Military Review

The last destroyers of the Soviet Union - the project 956

19
965 project destroyers, Sarych cipher, Sovremenny class destroyer NATO - 3 destroyers of the “Modern” type. The last destroyer of Soviet construction. The ships were built for the Navy of the Soviet Union, the last ships were completed for the Russian Navy. The remaining unfinished ships due to financial problems were sold to the Chinese Navy and completed at the Russian shipyards.


The last destroyers of the Soviet Union - the project 956


In 1960, the Soviet Union had an acute need for large ships, since the Navy began to actively go to the World Ocean, replenished with middle-class ships and serve in the ocean zone.

The main combat missions of the Soviet Navy emerged:
- ensuring the combat sustainability of strategic missile submarines;
- search, detection and tracking of enemy submarines;
- opening the surface situation, tracking the main surface groups of the enemy (AUG, KPUG);
- detection of enemy communications;
- readiness for combat use in potential sea and ocean theaters;
- performance of foreign policy tasks.

Were revised various options for solving these problems:
- connections with aircraft carrying cruisers. The implementation of this option was not possible due to too expensive construction;
- Mass construction of anti-submarine ships. The implementation of this option is not fully implemented due to the need to cover them themselves RK or RCA;

In addition, the destroyers with 130mm artillery and the 68-K \ B artcruiser of the projects reached the deadline of operation and did not have modern weapons - the anti-ship missiles. It becomes clear to all that such tasks cannot be performed using only a certain class of ships. Multi-purpose ships, equipped with modern types of artillery and rocket weapons, were required — squadron destroyers were required.



Home stories 956 project destroyers - Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and the Party Central Committee No. 75-250 of 01.09.1969. In the first task of operational-tactical significance, the new ship was called the fire support ship for the landing squadrons and, additionally, for joint operations with the BNC of the 1155 project. a bunch of EM - BOD was supposed to outperform (theoretically) a pair of EM "Sprewens" (USA).

The pre-sketch project (avanproekt) was commissioned to develop the Leningrad TsKB-53. In the course of development for the ship, more and more new tasks were determined, which required the designers to perform a multivariate project execution. Considered various types of combinations of weapons and power plants. Due to the capacity of the planned shipbuilder (the plant named after A.Zhdanov), the overall dimensions did not exceed 146 meters in length and 17 meters in width. On the basis of works on the advance project, they begin to develop a draft design.

According to the contract number 927 / e / 1017-71 between the Navy and the Central Design Bureau-53, the development of the EM designation under the 956 number and the Sarych cipher begins. A thorough analysis of 13 variants of pre-draft projects with a military-economic assessment is carried out. As a result, the fourth of the presented options was selected with additional refinement of weapons and the amount of ammunition. At the end of 1971, the first presentation of the 956 project of the Navy Group of Companies ended with the continuation of the search for the best option. At the same time, there was information about the start of development of a likely opponent of the multi-purpose EM "Sprewens". This is where the development of the domestic multipurpose ship begins. The ship is renamed EM, and from 1971, it goes through the documents as a destroyer. The second presentation ended with the statement in the course of which the choice fell completely on the tenth of thirteen options:
- availability of a site for the Ka-252 type helicopter;
- Installation of the Uragan air defense missile system;
- launchers with anti-ship missiles Mosquito (8 units);
- AK-130 art installations;
- installation of a steam turbine power plant.

In the final version, instead of the selected power plant, a gas turbine power plant was selected. With all the modifications, the equipment and armament chosen, the displacement of the EM was increased by one thousand tons. The cost of the draft project cost the Soviet Union 165 000 rubles.

The middle of the year is 1973. Designers received a task to perform the technical project. Chief Designer V.Anikiev. All work on the technical project was ready by the end of 1973, although in the future there were various adjustments and clarifications. It turns out that it is impossible to install the planned boilers - they are replaced with steam KVN 98 / 64-PM. Also added a hangar and the possibility of refueling the helicopter. The total cost of the technical project is 205 thousand rubles.

Building an EM project 956
1.11.1973 of the year - the official date of construction of the newest domestic EM project 956. As planned, construction began at the plant named after A.Zhdanov. The working draft has also been developed by TsKB-53 by 1978. The total cost is more than 2 million rubles. For 1981, operational documentation and improvements were prepared for the project of the construction of the first ship (lead).



The lead ship begins to be built from the middle of the 1975 of the year - EM "Modern" under the serial number 861. In 1976, the EM series of the 956 project was reduced to 32 ships, in 1988, the series is reduced to 20 units. For all the time it was laid 22 destroyer, of which 17 entered the structure of the Navy of the USSR / Russia. 2 EM completed under the project 956-E for the Navy of China. 3 unfinished ship in 1990's were recycled. Before 1991, the 14 EM of the 956 project arrived at the Soviet Navy. The construction of one destroyer lasted an average 4 of the year. The average price of one destroyer is 90 million rubles at the beginning of the launch of the series and 70 million rubles by the middle of the series.

Device and equipment
The northern design bureau had a distinctive feature in the design of ships: they had an external propaganda effect. That is, by their own appearance, they were supposed to influence the enemy. At that time, the ships were used not only to perform combat missions, but were also an excellent tool for political influence and persuasion. Appearance was brought under the maximum functionality of airborne weapons and equipment. The EM of the 956 project are created along a long-deck construction with the sheer front of the ship. Sedlovatost and optimized hull contours provides nezalevaemost decks and wide firing angles for the AK-130. Decks are placed parallel to the waterline. To give the ship stability, the frames are installed with great collapse. The above-water part of the board is made with double scrapping to reduce the radar visibility.

The ship has 15 bulkheads, 16 compartments and 6 decks. The main body structures are low alloy steel. In places of high stress, steel sheets with increased fluidity are used. Superstructures of the ship consist of fore and aft blocks, and are made of aluminum and magnesium alloys. Riveting mount.

The EM of the 956 project is the only 3-generation destroyers with a power plant of the turbine type. The power plant consists of two KTA GTZA-674 echelon layout (feed / nose) horsepower 50000. To maintain the required speed at various operating modes, KTA has an ACS with a frequency regulator. In the forward part of the engine room there are two boilers with the right turbine, in the aft - two boilers with the left turbine and a shortened propeller shaft.

The first 6 units of the EM project 956 received steam boilers of the type “KVN-98 / 64”, giving 98 000 kilograms of steam. On the seventh and forth, steam boilers of the type KVG-3 were installed, giving 115 000 kilograms of steam. Excess or deficiency for air boilers is regulated by a special turbine or damper. The boilers become the weakest link of the destroyer - very demanding of the water supplied, quickly failed. Additionally, an emergency boiler is installed on the 14 000 kilogram of steam. To provide the ship with electric power, 2 of the steam-turbine generator type AK-18, with a total power of 2500 kW, and 4 diesel generators (reserve) of 600 kW each are installed. The steering unit is an electro-hydraulic machine and a semi-balance steering wheel. Two shafts and two low-noise fixed-pitch screws allowed the EM to reach speeds up to the 33.4 node. Fuel supply 1.7 thousand tons. Travel range from 1300 to 3900 miles.

Operating temperatures inside the case range from 34 to -25 degrees. There are 5 tanks for 50 cubic meters for waste collection. To receive the cargo on the move, the “String” device is installed on each board.

The crew of the ship in peacetime and wartime is respectively 296 and 358 people. To accommodate the crew on board there is an 21 cabin for officers (38 berths) and cabins for the midshipmen on the 48 berths. For sailors of military service there are 16 headquarters for 310 seats. All rooms have radio communication devices. Destroyers have libraries, film installations, gyms and even collapsible pools. The entire ship is provided with a single cable television system. There are an operating room, an ambulatory, an infirmary, an isolator and a sterile room in the medblock. Because of the established weapons and power installations, the aisles with the corridors are narrower than on the BNC of the 1155 project.

Installed weapons:
- “Uragan” air defense missile system (from “Uragan-Tornado” X-NUMX EM-air defense missile system). It consists of two single-beam induced PU, located on the forecastle and behind the helipad. Ammunition - 14 "48М9М38" anti-aircraft guided missiles. SU ZRK - 1 radio components for illumination of targets and computing equipment. The air defense missile system is capable of working on surface ships. At the same time, the air defense missile system is capable of striking 6-1 air objects at an altitude of up to 6 kilometers at a distance of up to 15 kilometers. The probability of hitting the aircraft / KR - to 25 / 0.96;



- Arture AK-130. Two twin AK-130 units are installed on board the ship. SU AK-130 - multi-channel MP-184, which includes a dual-band radar, television, laser rangefinder, digital computer, optical device. Installations have an optical device, an ammunition supply complex and interface equipment. The rate of fire to 90 rds / min, the range of destruction to 24 kilometers. Ammunition - 500 ammunition for each barrel (180 of them are ready for combat use). For shooting at coastal objects, a special special post is used. SU allows you to conduct only single-breasted application of artillery systems.
- Artcomplex AK-630M - air defense anti-aircraft complex. Consists of two 30-mm batteries of the AK-630M complex. One battery - two artillery installations with a rotating six-barrel unit and SU “Vympel”. Effective range of up to four kilometers. 4 fire rate 000 rds / min. The ammunition of the art complex - 16 thousands of ammunition. The probability of hitting the missile "Harpoon" - 0.4-1.0.
- SCRK "Mosquito". Anti-ship complex with Moskit missiles. Consists of 2 quad launcher blocks. Ammunition - 8 KR. The range of destruction - 120 kilometers. Speed ​​- up to 3M. The weight of the RC is almost 4 tons, the weight of the warhead is 0.3 tons. SU destroyer conducted a full volley for half a minute. Chance of defeat - 0.94-0.99;



- RBU -1000 - anti-submarine / anti-torpedo weapons. Jet bomb with ammunition 48 RSL. The defeat range is up to one kilometer.
- 2 TA caliber 533mm. anti-submarine weapons. Used torpedoes SET-65 / 53М, USET-80.
- RM-1 / UDM / PM-1-mine armament. For use of mines installed mine rails. Ammunition 22 mines.
- KA-27PL / KA-25PL - aviation armament. To use the helicopter, the ship has a platform (middle of the ship) and a telescopic hangar. The onboard fuel supply allows the helicopter to have two refueling.
- 21-KM - salute guns. Two 45mm salute guns are installed in the bow of the ship (forecastle).

RTV includes:
-RLS detection "Frigate" cm-range on the first 3 ships, radar "Fregat-M" on the next two, and on the other radar "Fregat-MA";
- over-the-horizon target designation system “Bridge”, which includes passive radar KRS-27 (Dianazon 4), RTS and VZOI.
- Mineral target designation complex for the SCRC;
- SJSC Platina-S is a submarine detection station, installed in a bullet nose fairing. From the sixth ship - Platinum-MS State Joint-Stock Company and the Purga control system;
- MG-7 station - swimmers-saboteurs detection station.

The EW includes:
- MP-401 - RTR complex;
- MP-407 - active jamming station;
- PC-2М - a complex of setting passive false targets. Consists of two 140-mm double-barreled PU ZIF-121;
- SU "Estimate" - PC-2M control system
- from the ship's 9, an additional PK-10М is installed - a complex with 4 / 8 122-mm ten-barrel PU of false targets;
- SRES with RTR "Sprint-401С" additional SO & P.

Navigation: navigation radar type MP-212, lag IEL-1, gyrocompass, car plotter, echo sounder, navigation systems like KPF-3K / KPI-7F, radio direction finder, magnetic compass, space navigation systems of the Parus type, ADK-3M, Zyka, Zykus, ADK-XNUMXM, Zyka, Magnetic compass, space navigation systems of the Parus type, ADK-XNUMXM, Zyka, Zykus, ADK-XNUMXM, Zyak

Squad destroyers project 965 - 22 units:
- the ships were written off: "Desperate", "Modern", "Excellent", "Inspired", "Impeccable", "Prompt", "Combat", "Unrestrained" / "Thundering".
- sold to China: "Important" / "Ekaterinburg" / "KHANZHOU", "Thoughtful" / "Alexander Nevsky" / "FUZHOU", "Impressive" / "TAYZHOU", "Eternal" / "NINGBO".
- utilization: "Prudent", "Resistant", "Impressive".
- unfinished: "Impressive."

As part of the Russian Navy:
- KTOF - "Stormy" (repair), "Fast", "Fearless" (reserve)
- CSF - "Admiral Ushakov."
- DKBF - "Restless" (reserve), "Moskovsky Komsomolets" / "Persistent".
Total: active destroyers of the project 956 on 2012 year - 3 units



Key Features:
- displacement standard / full / max - 6.5 / 7.9 / 8.5 thousand tons;
- length of the waterline / max - 145 / 156.5 meter
- waterline width / max - 16.8 / 17.2 meters;
- draft average / max - 5.9 / 8.2 meter;
- autonomy up to 30 days;
- additional watercraft - command boat pr1390, work boat pr338М, six-weighted yal.


Information sources:
http://korabley.net/news/esminec_sovremenii_proekta_956/2008-12-06-72
http://voencom.net/index.php?id=103
http://azlok.livejournal.com/482183.html
http://shipwiki.ru/voennye_korabli_2/drugie_voennye_korabli/esminec_sovremennyy_proekta_956.html
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19 comments
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  1. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 1 October 2012 08: 19
    +3
    Something their names have not been mentioned at all lately ...
  2. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 1 October 2012 08: 24
    +15
    Beautiful ships with a sad fate, on the example of a series of these handsome men can be taught at universities on the betrayal of senior government officials and the deliberate destruction of the country's military potential.
    1. Vito
      Vito 1 October 2012 09: 01
      +3
      Sakhalinets (2)Good morning, dear. hi Why sad? Really a beautiful ship of its time with the most powerful PKR, excellent anti-aircraft weapons and art installation. It is a pity that there were no missile torpedoes on it (a good argument for NATO submarines). The Soviet Union made these handsome 20 units!
      Interestingly, how many destroyers will Russia produce?
      It’s just that these hard workers have already served honestly and need new ones, OH HOW NEEDED !!!
      Yes, and our ships are really very beautiful (as an artist I say).
      1. Sakhalininsk
        Sakhalininsk 1 October 2012 09: 12
        +2
        Sad, because most of these ships were simply ditched.
        How much will it build? I would be happy to answer you, but unfortunately I can’t .... I really hope that after 6 years at least 3 pieces can be built on the Pacific Fleet and the Northern Fleet .... Although of course you need it now.
        1. altman
          altman 1 October 2012 18: 19
          +3
          I completely agree with you .. beautiful ships with a sad fate .. someone decided to install boilers and that’s all ... the current fleet cannot read at least 5-6 ships in the ocean zone ... after all, project 1155 BODs are still working horses ..
  3. snek
    snek 1 October 2012 08: 32
    +3
    A good ship for its time, however, with one (rather large, in my opinion) drawback - the inability to "work on the ground" except for artillery.
    In general, the problem of our fleet is in some incredible variety of ships. Sometimes it seems that someone purposefully sought to prevent a lot of ships of the same type. Here to take the destroyers - there are 13 such ships in service which belong to 4 different classes (projects) in the states of 61 destroyers and all classes are Arly Burke.
    1. Vito
      Vito 1 October 2012 09: 29
      +2
      snek, Greetings. drinks
      Quote: snek
      In general, the problem of our fleet is in some incredible variety of ships.

      Yes, this topic has already been discussed more than once in our friendly community. Indeed, somehow everything went into a scatter. I want to believe that previous errors will be taken into account!
      1. snek
        snek 1 October 2012 09: 37
        +2
        Vito, good day!
        I want to believe something, but it turns out, unfortunately, with difficulty.
      2. Tirpitz
        Tirpitz 1 October 2012 10: 19
        0
        Vito, salute!. This excuse was invented by those who pinched money on the fleet. Now in Russia the situation will be repeated. For example, frigates are already being built in two kinds. There were certainly excesses, but this is not critical if 50% of the money is not plundered.
        1. Vito
          Vito 1 October 2012 10: 47
          +1
          TirpitzGlad to meet FRIENDLY! hi drinks
          Quote: Tirpitz
          but this is not critical if 50% of the money is not plundered.

          Oh, this corruption! I don’t even find words, how much has already been said about it. But you, dear, how do you think, after what period of time our shipyards will reach optimal power and begin to stamp ships in the quantities we need and of proper quality?
          My opinion, after 15 years!
          1. Tirpitz
            Tirpitz 1 October 2012 11: 29
            +2
            If you modernize them and learn how to build ships from modules (which are then connected) as the United States and other developed countries do, then maybe in 10-12 years. drinks You rarely appear here.
            1. Vito
              Vito 1 October 2012 11: 40
              0
              It’s going like waves in me, I’m a person of mood; This is my nature, and my daughter doesn’t let me talk too much, I don’t argue with her, she needs a computer! good
  4. Tirpitz
    Tirpitz 1 October 2012 09: 42
    +1
    I consider this ship project to be one of the best of those times.
    1. Gad
      Gad 1 October 2012 19: 12
      +3
      I agree. I still consider the most beautiful ship in the Soviet fleet. When I first saw his photograph in the "Marine Collection" in the late 80s, I immediately fell in love with him wassat I was on a business trip to Severnaya Verf (former Zhdanova) in 1996 and saw them for the first time alive, they made an impression, although the fate of that trio was in great question. And when he was there again in 1998 they were already actively building up for China. The workers were very glad that the ships were not cut into scrap metal, although it was very disappointing in the soul that such ships themselves were no longer needed.
  5. Somad
    Somad 1 October 2012 10: 47
    0
    And again - "repair", "reserve", "written off", "sold" ... But as many as 3 UNITS IN A STANDARD !!! .... It's a shame for our state ... And for our fleet ...
  6. Sheva777
    Sheva777 1 October 2012 11: 21
    0
    Sorry, great ships
  7. borisst64
    borisst64 1 October 2012 14: 34
    +1
    Always impressed by the strength of tradition in the Navy. Even special equipment for salute is embedded in the design of the ship !!
  8. Santa Fe
    Santa Fe 1 October 2012 15: 27
    +6
    Objectively, the USSR at the end of the 70's did not need to create 956 destroyers.

    The USSR had an excellent project for a large anti-submarine ship, cipher 1134B - excellent ships that had many times more capabilities (a helicopter, four air defense systems Storm and Osa-M, PLUR) and significant modernization potential. One of them (BPK "Azov") became the first ship in the world with UVP - the S-300 air defense system was mounted on it, which gave the ship unique air defense capabilities - Project 956 did not lie close.

    It still remains a mystery why, instead of one strong ship, it was necessary to create two whole projects - the destroyer of the 956 project with boilers and the gas turbine ship of the 1155 project. The first is defenseless against attacks from under the water, the second is defenseless against attacks from the air. The leadership of the Navy of the USSR seems to have once again made unforgivable stupidity

    More details - http://topwar.ru/10416-lishnie-korabli.html
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 7 September 2013 14: 22
      +3
      The leadership of the Navy of the USSR seems to have once again made unforgivable stupidity

      I totally agree.
      Absolutely unnecessary ships. And EU was chosen simply by pests. The result - very beautiful ships not intended for constant sailing - only for repair and reserve. For some reason, 1134B is still in service, 1155 is generally a workhorse, and 956 - a traitor was ruined ...
      An unsuccessful project, a ship with an unclear purpose: tactical-range anti-ship missiles, no medium-range missiles, medium-range air defense systems and a lot of artillery (there are only two guns, but each is almost 100 tons in weight, the weight of shells per minute is similar to that of the LCR PMV). In other words, a light missile cruiser, with weak air defense for the Kyrgyz Republic, but decent strike capabilities at short range, is not capable of protecting anyone, but it will drown everyone with artillery. How it seemed to be used in reality in 1970-1980 is unclear. As a part of KUG from 1164, 1144 are useless:
      AUG can’t strike, because the range is not enough RCC
      repelling a massive air strike can help, but worse than 1134B with Fort
      in PLO is useless
      at a range of 25-30 km will crush all artillery.

      What the naval battle looks like, where it will be most suitable, is unclear.

      Well, the GEM is suitable for hike from the factory to the base (that's all - for repair).

      Would build 1134B or 11551 much more good (ships in the fleet, suitable for long trips) would be
      1. grandyucha
        grandyucha April 7 2017 17: 57
        0
        These destroyers were built for joint use with the BOD - in a pair they were beautiful, but operated so rarely.
  9. wown
    wown 1 October 2012 17: 05
    0
    and what did you want in the 90s then ???? then they were written off in bundles and allowed on nails. no one needed the fleet, just like the army
  10. Andrey77
    Andrey77 1 October 2012 19: 21
    +1
    In my opinion, they are too overloaded with weapons.
  11. Van
    Van 2 October 2012 20: 07
    +4
    Yes, beautiful you will not say anything.
    .
    1. Yuri11076
      Yuri11076 3 October 2012 01: 04
      +3
      Cool picture, handsome ship ...
  12. Captain45
    Captain45 3 October 2012 01: 00
    +3
    I don’t know how anyone, but I especially liked the first shot in the article -quilter system of destroyers. It looks amazingly impressive.
    "There was a time when I walked 38 knots
    And the lead shaft cut the stem.
    How heroes met my sailors
    Petrograd, Liepaja and Revel! "
    And "Alexander Nevsky" just because of the name might not be sold to the Chinese, it would be better flooded.
  13. snowball
    snowball 15 October 2012 14: 50
    0
    They cut everything, and yet their resource is not even half depleted. I visited the "Thundering" (which was written off in 2007) - everything was fine there except for the repair of the power plant carried out in 92 or 93. At 94 he never went out to sea. Look at how Americans feel about their ships, for them 50 years is not a period, just repair normally
    1. cdrt
      cdrt 7 September 2013 14: 32
      +1
      Look how Americans relate to their ships, for them 50 years is not a deadline, just repair normally


      Well, for 50 years only large ships have been serving there - LC, AB. But they have an incredible resource of mechanisms and cases. Well ... Americans simply know how to properly use and maintain their ships.
      We, with 956, created a ship whose ES was not originally able to operate - well, there isn’t a culture of thorough maintenance in our fleet, there are no repairs to our ships, there weren’t and never was, for some reason the hordes of ships were built not to particularly load where they will be based , no matter how, the code and where to repair / maintain them in a combat ready state.
      In this sense, the 956 is simply the "pinnacle" of this approach. To create a ship, the propulsion system of which has record characteristics, but is not adapted for operation, is an "achievement". By the way, it reminds of the fate of Hipper-type CDs - they also constantly sat in bases due to problems with EH (also a record for its time)
  14. ydjin
    ydjin 15 May 2017 13: 31
    0
    Beauties! My friend served on such a! Went to the Persian Gulf! In those days, the USSR was not afraid to project its Strength!