Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. Dimitrious spent some time here before declaring himself "the son of Ivan the Terrible" and asking for support from the Polish magnates
This man was busy with Pushkin. In The Captain's Daughter, Pugachev says Grinev: "Grishka Otrepiev reigned over Moscow, after all." “Do you know what he finished? - replies Grinev. “They threw him out of the window, stabbed him, burned him, loaded his cannon with ashes and blew it away!”
Pushkin devoted a whole drama to Grigory Otrepyev. "Boris Godunov" was written, in fact, about this mysterious historical phantom, from which Tsar Boris has "bloody boys in his eyes." Either the runaway monk Gryshka, or indeed the miraculously saved son of Ivan the Terrible, or someone else unknown, covered up with the pseudonym False Dimitrii I.
Only brilliant Pushkin's lines remained, like scraps of an old picture: “Here is our Russia: it is yours, prince. The hearts of your people are waiting for you there: your Moscow, your Kremlin, your power ”. This is said by Prince Kurbsky Dimitrien when they cross the “Lithuanian border” with the army. But the words of the applicant for the Moscow throne after the lost battle at Novgorod-Seversky: “How little of us survived the battle. Traitors! villains Cossacks, damned! You, you have killed us - do not stand even three minutes of resistance! I have them already! I will hang the tenth, robbers! ”
What does the power of talent mean! By and large, all that the current reader knows about the mysterious "Tsarevich" is Pushkin's drama. By the way, where is this “Lithuanian frontier” that Lzimitriy crossed? Near Kiev! In the 1604 year, when the small army of the “son of Ivan the Terrible” marched on Moscow, Chernigov and Novgorod-Seversky belonged to Russia. To get to the Moscow borders in the shortest way, you just had to cross the Dnieper. This was done by Lzedimitrii in the area of Vyshgorod, a little higher than Kiev. His army was recruited from adventurers - small Polish gentry, who gave the princes of Vishnevetsky, but the troops of the Cossacks, ready to plunder anything - even Istanbul, though Moscow.
Dimitriy is the first "European" on the Moscow throne. Shave off his beard a hundred years before Peter the Great
The fact that “Polish” these gentlemen were called only by historians in the 20th century adds to the enterprise’s piquancy. They themselves called themselves “Russians,” or “Russians,” and were Orthodox. How orthodox were the princes of Vyshnevetsky, who discerned the mysterious fugitive from Moscow "true king". Only the famous Yarema Vishnevetsky will become the first Catholic in their family. But before his birth in the year of the campaign, Dimitriya still remained for eight years. Russia went to Russia. West to East. And, I'm afraid, a Catholic in the Army of Dimitri was only one out of ten! Even the French captain Jacques Margaret, who first fought in the army of Boris Godunov against the Tsarevich, and then went over to his side, could well have been a Protestant - after all in France, religious wars between Catholics and Huguenots scattered "extra people" with their swords in hands up to distant Muscovy.
By the way, Margaret, unlike modern historians, was convinced that Dimitri was real. No "false". He, of course, could be wrong. But, compared with historians, he still has one advantage: he knew this amazing person personally and even rose to the captain of his guard.
The book of Margaret, published in Paris shortly after the death of False Dimitry and the return of the author to France, is called spatially, as was customary in those times: “The state of the Russian Empire and the Grand Duchy of Muscovy describing what happened there the most memorable and tragic during the reign of four emperors, from 1590 to September 1606. ”
Talking about the finale of the reign of Boris Godunov, the brave captain writes: “In 1604, the one he was so afraid of showed up, namely Dimitri Ivanovich, the son of Emperor Ioann Vasilyevich, who, as was said above, was considered dead in Uglich. With about four thousand people he entered Russia across the borders of Podolia. ” Marjeret calls Right-Bank Ukraine, which was then part of the Polish-Lithuanian state, Podolia. That is why the border "Lithuanian". According to the memoirist, Dimitry “first laid siege to the castle called Chernigov, which surrendered, then another, which also surrendered, then they came to Putivl, a very large and rich city, which surrendered, and with it many other castles, like Rylsk, Kromy, Karachev and many others, and Tsargorod, Borisov Gorod, Livny and other cities surrendered to Tataria. And as his army grew, he began the siege of Novgorod-Seversky, it was a castle standing on a mountain, whose governor was named Pyotr Fedorovich Basmanov (which will be discussed below), which put up such good resistance that he could not take it. ”
Zaporozhye freemen. Most of the four thousand-strong detachment of False Dmitri, who moved to Moscow, were Cossack mercenaries.
The man who led this army to Moscow, appeared on the territory of the Commonwealth a few years earlier. He came here from Moscow and spent some time in the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, and then moved to Zaporozhye. Contemporaries noted the good skill of Dimitriya to stay in the saddle and wield a saber. If he were just a fugitive monk, as the government of Boris Godunov claimed, then where did he get his military skills from? Natural talent? Maybe. But before asking for help from the princes of Vishnevetsky and Sandomirskiy voevode and at the same time to the headman of Sambir, Jerzy Mnischka, the self-appointed prince, if he was really self-appointed, did not hesitate to visit the Zaporozhye Cossacks. Only among this freemen was it possible to find a more or less significant contingent for the march on Moscow. It was something like intelligence. The one whom we know under the name of False Dimitry, had to make sure that Sich really has a sufficient number of unemployed thugs.
In Poland, more precisely, in Ukraine (then the Zaporozhye environs - the border with Wild Field) were called by this word, as the popular historian of the early 20th century, Kazimir Valishevsky, “came from the next world”, put it. After all, officially the son of Ivan the Terrible, Tsarevich Dimitri was considered dead since 1591. According to the investigation, commissioned by Boris Godunov, he throat on the knife during a fit episode — that is, epilepsy. True, rumor claimed that the boy was simply killed by the agents Boris sent to. Godunov, whose sister was married to the childless elder brother of Dimitry Fyodor Ivanovich. The death of the prince opened the way to the throne.
And the "bloody boy" has risen! Moreover, he found a patron in the person of Prince Adam Vishnevetzkogo which the same Valishevsky gives this description: "Prince Adam - a major mogul, nephew of the famous Dimitri Vishnevetzkogo, unfortunate candidate to the Moldovan throne, half-Russian-polupolyak, pet Vilna Jesuits and yet jealous Orthodoxy belonged to the famous genus kondotierov.
Possession Vishnevetsky shortly before it crossed the Dnieper. They were just beginning to colonize Poltava region - they just captured Sniatyn and Priluki. Then the Moscow troops recaptured these towns. The Vishnevetsky had a grudge against Moscow, a passion for adventures and good information about what was happening in the Moscow kingdom. After all, the same Dmitry Vishnevetsky, nicknamed Baida, managed to serve Ivan the Terrible for some time before going on the fatal Moldovan campaign. The man who claimed that he was the son of Tsar Ivan, who miraculously survived and who had a great saber, was a true find for the Vishnevetsky. If Prince Ostrozhsky, having talked with False Dimitry, refused to sponsor him, then Adam Vishnevetsky gave the future Tsar to Moscow starting capital. To have something to recruit Cossacks.
Jerzy Mnishek. Sandomirsk voivode, who believed that False Dimitry was indeed the son of Ivan the Terrible
And here we come back to the question: who was the False Dimitris? Genuine prince, who miraculously saved? Or a brilliant actor who played this role so well that for more than four centuries the debate about what the audience saw on the historical scene does not abate: a dirty juggling or a truth so incredible that they simply don’t dare to believe?
I repeat: Jacques Margeret was convinced that it was Dimitri before him. In his book, he wrote that by the end of the reign of Ivan the Terrible, various groups claimed power in Russia. One of them tried to push into the realm the son of the last wife of the Terrible, Mary Naked, the young Demetrius. At the head of the other was the brother of the wife of another son of Ivan the Terrible - Fedor - Boris Godunov. The situation was complicated by the fact that Maria Nagaya was the unwed wife of Ivan the Terrible. One by one, the seventh. In another way - even the eighth. The church did not recognize this marriage. Consequently, Dimitri was illegitimate. His rights to the throne could be challenged. However, Godunov had even fewer legal grounds to take the throne.
But he had the instinct of power, real administrative talents and tried to buy people's love, as they would say today, with the help of PR of his own achievements: “Boris Fedorovich, then loved by the people and very widely patronized by what Fedor said, intervened in state affairs and, being cunning and very sharp-minded, satisfied everyone ... It is believed that from now on, seeing what Fedor said, apart from his daughter who died three years old, he no longer has children, he began to strive for the crown and, to this end, began to do good deeds attracts people. He walled the above Smolensk. He surrounded the city of Moscow with a stone wall instead of the former wooden one. He built several castles between Kazan and Astrakhan, as well as on the Tatar borders. ”
Boris convinced the Muscovites with his affairs: I protect you, I built you a new fortress around the city, so that you live in safety from Tatar raids, what difference does it make, legally or illegally I will wear a Monomakh hat if I am useful to you? After all, most recently, under Ivan the Terrible, the Tatars burned all of Moscow, except the Kremlin! But apparently, some good deeds were not enough. After all, if the kingdom is ordered, there will always be those who want to take it away. Dimitri - albeit illegal and juvenile - still remained a contender for the throne. Therefore, it should be removed from Moscow.
Icon. Tsarevich Dimitrii assassinated in Uglich is considered holy by the Orthodox Church
Jacques Margaret was convinced that Godunov not only sent the prince with his mother to Uglich, but was also the customer of his assassination in 1591: “Having thus ensured the location of the people and even the nobility, with the exception of the most astute and noble, he sent him into exile under some then the pretext of those whom he considered his opponents. Finally, the empress, the wife of what was said by the late Ivan Vasilyevich, with his son Dimitry, was sent to Uglich, a city that was 10 miles from Moscow on 180. The mother and some other grandees are said to have clearly foreseen the goal Boris said said, and knowing about the danger that the baby might have been exposed to, because it had already become known that many of the grandees who had been sent to exile were poisoned on the way, found a means to replace him and put another in his place.
After he put to death many more innocent nobles. And since he did not doubt anyone else except in the said prince, in order to finally get rid of him, he sent to Uglich to destroy the said prince, who was replaced. Which was performed by the son of one man, sent by him as a secretary for the mother. The prince was seven or eight years old; the one who struck was killed on the spot, and the fake prince was buried very modestly. ”
Thus, the two most delicious versions of the strings of this story go back to the French adventurer, who happened to be in Russia at the beginning of the 17th century. It was he who claimed that Boris Godunov tried to kill Dimitri, but, thanks to the foresight of his relatives, he escaped and fled to Poland.
In contrast to these allegations, which at that time were shared by many, the government of Boris Godunov asserted that the False Dimitry was a runaway monk, Hryshka Otrepyev. However, the last is also hard to believe. At the time of the march on Moscow in 1604, contemporaries describe False Dimitri as a young man who barely exceeded twenty. And the real Otrepiev was about ten years older.
For Dimitri the Pretender were Poland and the Catholic Church. But even there, many did not believe in the authenticity of the “miraculously saved” son of Ivan the Terrible.
The man who called himself Tsarevich Dimitry explained to the Polish partners his salvation: “Instead of me, another boy was killed in Uglich”. This version has been preserved in several versions. To Pope Clement VIII in the year of his march on Moscow, he wrote: “Running away from the tyrant and moving away from death, from which the Lord God had saved me as a child by my wondrous business, I first lived in Moscow State itself until a certain time between monks”.
And Marina Mnishek, whom he married, colorized his adventure with romantic details. Already in the retelling of Marina herself, which was preserved in her diary, this option looks like this: “There was a certain doctor in Tsarevich when he was there, born Vlach. He, having learned of this treason, prevented it immediately in this way. I found a child resembling a prince, took him to his quarters and always told him to talk with the prince and even sleep in the same bed. When that child fell asleep, the doctor, without telling anyone, shifted the prince to another bed. And so he did all this with them for a long time.
Marina Mnishek planes to Lies and Dimitrias as a guarantee of his loyalty to the Commonwealth and the Pope
As a result, when the traitors set out to fulfill their plan and broke into the chambers, finding a prince’s bedroom there, they strangled another child in bed and took the body away. Then the news of the murder of the prince spread, and a great insurrection began. As soon as this became known, they immediately sent for the traitors in pursuit, several dozen of them were killed and the body was taken away.
In the meantime, Vlach, seeing how careless Fedor, the elder brother, was in his affairs, and that he owned all the land, was a horseman. Boris decided that at least not now, but someday this child is waiting for death at the hands of a traitor. He took him in secret and went with him to the Arctic Sea itself, and there he hid him, posing as an ordinary child, without declaring anything to him until his death. Then, before his death, he advised the child that he should not open up to anyone until he reached adulthood, and that he became a cherk. That on the advice of his prince performed and lived in monasteries. "
Impostor and Marina. Love and politics merged
Both stories - short for the pope and extensive - for Marina, are distinguished by the fact that there are no direct witnesses to the Tsarevich’s salvation. There was a doctor-Vlach (that is, Italian) yes he died. Take my word for it: I am a true prince!
With the slow spread of information in 1604, when Dimitri “miraculously saved himself” told this, speaking the professional language of intelligence officers, a legend could be believed in it. At least, in Ukraine and in Poland - thousands of miles from Uglich, where the murder of the prince.
But the archives preserved a well-known to historians investigative report on the case of the sudden death of Tsarevich Dimitry, commissioned by Boris Godunov. The investigation was led by Prince Vasily Shuisky. Based on the testimony of numerous witnesses, it is known that Dimitri was killed not in the bedroom, but on the street - in the yard, where he played with a knife, throwing him into the ground. This was unanimously asserted by the children who played with the prince, and his mother and mother, Queen Maria Nagaya. According to them, death happened during the day, not at night. And not from strangulation, but from a knife. So, an enterprising young man who pretended to be a prince in 1604 was still a false Dmitry. He heard the ringing, but did not know where he was. Therefore, he was so stingy with the details in the official letter to the Pope. It was important not to blurt out too much. And the beloved woman could have been lying with at least three boxes - alone with the girl, without witnesses, which is impossible to tell!
But if the fact that Ivan the Terrible’s son Dimitrii really died in Uglich in 1591, is beyond doubt, then the official version of the investigation that Boris Godunov was not involved in it should be considered very shaky. Firstly, the investigation was led by the great pro-Hindus Vasily Shuisky. At various times he adhered to three mutually exclusive versions. When Boris Godunov announced that the prince himself throat on a knife in a fit of epilepsy. When the False Dmitry won, Shuisky declared that this was the true king - miraculously saved. And when Shuisky himself became the king after the murder of the False Dmitry as a result of a palace plot in 1606, he pulled out the corpse of Dimitry from Uglich, transferred him to Moscow, achieved canonization and began to assert that the little one was finished off by order of Boris Godunov, who was striving to become the ruler of Russia, ordered by Boris Godunov.
THROAT ON KNIFE. In other words, Vasily Shuisky constantly changed his point of view for political gain. In any mode, he wanted to live well. But he really lived well only during his reign. We do not need to hesitate along with the river of history - we will not drown in it. So, let us analyze the causes of the death of Saint Dimitry of Uglich unbiased.
Himself ran into a knife? This happens? It is difficult to find a boy who was not amused as a child by this ancient folk fun. The author of these lines also threw a knife into the ground repeatedly. And in different companies. And in the city. And in the village. And in the pioneer camp, where the knife had to be hidden from the counselors. But I have never seen or heard that one of my peers during the game ran into a spearhead. For the first time I read about such a unique case in a school history textbook, which told about the amazing, truly unique death of Tsarevich Dimitri. To believe in his inadvertent suicide is as difficult as the fact that Interior Minister Kravchenko shot two bullets in the head. Moreover, during a seizure of epilepsy, the patient's fingers unclench. The knife would have fallen from the hands of the prince. He could have stuck in the ground. But not in the throat. So the boy was killed.
In order to establish who killed him, it is enough to use the question that the ancient Romans asked in such criminal cases: who benefits?
ROMAN ANSWER. Removing Dimitri was beneficial only to Boris Godunov. At the time of the sudden death of the Tsarevich, he is the royal stable and the brother of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich's wife. In reality, the ruler of Russia, who did all the work on behalf of the weak-minded king, who most of all loved to beat the bells. Fedor Ivanovich had no children. The only heir was his younger brother Dimitri. If Boris Godunov wanted the boy to inherit the throne, he would not take his eyes off him! But Boris ensured that the only heir of the great power was sent to the wilderness - in Uglich. There, far from Muscovites, you could do anything with him, and then tell him that the little prince himself slashed his knife across his neck. Chick - and there is no future king. Only Boriska Godunov sits in the cap of Monomakh on the throne of Rurik and the kingdom bequeaths to his son Fedenka.
Karamzin and Pushkin were convinced that Boris Godunov was involved in the murder of Tsarevich Dimitri. In Soviet times, Boris, on the contrary, repeatedly tried to "wash" the prince from the blood. Stalin’s history textbook, which was also studied by Ukrainian children, argued that “arrest the cause of Tsarevich Dimitriia’s death for the first time — by dropping the people of the unwillingly unhappy situation of people, who were Jewish, I’m a generation, I’m still a youth
However, this textbook written by professors KV Bazilevich and S.V. Bakhrushin, was not such a primitive reading matter for morons, as our current school "cheat". He expounded almost all versions and even today he can be considered as a model of efficiency in transmitting information: “Tsar’s younger brother, Tsarevich Dimitrii, is alive in Uglich, stalled by 15 trash 1591 p. Ranked on the day of the day, dev'yatilіm Dimitriy engrave with his peers with a knife "at the tip" on the courtyard of the palace with the help of the mother and nurse. Behind his words, s Dimitrius had a seizure of falling sick and falling his throat on the bottom, a trimav of the ruci. On the cry zhіnok vibіgla mother Tsarevich Marіya Naga. Vaughn became shouting, scyo Dimitriia decided to podslany Godunov people. The people, who were killed by killing the Moscow girl of Bityagovskoye and kolka cholovik. From Moscow, a battle was sent to the Prince of Vasily Ivanovych Shuisky, who was called, but the prince himself was mortally wounded by the prince himself. Tsaritsa Mariya Naga was tonsured as a nun; The people walked a little bit, the prince was driven in by the reunion of Boris Godunov. ”
FREEDOM OF WORD IN POLAND. To call Boris Godunov a murderer, the very same textbook did not dare. After all, Boris, according to Stalin's professors, became a king, “promoted the policy of Ivan IV to the kingdom of the sovereign.” And Ivan the Terrible under Stalin was considered a very positive character. Consequently, the successor of his business could not be a complete beast and “order” small children. But the whole logic of events says that Godunov was the customer — no one else. No one else has benefited from this murder. And the children themselves, even in an epileptic fit, do not drop their throats on the knife.
The fact that a person who identified himself as a “miraculously surviving prince” is indeed Dimitri, in Poland, too, was believed only by those to whom it was beneficial. Princes Vishnevetsky, who had a long-standing border conflict with Russia in Poltava region. Jerzy Mniszek - the ruined tycoon, who at the expense of the adventure with the return of the resurrected Dimitri to the throne, hoped to improve his affairs and give him his daughter. Zaporizhzhya Cossacks are a people who are ready to believe anyone who promises an excuse for robbery.
“The Cossacks wrote their history with a saber, and not on the pages of ancient books, but on the battlefields left this pen a bloody trace,” said French author Father Pirling in the book “Dimitri the Impostor”, published in the Russian translation in 1911 year. - For the Cossacks, it was customary to deliver the thrones to all kinds of applicants. In Moldova and Wallachia periodically resorted to their help. For the formidable freemen of Dnepr and Don it was completely indifferent, genuine or imaginary rights belong to the hero of the minute. For them it was important one thing - that their share of good production. Was it possible to compare the miserable Danube principalities with the boundless plains of the Russian land, full of fabulous wealth? ”
But solid people did not believe the Dimitriya from the very first word. Polish Chancellor and Hetman Corona Jan Zamoyski ironically speaking in the Sejm: “Lord, have mercy, does this sovereign tell us the comedy Plavt or Terence? So, they slaughtered another child instead, killed the baby, not looking, just to kill? So why didn't they replace this victim with some goat or ram? ”
Jan Zamoysky. Polish Chancellor laughed at The Pretender
Speaking of the dynastic crisis in Moscow, Zamoysky quite reasonably remarked: "If they refuse to recognize Boris Godunov as tsar, who is a usurper, if they want to establish a legitimate sovereign on the throne, let him turn to the true descendants of Prince Vladimir - to Shuisky".
Opinion Zamoysky supported and the great hetman of Lithuania Sapieha. On the side of the skeptics were the best commanders of the Commonwealth Zolkiewski and Chodkiewicz. Bishop Baranovsky, who had a great influence on the king, wrote to Sigismund III 6 in March 1604: “This Moscow prince positively inspires me with suspicion. There is some evidence in his biography that obviously does not deserve faith. How did the mother not recognize the body of her own son? ”
Illustrious warrior. Getman Zolkiewski did not believe in the authenticity of the "Moscow Prince"
Skeptics in Poland argued that they should not get involved in the adventure of suspicious Dimitri and break the 1602 peace treaty with Moscow - Godunov will smash the adventurer, and Poland will receive a new war with Russia. “This hostile raid on Moscow,” hetman Zamoyski said in the Sejm, “is as destructive for the good of the Commonwealth as it is for our souls.”
Polish Sejm. There was a heated debate about the truth of the "prince"
Many in Poland were going to support this view. But suddenly King Sigismund III stood on the side of False Dimitry, believing, in spite of the facts, miraculous salvation. The king was earnest catholic. And the mysterious prince agreed to accept Catholicism and spread the union with the Vatican to Russia. This alone was enough for the Polish king to believe in the truth of the applicant. Great intrigue entered its final phase.