Military Review

"Munich Agreement" 30 September 1938

25
“Future historians, after a thousand years, will try in vain to comprehend the secrets of our policy. They will never be able to understand how it happened, that the people who won, having something for the soul, were humbled to such a fall, letting down everything that they won as a result of immeasurable sacrifices and decisive triumph over the enemy. They will not understand why the winners were defeated, and those who put down weapon on the battlefield and prayed for a truce, now go to the rule of the world "
from Churchill's speech in the English Parliament 24 March 1937 of the year.


"Munich Agreement" 30 September 1938
At the time of the signing of the Munich Agreement. From left to right: Chamberlain, Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini and Ciano


From the very beginning of his political activity, Hitler conducted active propaganda among the German population about the suffering and terrible living conditions of several million Germans living in the territory of Czechoslovakia in the Sudetenland (about 90% of the region’s population), Slovakia and Transcarpathian Ukraine (Carpathian Germans) and under the oppression of the Slavic population countries. The reasons for the emergence of Germans in this area date back to the 1935th century, when Czech kings invited settlers to deserted areas on the borders of the Czech kingdom. The situation began to worsen when Germany openly began to support fascist parties in the Sudetenland. One of them - the national separatist party Konrad Henlein - won the election in 7. The provocations and riots organized by this gang of Hitler’s henchmen heated the atmosphere in the Sudetenland, and the Czechoslovak government had to take a number of retaliatory measures (representing the Germans in the National Assembly, local government, and education in their native language), designed to reduce tensions in the region. But in April, the completely insolent party of Henlein in a threatening form put forward demands for the autonomy of the region. At the same time, German military units began to move, being located at the Czechoslovak border. In response, with the support of the USSR and France, Czechoslovak troops occupied the Sudetenland. Frightened, Hitler sends Henlein to negotiations with the Czechoslovak government, which, however, do not lead to anything and end on September 15 after a series of provoked riots and clashes between Sudeten Germans and regular troops. Hitler publicly declares that he sincerely wants peace, but if the Czechoslovak government does not withdraw troops from the Sudetenland, he will be forced to start a war. On September 50, Chamberlain meets with his mission to “save the whole world” in the Bavarian Alps. It Fuhrer convincingly argues that the territories in which more than 21 percent of Germans live, are obliged to go to Germany allegedly on the basis of the right of nations to self-determination. Chamberlain agrees, and Britain, and later France, are the guarantors of the new borders of Czechoslovakia. On September XNUMX, envoys of these great powers announce an ultimatum to the Czechoslovak government, which was received without a wish by President Edward Benes. After that, a general strike was declared in the country, protests and a change of government took place, a general mobilization was announced. From Sudeten begins the flight of Jews, Czechs and German anti-fascists. Even without the support of France, the USSR declares its readiness to fulfill its obligations to protect Czechoslovakia. There are official documents that Moscow offered Prague very specific assistance plans for the use of ground forces and the transfer of fighters in order to strengthen the capabilities of the Czechoslovak military aviation. There are infantry divisions on the southwestern and western borders, tank units, aircraft and air defense forces of our country were put on alert. But here Poland said it would not let parts of the Red Army through its territory, warning of a strike on the flank in the event of the advance of Soviet troops and the destruction of any aircraft flying over its airspace. The decisive factor was the refusal of help from Czechoslovakia itself, which, obviously, Stalin inspired no less concern than Hitler.

It is also known that Britain and France put pressure on Czechoslovakia: “If the Czechs unite with the Russians, the war can assume the character of a crusade against the Bolsheviks. Then the governments of England and France will be very difficult to stay away. "


Seeing the mobilization of the Czechoslovak military, Hitler informs the ambassadors of Britain and France that he is being forced to start a war. Continuous columns of soldiers armed from head to toe march darkly through the streets of Berlin.

Chamberlain (left) and Hitler at a meeting in Bad Godesberg, September 23 1938. In the middle, the main translator Dr. Paul Schmidt


On September 26, in the Berlin Sports Palace, the Führer declared: “If by October 1, the Sudetenland will not be handed over to Germany, I, Hitler, will go, as the first soldier, against Czechoslovakia.”
Here he proclaimed: “After the Sudeten-German issue is settled, we will not have any further territorial claims in Europe ... We do not need Czechs”.


Chamberlain immediately assures Hitler that everything will turn out this way "without war and without delay." To address this issue 29 September 1938, the heads of the governments of Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France (Hitler, Mussolini, Chamberlain and Daladier, respectively) gathered in Hitler’s Munich residence of Führerbau.

September 28 held an emergency meeting of the British House of Commons. Chamberlain addressed the Chamber: “I have to make an additional message to the Chamber. Mr. Hitler announces that he invites me to meet him tomorrow morning in Munich. ” Members of Parliament who dreamed of a treaty with Hitler, greeted this statement with loud applause.


In 12 hours 45 minutes in the Brown House opened a conference of plenipotentiaries. Contrary to the promise to Chamberlain, the envoys of Czechoslovakia were not allowed, and the USSR was generally denied participation. During the two-day talks, the fate of Czechoslovakia was finally decided. Its representatives were invited and sentenced in a “recommendatory” form - to pass the Sudetenland and the regions bordering the former Austria with all property, including weapons and fortifications, to Germany. The transferred territory Czechoslovakia should have cleared in time from 1 to 10 in October. The agreement also prescribed the settlement of the question of the Polish and Hungarian national minorities in the country, which meant the rejection of Czechoslovakia of other parts of its territory in favor of Poland and Hungary. The Munich Agreement was signed at one o'clock in the morning on 30 September 1938 by Hitler, Chamberlain, Daladier and Mussolini. Vojtech Mastny and Hubert Masarik, on behalf of the Czechoslovak people, also pushed the agreement. In the event of its failure, France disclaimed all responsibility for defending Czechoslovakia against German aggression.

Returning from Munich to London, Chamberlain at the ramp said: "I brought the world to our generation."
Daladier was already met at the aerodrome by a huge crowd shouting: “Long live Daladier! Long live the world! ”
Churchill was completely different about the outcome of Munich: “England had to choose between war and disgrace. Her ministers chose to shame, and then get a war. ”
Welcoming Chamberlain in the House of Commons, Churchill sullenly said: “Do not think that this is the end. This is only the beginning of retribution. This is the first sip. The first anticipation of that bitter cup, which will be brought to us year after year. ”


Edouard Daladier (center) with Joachim von Ribbentrop at a meeting in Munich at 1938


The Munich Agreement was a model example of betrayal committed on a national scale, and the culminating point of the British "policy of appeasement." The French could easily mobilize the army in order to expel the German units from the Rhineland within a few hours, but did not. Everyone wanted Germany to move eastward, attacking, in the end, our country.

The French ambassador in Moscow, Robert Coulondre, noted: “The Munich Agreement is especially threatening the Soviet Union. After the neutralization of Czechoslovakia in Germany, the path to the southeast is open. ” The same is said in the diplomatic documents of France, Germany, Italy, the USA, Poland and a number of other countries.
The slogan of the English conservatives at the time was: "For Britain to live, Bolshevism must die."


On the Sudet territory after 1 in October 1938, Czech parties, Czech language, books, newspapers and more were banned. Under German pressure, the Czechoslovak government on October 7 recognized the autonomy of Slovakia, and on October 8, it was concluded that the autonomy of Transcarpathian Ukraine would be granted. Even earlier, on October 1, Poland presented Czechoslovakia with ultimatum, supported by the Nazis, about the transfer of the Cieszyn region to it. Thus, a split, devoid of frontier fortifications and an economically bloodless country turned out to be defenseless against the German fascist invaders. In March, 1939, the Nazis began the final elimination of Czechoslovakia as a state. The Czech President Gaha, summoned to Berlin on the night of 14 on 15 March, signed Hitler’s statement on preventing any resistance to the invasion of German troops.

On the same day, Hitler declared: "I do not boast, but I must say that I did it really elegantly."


3 October 1938 of the year. "National festivities"


March 15 German troops occupied the remaining of the once united Czechoslovakia Bohemia and Moravia, declaring a protectorate over them. The Germans did not take any measures to keep their actions secret, but there was no protest from the Western powers.

Chamberlain only answered all questions: "Czechoslovakia ceased to exist as a result of internal disintegration."
Daladier demanded to suppress the protest of the Communist Party. The plenipotentiary plenipotentiary of the USSR in France wrote: “The majority of the chamber responded to this demand with a thunderous ovation. It was difficult to imagine a more shameful spectacle ... ".


The Soviet Union was the only country wishing to help the Czechoslovak Republic. But this time the ruling circles of this country did not accept our support.

The Soviet government declared: "We cannot recognize the inclusion of the Czech Republic into the German Empire, and in one form or another also Slovakia, legitimate and in accordance with generally accepted norms of international law and justice or the principle of self-determination of peoples."


As a result of the occupation of Czechoslovakia in the center of Europe, one of the forces that could potentially serve the cause of defeating the fascists disappeared. When Hitler visited this “new territory of the Reich”, he expressed joy at the fact that the Wehrmacht did not have to go on assault on the lines of the Czechoslovak defense, for which the Germans would have to pay dearly. From a military point of view, Germany’s gain was huge. The Wehrmacht acquired excellent army weapons and factories producing these weapons, and after all the industry of Czechoslovakia was at that time one of the most developed in Europe. Before the attack on the USSR from the 21 tank division of the Wehrmacht, 5 were equipped with Czechoslovak production tanks. Germany also received all the trump cards for attacking Poland from several directions, which, until the very end, made herself an ally of Germany and paired up Czechoslovakia merrily with it. But after a few months, Poland was gone, and the Slovak soldiers were photographed against the backdrop of burnt houses and Polish prisoners of war.

The Munich model did not work. The war began in the West, culminating in the disgraceful capitulation of France, the change of cabinet in England and the formation of the anti-Hitler coalition according to the scheme proposed by the Soviet Union as early as 1935. It included the thoughtful of England, a little later the United States, and then France jumped on the steps of the departing train under the leadership of de Gaulle. In 1942, the United Kingdom and France, in 1944 Italy, in the 1950 GDR and in the 1973 of the FRG, the Munich Agreement was declared initially null and void.
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  1. Lech e-mine
    Lech e-mine 29 September 2012 10: 21
    +20
    The Poles solemnly captured the Czech city of TESIN in 1938.
    Now they and their Western allies are trying to blame RUSSIA BY THE MOLOTOV-RIBENTROP PACT - LYCEPERIA AND THE DOUBLE STANDARD for EUROPE is a natural phenomenon.
    1. Click-Klyak
      Click-Klyak 29 September 2012 16: 34
      -20
      What does the Western Allies have to do with it?
      "We must admit these mistakes. Our country has done this. The State Duma of the Russian Federation, the country's parliament have condemned the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact." V.V. Putin
      1. evgen762
        evgen762 29 September 2012 19: 42
        +8
        Excuse me, was it not in Munich that the same treaty was signed between Great Britain and Germany, as we signed in 1939?
        1. Dovmont
          Dovmont 30 September 2012 14: 41
          +4
          And they didn’t have to sign it! The West has done everything in its own style, Jesuitly vile. The Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact was an attempt by the Union to come to an agreement with Germany, as the USSR had no allies in Europe. All European rats dreamed of sneaking into satisfying Soviet bins as soon as possible, which is why almost all of Western and Central Europe so easily fell under the banner of the Wehrmacht. It is only later that they will begin to whine and humiliate the Russian boot humiliatingly when our people break the ridge of fascism.
          1. Click-Klyak
            Click-Klyak 30 September 2012 20: 05
            -8
            Meaningless comment.
            And nobody licked the boot, on the contrary - Stalin begged for help.
            And no Europe stood under the banner of the Wehrmacht.
            And what is satisfying Soviet bins, if 10 million inhabitants of the USSR died of starvation?
            But the USSR did not have allies. Whose fault is it?
        2. Larus
          Larus 1 October 2012 16: 22
          0
          If you are such a connoisseur of history, then list us the pacts of Nazi Germany with the countries of Europe.
      2. datur
        datur 29 September 2012 20: 13
        -2
        Click-KlyakWe must admit these mistakes. Our country has done it. The State Duma of the Russian Federation, the country's parliament condemned the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact. "VV Putin --- that's right, the West is neither own nor !!!!!!
        1. evgen762
          evgen762 29 September 2012 23: 33
          +4
          And why does he repent of something? This agreement was beneficial to the country, it contributed to the development of the country, it strengthened the level of the country in the international arena - everything is correct.
          1. Trapperxnumx
            Trapperxnumx 30 September 2012 01: 07
            +1
            Eugene, you write incorrectly. Write correctly until the end:
            Quote: evgen762
            This agreement was beneficial to the country, it contributed to the development of the country, it strengthened the level of the country in the international arena - everything is correct.

            This is in relation to Munich for the West.
            The same is performed by the USSR (only there we returned our lands altogether) - this is a bandit trick, a bloody feast of two tyrants, which can only be repaired by giving millions of dollars and working for ourselves, our children and grandchildren for the "offended and oppressed" for free.
            Now it’s right.
            1. Click-Klyak
              Click-Klyak 30 September 2012 13: 51
              -4
              In Munich, a completely different agreement was signed.
              But also erroneous.

              Quote: datur
              neither their west

              Well why. Also erroneous and also recognized.


              Quote: evgen762
              This contract was beneficial to the country.

              If it were not for the help of the Allies, there would be a profit for us on nuts.
      3. Larus
        Larus 1 October 2012 16: 27
        0
        The slogan of the English conservatives at the time was: "For Britain to live, Bolshevism must die."
        And this condemnation will also be recognized as illegal, as well as all concessions of modern power to the West.
  2. Net
    Net 29 September 2012 10: 26
    +13
    And Poland, as usual under the guise, grabbed a piece of Czechoslovakia in order to be eaten by itself later.
  3. apro
    apro 29 September 2012 12: 39
    +4
    While Hitler acted as the unifier of the German people, he was invincible as soon as he began direct robbery, this was the beginning of the end. Resettlement in the German WWI divided the Germans in Czechoslovakia to Poland, Austria, and this was not fair and it was necessary to fix it. Neither the USSR nor Russia are asked when they cut the cards in Europe we constantly have to fix everything.
  4. Albaros
    Albaros 29 September 2012 14: 30
    0
    If it were not for WWII, in Europe and in the world, the world order would be much better. It would be completely balanced by the existing state systems.
  5. Raiven
    Raiven 29 September 2012 14: 46
    -1
    It is because of the capitalists that 26 million people have died and the country is in ruins.
    Oh no, the American mustachioed would pop.
    1. Miroslav
      Miroslav 29 September 2012 14: 59
      -2
      "Mustache" - who? Stalin kept waiting ... After all, it was England and France that declared war on Germany, and not vice versa.
      1. Click-Klyak
        Click-Klyak 29 September 2012 16: 35
        +3
        Quote: Miroslav
        After all, this is England and France declared war on Germany, and not vice versa

        So what? Call them aggressors?
        1. Miroslav
          Miroslav 30 September 2012 18: 38
          +1
          No, let's call them peacekeepers.
          1. Click-Klyak
            Click-Klyak 30 September 2012 20: 06
            -4
            Hitler knew that attacking Poland fell under the guarantee given by England to Poland. England's deed was right and bold.
      2. Raiven
        Raiven 30 September 2012 10: 37
        -1
        I'm talking about shishika
  6. GG2012
    GG2012 29 September 2012 15: 13
    +14
    The article has not yet mentioned that after the capture and dismemberment of Czechoslovakia, at the request of Hitler, the governments of NanoBritania and the Storage transferred 6 tons of Czech gold reserves to Germany.
    Thus financially supporting Hitler for further advancement to the Soviet borders.
    The role of Poland at that time looks particularly vile and jackal.
    The dastardly folk are these pseks.
  7. T.S.B.
    T.S.B. 29 September 2012 15: 58
    +7
    For some reason, the first thing that came to mind was the deployment of NATO bases at the present time in different countries, including those claiming to be Russian territories. Is the seizure of a global scale "without war and delay" slowly beginning?
  8. suharev-52
    suharev-52 29 September 2012 21: 47
    +5
    Apologies for the pact, this is a gross political mistake. Could such a thing have been done only by a complete dilettante in politics or a traitor to the interests of his people? Let us gentlemen and we will dance from this "stove". By the way, our prime minister is state. Medvedev does not hide his admiration for the West and the fact that he hates Stalin and the entire Soviet era. But then one should ask the question, why VVP, which positions itself in words as a patriot of his Motherland, appointed LADY as prime minister? Who will answer? And the signing of the pact was not a mistake and we will not apologize for that. Sincerely.
    1. carbofo
      carbofo 1 October 2012 14: 57
      0
      suharev-52,
      Full text of recognition to the studio, please.
      I did not hear an apology, but only an admission of a mistake, but such things are visible only from a height of years!
  9. Forward
    Forward 30 September 2012 00: 35
    +3
    She is a Geyropa ... who cannot understand whom and with whom the devil himself ... when talking to the West, it is necessary to take into account that you are "playing" with thimblers! stop
  10. Barba ross
    Barba ross 30 September 2012 10: 12
    +1
    They talk about the "blessed democrats" - it's all Stalin ... ugh, Putin is to blame! PZHIV! PZHIV!
    But in essence, Churchill's position, a real politician, commands respect. Enemy, which was not a dream to have: "Churchill assessed the results of Munich in a completely different way:" England had to choose between war and disgrace. Her ministers chose disgrace in order to get the war. "
    Welcoming Chamberlain in the House of Commons, Churchill sullenly said: “Do not think that this is the end. This is only the beginning of retribution. This is the first sip. The first anticipation of that bitter cup, which will be brought to us year after year. ”
  11. AK-74-1
    AK-74-1 30 September 2012 14: 36
    +2
    There is an open letter on the Regnum regarding the Day of Supporters of Fascism and Collaborationism. So personally for the gentlemen of the liberals, 30 SEPTEMBER (1938) is such a day! Only the entire liberal shushera represented by the Human Rights Council under the President of Russia raised an indescribable cry.
  12. Tempest
    Tempest 30 September 2012 22: 26
    +2
    Quote: Click-Gag
    And nobody licked the boot, on the contrary - Stalin begged for help.
    And no Europe stood under the banner of the Wehrmacht.

    Stalin personally did not beg anyone for help. this is your subjective opinion. Regarding Europe: just about the whole of it has risen under the banner of the Wehrmacht. It’s easier to say who refused. As a result, learn the materiel. You have a poor knowledge of historical material. Just ask no offense.
    PS The article is good. I saw many photos for the first time.
    1. Click-Klyak
      Click-Klyak 30 September 2012 23: 11
      0
      Begged. Read the correspondence of Stalin and Churchill for September 1941.
      And what does it mean - Europe has come under the banner of the Wehrmacht?
      Satellites? They fought under their banners.
      Volunteers - mainly in the SS. And countries do not answer for volunteers.
      I’m ready to argue about the material. Speak more specifically.
  13. подводник
    подводник 30 September 2012 23: 35
    +1
    Friends!!!!
    Today is my beloved Jam Day!
    And tomorrow I have something to answer .....
  14. 16
    16 30 September 2012 23: 36
    +1
    Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact ----------- the answer to Western scribbles !!!!!! just like now !!!! by golly !!!!!!!
  15. Goldmitro
    Goldmitro 30 September 2012 23: 52
    +2
    In World War I, when Western Europe, led by the insolent Sraxes, dragged Russia into a war with Germany with the sole purpose of finally eliminating Russia from the world stage, they did not succeed. Russia recovered in a new quality (USSR), categorically unacceptable for the West. Therefore, a new plan was born: bringing Hitler to power, creating a fascist monster specifically to strike at Russia. And the Munich Treaty is the clearest evidence of what pathological age-old hatred of Russia was experienced by Western Europe, which was ready to make any concessions to Hitler, to throw Czechoslovakia at his feet with one goal, so that he then fell upon Russia and finally solved the Russian question, and they planned to take part in it! It is noteworthy that when the Wehrmacht at the beginning of World War II defeated the French army and the British expeditionary force in the Dunkirk area, he did not "finish off" them, suddenly stopping the offensive and allowing them to evacuate to England. Hitler hoped that England and France would join his future campaign against Russia (for this, Hitler's emissary R. Hess flew to England), but the "allies" themselves seemed to be frightened of the fascist monster they had created and realized that the only force in the world could stop his is Russia (they considered Bolshevik Russia a lesser evil than fascist Germany)! And Hitler decided to attack Russia without England, in fact, organizing a "crusade", mobilizing all of Western Europe.
    This pathological hostility, (even hatred) of the West towards Russia has not disappeared! The Russian question is again on the agenda !!!
  16. Alex
    Alex 31 December 2013 17: 12
    0
    Everything is old, nothing is new under the moon. First, we create a party from all kinds of marginals, then we push them into the authorities (local and state), then they begin to organize political provocations and destabilize the country, and here it is, the apotheosis, a competent big guy is going out from those who started all this and the country is divided in their own interests. Doesn't it remind technology of Yugoslavia and Ukraine?