sea coast and spending money there. But no. He also stole a little over the hill, the poor man was a tourist, the middle peasant was trying to buy a house somewhere in Macedonia, an oligarch factory somewhere in Britain. Take out billions of dollars. And all for nothing, throw everywhere. The Turks will poison the poor man with whiskey or turned upside down with a bus, at the middle peasant the Albanians requisition a house in Macedonia under a specious pretext, the Chinese will ruin the oligarch's factory. It remains one zilch, neither myself nor the country nor the people. Such is the main Russian misfortune, it is more serious than fools and roads, and especially import substitution. But with this, I'm sure something can be done.

There are worthy examples, they should be studied and adopted. As the saying goes: the goals are clear, the tasks are defined, for the work of comrades!
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  1. 3581782
    3581782 3 October 2012 08: 20
    +8
    Nda ... Russia would not have collapsed then because of the termites sharpening it would now be on the map of Russia Constantinople skin and many other interesting things, but ... History does not know the words "if only". It remains only to learn from our mistakes so as not to step on the rake helpfully substituted by the West again.
    1. crazyrom
      crazyrom 4 October 2012 01: 11
      0
      Had Stalin and Beria survived in 1953, there would have been the Washington region.
  2. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 3 October 2012 08: 24
    +1
    The impression was that the author had some kind of story of its own, which has quite a bit in common with the events that took place! Even refuting points is not interesting - everything was, to put it mildly, not quite so. and sometimes not at all ...
    I was touched by the pearl about POWER - Canada, Australia and Argentina ...
    1. mongoose
      mongoose 3 October 2012 10: 36
      -2
      Sarych, all that does not fit into the theory of class struggle, can not we understand?
    2. Kaa
      Kaa 3 October 2012 15: 58
      0
      Quote: Brother Sarich
      The impression was that the author had some kind of story of its own, which has quite a bit in common with the events that took place!

      Indeed, some questions are, to put it mildly, perplexing. In general, it seems that the theme of the First World War is far-fetched to say that two, two, four, that you need to fight corruption, that you need to import substitution, and so on and so forth ... I am particularly interested in who the author relates to pragmatists - judging according to the text, these are neither patriots, nor money-grubbers, they are people who reconcile themselves to defeat in the Cold War, but do not want to become a Western colony, it’s kind of Asians (which is meant in the European part of the former USSR did not enter), but with European roots (is that something about Finno-Ugric people, or something). Some sort of dissociation of the personality after reading this article is planned.
      But actually, touching on the theme of this Great War, I would focus on the heroism of a simple Russian (Belarusian, Ukrainian, Tatar, Bashkir soldier, just then such a division was pointless), remember the glorious military pages and figure out the reasons for the failures, and, most most importantly, remember the role of the Anglo-Saxons and others in the events of February 1917, which deprived Russia of a legitimate Victory, so that the descendants would not repeat the mistakes. This will be a vaccination against embezzlement, betrayal of the generals, and government mistakes - KNOWLEDGE OF YOUR TRUE HISTORY, for whoever does not know it will repeat it, along with the mistakes.
      1. The centurion
        3 October 2012 17: 30
        0
        Quote: Kaa
        I am particularly interested in whom the author relates to pragmatists

        We study the materiel. According to the theory of knowledge (epistemology) by the type of thinking, all people are divided into 3 large parts:
        - dogmas, these are those for which the most important are the initial principles
        - pragmatists, these are those for whom the result is most important
        - demagogues, these are those for whom the process is most important
  3. Amur
    Amur 3 October 2012 08: 35
    0
    If the author means the defense of Osovets, then the words - tIPa defeating the Russian army in the Masovian swamps, they have no basis because a hundred heroes put several thousand Germans to flight.
    1. 3581782
      3581782 3 October 2012 09: 56
      +1
      Quote: Amur
      If the author means the defense of Osovts

      No, he means the final stage of the East Prussian operation of 1914, when the insufficiently prepared offensive of the Russian army led to the defeat of General A.V. Samsonov, and then General P.K. Rennenkampf, of the 2st Army.
  4. JonnyT
    JonnyT 3 October 2012 08: 45
    0
    Eh .... we’re fighting, everything is in the blood, but there’s not much sense (((sorry (((
  5. Sasha 19871987
    Sasha 19871987 3 October 2012 08: 59
    0
    World War I in Russia gave birth to a revolution ...
    1. btsypulin
      btsypulin 3 October 2012 10: 54
      -2
      And ...... the revolution helped Russia end the war with a shameful world for it.
      1. wax
        wax 3 October 2012 14: 59
        0
        So said the former cheers, However, the peace was better than continuing the meaningless massacre, the continuation of which the Anglo-Saxons so wanted.
        1. btsypulin
          btsypulin 3 October 2012 22: 29
          0
          Vax, I wanted to put you a minus, but inadvertently plus :). The Second World War, unleashed by the Germans, doesn’t mean anything to you by chance? The conclusion suggests itself, it was necessary to break them into the root of the First World War, and the result was a shameful Brest-Lithuanian in the end.
    2. mongoose
      mongoose 3 October 2012 10: 56
      0
      in World War II, the socialists CHANGED THE HOMELAND and went over to the side of the Enemy of the Fatherland, becoming themselves the Enemies of the Fatherland
      1. btsypulin
        btsypulin 3 October 2012 22: 31
        0
        What are you talking about "socialists"?
        1. mongoose
          mongoose 9 October 2012 11: 05
          0
          about everyone, including the Bolsheviks
  6. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 3 October 2012 08: 59
    +1
    Unexpectedly, but not bad. Plus.
  7. omsbon
    omsbon 3 October 2012 09: 06
    +1
    Good morning! Have a nice day, everyone!

    Of course, it’s interesting that Russia would appear on the opposite side or other options .... Well, history has developed as it has developed.
    But we forgot thousands of heroes of that war, millions of dead, even worthy monuments are practically nonexistent, and this is our history and we must not forget it!
    1. mongoose
      mongoose 3 October 2012 09: 10
      +1
      on the opposite side? this is how to give the Germans and Austrians Little Russia?
    2. 3581782
      3581782 3 October 2012 10: 04
      +1
      Quote: omsbon
      what would Russia stand on the opposite side

      Read the story and you will understand that this "option" was impossible even hypothetically.
      But about the monuments, this is true.
      1. omsbon
        omsbon 3 October 2012 13: 48
        0
        Dear Gregory!
        I read history, the possibility of Russia not entering the war was, I hope that you will not argue with this. And hypothetically, anything is possible! In me says my not love for the politics of England.
      2. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 3 October 2012 14: 29
        +1
        Why is this impossible? Theoretically, it was more than possible and much more useful than getting involved on the side of the Entente - it would be best to admire from the side, of course!
  8. Trapperxnumx
    Trapperxnumx 3 October 2012 13: 21
    +1
    For us, of course, the best thing was to remain neutral and supply Germany with everything she needed. And they themselves would have earned, and the results of the war could be different. But such an approach would not find support within the country - the people would not understand how we "threw" the Slavic brothers under the Austrian nemchura.
    1. wax
      wax 3 October 2012 15: 02
      -1
      Well, you give - the people were for joining the war?
      1. Kaa
        Kaa 3 October 2012 16: 04
        +2
        Quote: Wax
        was the people for joining the war?

        You may not believe it, but yes! "On August 2, 1914, the tsar issued a decree on the outbreak of hostilities. It was a sparkling, hot summer day. Palace Square, one of the largest in Europe, was overflowing with thousands of onlookers languishing in the heat, crowds of excited people carrying flags, icons, awaiting the appearance of the monarch in order to express their patriotic feelings in his presence.On the side of the Neva, where the tsar was supposed to arrive from Peterhof, thousands of people crowded on the bridges and embankments of the river, singing and shouting greetings. Clutching each other's hands, a man in military uniform and a woman in a white dress stood on the balcony and cried with the people. "For those who were kneeling then," said Palaeologus, "the king was a real autocrat - a military, political and religious dictator, absolute master of the soul and body of the people." was throughout the empire: an explosion of enthusiasm, crowds of people in the streets, laughter, tears, singing, shouts, kisses. A wave of patriotism swept over Russia. The workers left the red revolutionary flags andthey took icons and portraits of the tsar in their hands. Students left universities and volunteered for the army. In the early days of the war, the patriotism of the population was closely associated with an already ingrained hatred of the Germans. "For the Faith, the Tsar and the Fatherland" and "For the Defense of Holy Russia" —these appeals engulfed barracks, factories and villages. Kerensky wrote that unlike the war with Japan, which was dynastic and colonial, "in 1914 the people immediately regarded the conflict with Germany as their own blood war, when the fate of Russia was at stake." To the defense of Holy Russia // Nicholas and Alexandra. M., 1996.S. 311-317.
  9. wax
    wax 3 October 2012 17: 45
    0
    Oh, these Paleologs and Buchanans. They so wanted to fight with the hands of Russia.
    The maneuvers of the European powers, the tsar’s position led Germany to declare war on Russia. The people had no choice but to defend themselves and protect the little brothers. As the war continued, euphoria quickly subsided. IMHO, I do not think that the people wanted war.
  10. Megatron
    Megatron 3 October 2012 21: 41
    0
    Where has this constant exaggeration of the topic of the "Finno-Ugric" origin of the Russians from recently? It is disgusting to read already, someone's order?
  11. GP
    GP 4 October 2012 03: 55
    +1
    Important things are missing. First of all, the issue of land has not been resolved:
    1. property - the minimum and maximum lot,
    2. the inviolability of ownership is not important how it is received, one family - one allotment - 10 acres, for example, and they own until they themselves refuse voluntarily;
    3. living conditions - communications: water supply, electricity, sewage (which is the main attractiveness of modern apartments and their cost as a result), something that people without a state will not build.
    4. strict housing standards - an analogue of historical five-wall huts (suppose the minimum reinforced concrete foundation is 10 * 10 - more it will be more difficult for the family to operate without assistance, less - the advantage in comparison with apartments will disappear, 1st floor of the wall and floor, garage shed, and then they’ll figure it out themselves, number of storeys, the color of walls, roofs, porch and stuff, whoever is what).
    5. accessibility of socially significant institutions: schools, hospitals, kindergartens, sports and leisure facilities.
    6. roads, where without them, here is also public and personal transport.

    In the countries proposed in the article as a reference point (Canada, Japan, Australia), these issues have been resolved. It is the same fundamental difference from modern apartment Russia, where families huddle in 50 sq. meter apartments, in which it is already close to the 1st child, not to mention the 2nd, 3rd. While the village for the most part is a house with amenities in the yard. Yes, yes, that same "one-story America", the experience of one-story building is needed by our country like air. Without solving these issues, any industrialization is another colossus on feet of clay, doomed to collapse under its own weight. People need support, confidence, reliability, inviolability. Is this how many will turn their tongues to call their apartment a family nest? The land in the possession will last for 100 ... and 200 ... and 300 years ... as long as the descendants, the owners, live. Gardens in Russia are nonsense, a stupid half-measure of the Soviet period.
    It’s good to live in apartments for 20-30 years, as children will grow up a lot of problems, and hell to grow old.

    So, in general terms. The peasantry (farming) is a separate no less important topic, again not mentioned in the article.
    In formulating, the main problems are no longer fools and roads, but one - apartments. Really bondage ... apartment bondage endlessly. Who likes and will live in them like that, but people are deprived of normal life on earth, which is a paradox for such a huge country.

    p / s Maybe a little messy, but I hope the idea is clear.
    1. GP
      GP 4 October 2012 04: 19
      0
      p / p / s For his own post, I forgot to link with the article. As a result of the reforms of 61 years, the liberation of large masses of landless peasants, the struggle with the community gave a strong nourishment to the revolutionary moods, which the authorities tried in every possible way to let out anything by taking a hoot, including the war. Cynically? Yes. Tsarism paid for its cynicism. Like the USSR, with its crumbs gardeners. The people are tired of waiting for handouts from the state - they changed the state.
      1. mongoose
        mongoose 9 October 2012 11: 27
        0
        do not judge by your standards and you will be happy, remember about Stolypin cars and why they were needed, and the community slowed down grain production