Military Review

Juan of Austria. Finest hour of the battle of Lepanto and the inglorious death of the "last knight of Europe"

69
Juan of Austria. Finest hour of the battle of Lepanto and the inglorious death of the "last knight of Europe"

In the previous article - Juan of Austria. The famous bastard of the Spanish Habsburgs, we talked about the youth of this prince - the illegitimate son of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, and the beginning of his military service. This story ended with a report on the attack of the Ottoman Empire on Crete and the creation of the Holy League, as well as on the size and composition of the fleets of the warring parties, their commanders.


On October 7, 1571, the ships of the Ottomans and the League met in the Gulf of Patras in a grand battle near Lepanto, which was the last major battle of the rowing era. fleet and one of the four largest naval battles in the world stories.


Don Juan of Austria on a Spanish postage stamp commemorating the 400th anniversary of the victory at Lepanto

The Battle of Lepanto


The fleet of the Holy League left the harbor of Messina on September 16, 1571. Each ship carried a piece of the True Cross sent by the pope, and each ship was blessed by the papal nuncio. The flagship galley ("Real") of Juan of Austria was under the banner of the patroness of the American colonies of Spain - the Blessed Virgin of Guadalupe.


Nuestra Senora de Guadalupe, considered miraculous, from the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe, Mexico City. The Virgin Mary is represented here by a beautiful girl of Indian origin.

And on the flagship of the Ottomans was the green banner of the Prophet, personally presented to Ali Pasha by Selim II.

Having reached the coast of Epirus by September 30, the Christian fleet settled in the bay of Gomenice. From here, one of the galleys was sent for reconnaissance to Cyprus, which brought the news of the fall of Famagusta. After that, the allied fleet entered the Gulf of Patras, where on the morning of October 7 one of the largest naval battles in history took place, named after the city of Lepanto, located 30 miles from the battlefield. Historians often refer to the Battle of Lepanto as the last major battle of the rowing fleet era. European sailors were the first to see the masts of the Turkish ships, and the fleet of the Holy League began to line up for battle.


Plan of the battle of lepanto

On the left flank of the allies were 63 ships, led by the Venetian admiral Agostino Barbarigo.


Agostino Barbarigo, portrait of a student of Veronese

His opponent was Mohammed Sirocco, who led 53 galleys and three galliots into battle.

The right flank of the Holy League fleet (64 galleys) was taken under the command of Giovanni Doria. He got the most formidable opponent - Uludzh-Ali, the beylerbey of Algeria. It was here that the ships of the Barbary corsairs were located - 61 galleys and three galliots.

Don Juan took up a position in the center, with 37 warships at his disposal. Here were the largest and most powerful ships of the Venetians, commanded by Venier, as well as the galley of Alexander Farnese, whom we know. 25 reserve ships followed.


Fernando Bertelli. “The Battle of Lepanto”, fresco at the Vatican Gallery of Maps, 1572


Antonio Brugada. “The naval battle of Lepanto between the Holy League and the Turks in 1571”, Museu Maritim de Barcelona

The battle was started by 6 large Venetian galleasses, which, using the advantage in artillery, upset the battle formations of the Ottomans with cannon fire. Ottoman admiral Ali Pasha Muezzinzade gave the order to move forward, hoping to achieve success in boarding battles. A striking episode of this battle was the battle of two flagships - the large galleys "Real" and "Sultana", on which were the commanders of the fleets - the excellent archer Ali Pasha and the "sword master" Juan of Austria. The character of Juan can be judged from the following episode: in anticipation of a collision with an enemy flagship, he danced a galliard on the gun platform of his ship.

Replica of the flagship galley "Real", Maritime Museum, Barcelona:




The Turkish galley of the early XNUMXth century, the oldest surviving to our time, is a unique exhibit of the Istanbul Maritime Museum:


At first, the Turks managed to damage the Real's main mast with a volley of their guns. Then the Sultana's bow ram broke open the side of the Spanish ship during the collision, and the crews of the ships met in a fierce battle. One after another, other ships entered the boarding battle. Among them was the galley Farnese, who then managed to capture one of the Turkish ships. As we remember, the Allies had an advantage in the number of boarding teams. For the Ottomans, this circumstance became fatal: they fought bravely, but could not win. Admiral Ali Pasha Muedzinzade died in battle, and one of the Spanish infantrymen planted his head on a pike. Don Juan fought like everyone else and was wounded in the leg.


Juan de Austria, der Sieger von Lepanto. Portrait of an unknown artist, second half of the XNUMXth century

On the captured "Sultan", the Spaniards got the green banner of the Prophet Muhammad and the treasury of the Turkish fleet - 150 thousand sequins.

Unsuccessfully developed for the Ottomans and the battle on the right flank. Mohammed Sirocco decided to go around the European ships from the coast in order to attack them from the rear, but about 30 Turkish galleys ran aground. Panic began among their crews, people jumped into the water and tried to swim to the shore. Mohammed Sirocco died here and Agostino Barbarigo was mortally wounded. The Venetian raised his visor to inspect the battlefield, and at this time a Turkish arrow hit his eye. He died 2 days later. Later, his name was given to three warships of the Italian Navy.

Uludzh-Ali fought much more successfully. He managed to cut off Doria's squadron from the main forces, sink several enemy galleys, capture the flagship of the Knights of Malta and the standard of the Grand Master of the Hospitallers. Uludzh tried to come to the aid of Kapudan Pasha, but, realizing the scale of the disaster, he retreated, taking 40 galleys with him. He managed to find at sea and attach 47 more Ottoman ships to his squadron. He brought all these vessels safely to Constantinople. Here he received from the Sultan the title of admiral of the Turkish fleet and the title of "Kylych" (Sword).

Results of the Battle of Lepanto



Winners at Lepanto in a painting by an unknown artist (1571): Juan of Austria, Sebastiano Venier, Marc Antonio Colonna. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna


Return of Juan of Austria to Messina after the Battle of Lepanto

The total losses of the parties in the battle of Lepanto amounted to 35 to 40 thousand people - a figure for a naval battle is simply fantastic.

The Ottomans lost 227 ships (110 sunk and 117 captured), up to 25 thousand killed, about 3500 more Turkish soldiers and sailors were captured. About 12 Christians who served as rowers on the Ottoman galleys were released (and it is believed that up to 10 died on these ships).

European losses amounted to 13 ships and from 8 to 10 thousand people. Moreover, all the ships were lost in the battle against the Uluja-Ali squadron, most of the killed soldiers and sailors of the Holy League fell there. About 8 thousand people were injured.

However, the victory in that war remained with the Ottoman Empire. The main role here was played by two renegades - Uluj-Ali and Mehmed Pasha Sokkolu (Sokolovich).


Sokollu Mehmet Pasha

The Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire was a Herzegovinian Serb, Bayo Nenadich, who, at the age of 14, was taken from his home under the “devshirme” system. Becoming a Janissary, he took part in the battle of Mohacs in 1526 and in the siege of Vienna in 1529. In 1541, the 36-year-old Mehmed became the head of the court guards of Suleiman I Kanuni (the Magnificent). In 1546, he replaced the famous Ottoman admiral Khair ad-Din Barbarossa, who had retired, as a kapudan pasha. Under three sultans (Suleiman I the Magnificent, Selim II and Murad III) for 14 years, 3 months and 17 days, he served as Grand Vizier. Barbaro Mehmed Pasha told the Venetian ambassador:

“By taking Cyprus from you, we cut off your hand, while you, having destroyed our fleet, only shaved off our beard. Remember, a severed hand will not grow back, and a cut beard will usually grow back with renewed vigor.”

Instructing Uluj to build new ships, he said:

“The strength and power of the Ottoman state is such that if ordered, it will not be difficult to make anchors from silver, cables from silk threads, and sails from satin.”

And Uluj perfectly seized the chance to modernize the Turkish fleet. On his initiative, the construction of large ships began on the model of the Venetian galleasses. Heavier guns were now placed on the galleys, Turkish sailors received firearms. weapon.

A year later, new Ottoman squadrons went to sea, and in 1573 the Venetians were forced to make peace, ceding Cyprus to the Turks and paying an indemnity of 300 thousand gold florins.

Thus, the battle of Lepanto can be compared with the battle on the Kulikovo field. They had no strategic significance for the victors, but they had a huge impact on the morale of the population of Russia and the countries of Catholic Europe. Numerous verses and poems were devoted to the victory at Lepanto. The author of one such work was the Scottish King James (son of Mary Stuart). However, this poem, written by him in 1591, was not liked by Jacob's compatriots: implacable Protestant preachers called their king "hired poet", glorifying"foreign papist bastard"(Juan of Austria).

After the battle of Lepanto, paintings were also created dedicated to the victory of the Christian army. Among them are two allegorical paintings by Titian, which were commissioned by the Spanish King Philip II:


Titian. "Spain comes to the aid of religion." Prado Museum, Madrid


Titian. "Philip II, after the victory at Lepanto, hands Don Fernando to Heaven." Prado Museum, Madrid

Moreover, a new Catholic holiday appeared, which in 1573 was named the Virgin Mary - the Queen of the Rosary.

And in 1572, a delegation of Albanians came to Juan, offering him to lead the fight against the Turks and become king. But you need to know what Albania was like in the second half of the XNUMXth century. Even Juan, who already dreamed of the throne of at least some country, did not dare to accept this offer. His half-brother Philip II fully approved of his decision.

Don Juan in Tunisia


After the collapse of the Holy League, in the summer of 1574, Selim II sent a squadron of 300 ships to the shores of North Africa. The 40th Ottoman army captured the city of Tunisia and destroyed the Spanish garrisons in the fortresses of La Guetta and Al Bastiun. Juan of Austria managed to recapture Tunisia and destroy Bizerte. The ambitious bastard even made plans to create his own Christian kingdom here - on the model of the states created once by the crusaders in Palestine. Pope Gregory XI supported his claims. However, Philip II reacted coldly to Juan's plans and not only refused to help, but even ordered the troops to be evacuated and the walls of Tunisia to be demolished. He then threw all his forces into the Netherlands, trying to keep this troubled province in obedience, which his father Charles declared the personal possession of the Habsburgs.

Later, Philip II did not support another adventurous plan of an enterprising bastard who planned to kidnap the captive of the English queen, Mary Stuart, and marry her. Instead, he appointed Juan Vicar General of Milan, Naples and Sicily. Relations between half-brothers - King Philip and Juan of Austria, were getting worse.


Another portrait of Don Juan of Austria by Alonso Sanchez Coelho

Don Juan in the Netherlands


Historians note that at this time the character of Juan of Austria changed for the worse. Ambition, arrogance and envy now came to the fore. He was annoyed by the presence of a "thin" mother, who, he believed, compromised him and interfered with plans to become the reigning monarch. He even planned to lure her to Spain and imprison her in one of the monasteries. However, in Spain the winner at Lepanto was still popular.

In 1576, Philip II decided to appoint the annoying brother to the post of royal governor of the Netherlands. There he was to replace the Duke of Alba. The situation in this remote, rebellious province was very difficult. The "Spanish road" of the Habsburgs was practically non-functional, and it was now difficult to even get to the Netherlands: the sea route was dangerous due to the actions of the British and Geuzes, the land route lay through hostile France. As a result, Juan had to get to his destination incognito - hiding his name. Due to logistical problems, the Spanish troops here were already doomed. Their final evacuation was only a matter of time.

The situation became more and more alarming. On November 8, 1576, even before the arrival of Juan, in Ghent, the Catholic and Protestant regions of the Spanish Netherlands came to an agreement on the need for the withdrawal of Spanish troops from the territory of the province. Only under this condition did they agree to recognize Juan as governor. In January 1577, don Juan was forced to sign the Union of Brussels, which guaranteed the restoration of the rights and liberties of the Netherlands and the approval of the Prince of Orange as the Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland. It was possible to achieve only guarantees of the dominant position in the Netherlands for Catholicism. After that, don Juan was generally well received in Brussels, but his unwillingness to withdraw Spanish troops from the Netherlands led to a new aggravation of the situation.

Don Juan continued to make far-reaching plans, which were now one more fantastic than the other. He considered the possibility of an alliance with the Duke of Guise, through whose help it would allegedly be possible to seize the throne of Spain, forcing the weak and sickly Philip II to abdicate. He dreamed of either freeing Mary Stuart, or marrying Elizabeth of England. He was going to organize an assassination attempt on William of Orange, but could not find the executor.

Finally, Philip II himself ordered the evacuation of Spanish troops from the Netherlands. But this did not suit Juan at all. In July 1577, his army of 22, advancing from Luxembourg, occupied Namur and Charlemont. This led to the final unification of the Catholics and Protestants of the Netherlands, and the States General demanded that Philip II recall Juan. Margarita of Parma was appointed in his place, but it was too late. In January 1578, Juan arbitrarily sent troops into the Netherlands, defeating the rebels at Isemble. After that, he occupied Flanders, Brabant and Bennegad, but he did not have enough strength to advance further. Having sent a letter to Philip II asking for help, he stationed his troops in a camp near Namur.

William of Orange at that time was gathering his army, commanded by General Bosso. She was supposed to be helped by detachments of German Protestants, gathered with money allocated by England. The French were also ready to intervene. The small Spanish army was pinned down on all sides. To prevent Bosso from linking up with the Germans, Juan attacked his army at Rimenan, but was defeated.

At this time, an epidemic of some kind of disease began in the Spanish camp, which the chroniclers traditionally called the plague. Among her victims was the hero Lepanto, who had become useless to anyone. Juan of Austria died before the age of 32 on October 1, 1578. His grave can be seen in Escorial.


El Escorial Spain. Tomb of Don Juan de Austria
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Juan of Austria. The famous bastard of the Spanish Habsburgs
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  1. Korsar4
    Korsar4 26 March 2022 05: 36
    +2
    Various associations arise. One is connected with the dance of Juan of Austria before the battle. The character "Dancer" resembles from "Gangster Petersburg".
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. VLR
      26 March 2022 07: 01
      +7
      Well, here, "lieutenant Rzhevsky came" smile
      But what a beautiful picture: the young admiral, in impatient anticipation of the battle in front of his subordinates and the sailors of the approaching enemy flagship, does not pray to the same Mary of Guadalupe, but dances a cheerful galliard:

      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 26 March 2022 07: 11
        +3
        What “Rzhevsky” managed to do he never saw.

        And as for the dance - more or less clear:

        “Sing, you better sing! It's time to forget.
        Sing, you better sing! It’s better to sing than to howl ”(c).
        1. VLR
          26 March 2022 07: 19
          +5
          And on this occasion, I remember Junot, who, according to Bonaparte, "went into the fire, as if to a ball."
          Write about him, or something, someday ...
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 26 March 2022 16: 41
            +2
            Write about him, or something, someday ...


            Would purcua not be pa? yes

  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 26 March 2022 05: 46
    +5
    And one more question persistently comes to mind - how much high-quality wood did the Turks have to use to restore the fleet. Obviously from the Black Sea basin. How has the nature of forests changed as a result of this?
    1. VLR
      26 March 2022 06: 24
      +5
      I came across such figures according to the construction standards of Russian galleys:

      To the galley of oak forests:
      For 16 jar 615
      For 20 jar 682
      For 22 jar 746
      Yes, apart from these boards for one galley 41
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 26 March 2022 06: 41
        +4
        Surely, these oak trunks should have been selected. So logging more than 200 galleys is a colossal waste of material and an outstanding organization system.
        And it was necessary to dry properly.
        It seems that the forests of Bulgaria have been cut down properly.

        And what grew then in the territory of modern Turkey is less represented.
        1. VLR
          26 March 2022 07: 05
          +4
          The British, who during the Continental Blockade tried to buy ship timber from the Ottoman Empire, complained that it was "only good for coffins." But by that time, probably, the timber had already been cut down. In the 16th, it was probably better.
          ,
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 26 March 2022 07: 14
            +3
            The trend is clear.
            A good mature oak plantation takes hundreds of years to form. And who will give them?
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 26 March 2022 16: 46
              +2
              The seashore is no more; the trace of the oaks has fallen cold.
              Oak is good for parquet, but no:
              Hefty goons came out of the hut,
              They chopped those oaks into coffins.
              .................................. ...............................................................................
              Here the cat really walks, as to the right - so he sings,
              How to the left - so the anecdote will bend,
              But the learned son of a bitch - the golden chain was demolished in torgsin,
              And to the rescue one - to the store.


              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 26 March 2022 17: 04
                +1
                "What a blue sky
                We are not supporters of robbery:
                You don't need a knife for greedy
                Show him a penny
                And do with it what you want!” (from).
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 26 March 2022 17: 24
                  +2
                  "The Indus roared the winter crops. The sun cleared up, scattered its rays over the white light. Old man Romualdych sniffed his footcloth and already bewitched" (c)
                  I have the second episode of the Birthday, so maybe everything is off topic. laughing
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 26 March 2022 17: 49
                    +2
                    The rules of the game are so good that you can even eat the chess king.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 26 March 2022 18: 00
                      +1
                      Yes, if you don't play Chapaev. laughing

                      "Where should the commander be?"

                      1. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 26 March 2022 18: 38
                        +1
                        In a hut on chicken legs?
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 March 2022 18: 47
                        +1
                        I return to the song - "From the oaks there was a cold and a trace ..." (c)

                      3. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 26 March 2022 19: 25
                        +1
                        There is a tendency to loop.

                        "You live in an enchanted wild forest,
                        Where it is impossible to leave "(c).
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 26 March 2022 19: 56
                        +1
                        Perhaps they had just seen off the last guests. And, apparently, on this occasion, thick snow fell in huge flakes. It's a sign. Now I'll finish my vodka and go to bed. Overkill, as they say in the Navy. laughing drinks laughing
                      5. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 26 March 2022 20: 46
                        +1
                        "Hey comrade! Yes, you have joined the hostess. To know, you don't need vodka, but you need a pullet; business, brother, business! everyone has his own custom; and Father Misail and I have one concern: we drink to the bottom, we drink, we turn and beat to the bottom ”(c).
                    2. Ruslan67
                      Ruslan67 27 March 2022 01: 57
                      +1
                      Quote: Korsar4
                      The rules of the game are so good that you can even eat the chess king.

                      Something went wrong what Kolobok thought while eating the fox ..
              2. Ruslan67
                Ruslan67 27 March 2022 01: 54
                +1
                Quote: Sea Cat
                The seashore is no more; the trace of the oaks has fallen cold.

                There on unknown paths
                Already planted potatoes
                In that hut on chicken legs
                Seven families have already been moved in ... (c)
          2. balabol
            balabol 26 March 2022 15: 25
            +2
            From French sources:
            As for the masts for warships, an element that largely determines speed, France was barred from trade with Russia in mast timber. First-class wood was going to England. First through Riga, then through St. Petersburg. The composite masts of the French fleet did not allow setting sails equal in area to the English ships. For some reason, the French were unable to arrange the delivery of timber of the required condition from Canada. Therefore, they never had an advantage in speed over the British. However, during the war of the British colonies for independence, the policy of armed neutrality of Russia closed England's access to this resource and to Russian ship timber in general. England had to put up composite masts themselves, reducing the performance of their ships.
        2. VLR
          26 March 2022 07: 59
          +5
          "It seems that the forests of Bulgaria have been cut down properly"

          It seems that ship timber was also harvested on the territory of the former Yugoslavia. And, probably, during the period of peace with the Russian Empire, they received Russian forest through Odessa. After all, they are always the same traders: on the eve of the Special Operation, Russian and Belarusian companies sharply increased the supply of diesel fuel to Ukraine, which, apparently, went directly to the bases of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 26 March 2022 08: 14
            +3
            The forests of present-day Bulgaria, Serbia and Croatia could clearly have been cut to restore the fleet after Lepanto. But did Ivan the Terrible trade timber with the Sultan? Somehow it doesn't look very good.
            1. VLR
              26 March 2022 08: 29
              +5
              I did not mean the time of Ivan the Terrible, but later times - after all, ship timber has always been a very valuable commodity. And one of the most popular in the structure of Russian foreign trade.
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 March 2022 09: 46
                +5
                Quote: VlR
                I did not mean the time of Ivan the Terrible, but later times - after all, ship timber has always been a very valuable commodity. And one of the most popular in the structure of Russian foreign trade.

                Ivan the Terrible, through the Moscow Company, began to trade timber with England.
                The enterprise was quite successful and, if I am not mistaken, existed for almost three centuries. In addition to timber, potash, hemp, hemp and iron were exported.
                The first ecologist in Russia was Peter I, who issued a decree on protected forests. However, with the ship's timber, we flew into the rake until the reign of Pavel Petrovich.
                As far back as Catherine the Great, Prince Potemkin of Tauride already wrote: “Kazan covetous men sent a forest that was badly damp and sieve. I will get to the Tatar muzzles, and there is a gracious mother, I will cut off my legs!
                And finally, we lost the timber of the European part of Russia in the second half of the 18th century with the development of the Shipping Company in the Volga basin. Bans on deforestation were removed even by Peter the Great, and after a quarter of a century only stumps remained from the oak trees. In the middle of the last one. For a quarter of a century, only one of the three large shipping companies of the Volga region was provided with firewood. The rest, due to a shortage of firewood, switched to coal.
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 26 March 2022 10: 14
                  +4
                  And here it is not. Don't forget Yaroslav the Wise with his Russkaya Pravda. There were punishments for setting fire to the forest. And for cutting boundary trees. It is clear that boundary trees - so as not to argue about the boundaries.

                  But our history of nature management is deeper than the times of Peter the Great.
                2. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 26 March 2022 11: 04
                  +4
                  By the way, I just looked at the versions of Russkaya Pravda. I did not find any mention of punishment for setting fire to the forest. Only beavers and side trees were limited.

                  This is what it means to trust the versions, regardless of the primary sources. But beavers and beavers may well be classified as environmental protection.
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 March 2022 13: 14
                    +3
                    Sergey, don't beat yourself up. Vira for setting fire to the forest and boundary trees is mentioned in the Long Truth, which appeared two centuries after the death of Yaroslav. In the history of state and law, it is considered the third edition of the Russian Pravda, after the truth of the Yaroslavichs.
                    It has several lists, the most famous is Pskov.
                    When I mentioned Peter, I nevertheless relied on the safety of the construction (ship) forest.
                    Borti, beavers, fallen grasses and forests - this is still closer to agricultural use. In this case, people were guided by customs that are clearly older than any legal norms.
                    Russian shipbuilders were first mentioned by Konstantin Porphyrogenitus, describing the “munuskil” that were lowered to Kiev in the spring, and then led to Constantinople for sale. Among the export goods are also mentioned: honey, furs and slaves.
                3. parusnik
                  parusnik 26 March 2022 11: 17
                  +5
                  The first ecologist in Russia was Peter I, who issued a decree on protected forests.
                  ..He promised the loggers of ship timber, the nobility, and other nishtyaks. For 300 years of the existence of the Decree, no one fell for him .. Not profitable, long, not profitable.
              2. Fat
                Fat 26 March 2022 19: 34
                0
                hi Valery. Ship timber? Mast - yes, they delivered from the seaside, but Russian oaks were considered not of very high quality - fragile wood, with the exception of the "Baltic" oak, "Kazan" was also suitable
            2. astra wild2
              astra wild2 26 March 2022 08: 39
              +3
              “Did Ivan the Terrible personally trade with the Sultan,” but they traded with him. Katka, I read somewhere that Russian merchants visited the Crimea and Turkey, and what did they trade?
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 26 March 2022 08: 52
                +4
                The British, within the framework of the Moscow company, definitely traded. White Sea pine has always been highly valued.
                But how was the situation with the Mediterranean market at that time?
                1. Old electrician
                  Old electrician 26 March 2022 14: 59
                  +2
                  But how was the situation with the Mediterranean market at that time?

                  According to historical data, the first settlements in Venice appeared in the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries. When the inhabitants of the province of Aquileia were saved in this way from enemy attacks. The settlement of the city began with small islands, which later became part of the city.
                  The whole of Venice is built on wooden piles, there are more than a million of them in the city. More than 30 piles were used for the famous Rialto Bridge. Previously, this bridge was completely wooden, but it burned many times after which the Venetians made it stone, this version of the bridge exists to this day.
                  The Italian historian Tentori, who lived in the XNUMXth century, wrote in his work of twelve volumes that the city literally stands on Perm karagay. Meaning exactly the larches grown in the Urals.
                  At the same time, Tentori, in an early edition of his Venetian chronicle, insists that the number of piles is almost two million.
                  It is believed that the piles on which the Italian city rests are hewn from Siberian larch wood. The breed was not chosen by chance: it does not rot under the influence of moisture, but only becomes stronger and harder, like stone. Thus, these supports can stand forever.
                  Similar trees grow on the spurs of the Alps, in Northern Italy. However, some of the supports were undoubtedly brought from the Ural hinterland. Indeed, in Europe, forests are not so plentiful, for construction needs on the scale of an entire city, trunks were not enough. I had to bring precious goods from the other side of the world, from the Perm region.
                  In the Urals region, since the XNUMXth century, the Stroganov dynasty was in charge of trade deliveries to all four sides. So, Tsar Ivan the Terrible personally instructed Anikey Stroganov to take control of the sale of Russian timber. He turned out to be a successful entrepreneur, and the methods of accumulation and preservation of capital adopted by him acted on the territory of the Muscovite state, and, later, of the entire Russian Empire.
                  Anika or Ioanniky Stroganov was known as an energetic, smart businessman. He was able to lay a good foundation for the wealth of future generations. His three sons - Semyon, Yakov and Grigory - were able to increase the funds raised by their father and put them into business.
                  At that time, Siberia did not trade directly with Italy. These are Bulgar merchants, who heard about the properties of larch from the north of the Permian land, bought it in large quantities, transported it by water to Astrakhan, and then distributed it around the world, calling the tree karagai from Perm. So the Turkish fleet could most certainly have been built from Russian wood. Since Turkey was on the route of exporting Russian timber over the hill, it is impossible to believe that the Turks disinterestedly let these shipments pass through the Bosphorus.
              2. lisikat2
                lisikat2 26 March 2022 09: 27
                +7
                "We traded not for nothing,
                unspecified product;
                And we have a long way to go:
                Come back to the east
                (C)
              3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 March 2022 09: 48
                +4
                Quote: Astra wild2
                “Did Ivan the Terrible personally trade with the Sultan,” but they traded with him. Katka, I read somewhere that Russian merchants visited the Crimea and Turkey, and what did they trade?

                Fur!
                By the end of his reign, Ivan IV finally squeezed the “gas pipeline” for the export of soft junk to the Middle East and Europe.
              4. Senior seaman
                Senior seaman 26 March 2022 14: 28
                +1
                Honey, wax, furs, leather, metal products.
          2. astra wild2
            astra wild2 26 March 2022 08: 35
            +2
            "Sharply increased deliveries," it turns out they knew about the upcoming special operation? In this case, the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, that they could not assess the situation?
            On the site I read the materials of Apukhtin, Roman Skomorokhov (?) In the News section, it seems like his style that the Ukrainian command was completely confused
            1. VLR
              26 March 2022 08: 55
              +4
              The leadership of the Armed Forces of Ukraine was clearly preparing for something. To the offensive or defense (Russian-Belarusian maneuvers clearly unnerved him). And therefore, naturally, it took measures to replenish strategic reserves.
              1. Bolt cutter
                Bolt cutter 26 March 2022 14: 19
                +3
                The leadership of the Armed Forces of Ukraine was clearly preparing for something
                The Americans clearly leaked intelligence to them and there was no unexpected blow.
                1. VLR
                  26 March 2022 14: 41
                  +2
                  Yes, everyone laughed at the senile Biden when he said that hostilities could begin at any moment, but it turned out that he had amazingly accurate data. "Mole" at the highest level is sitting somewhere in Moscow - in Putin's inner circle or in the Ministry of Defense or the General Staff. .
                2. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 26 March 2022 15: 09
                  +2
                  I have a firm conviction that Putin did not make any secret of the preparation and planning of the invasion. In February, he spoke with the leaders of all countries of any importance, including Biden.
                  Then, in some publication, information slipped that Biden, in his own words, learned about the impending invasion from Putin during their conversation. If so, then, most likely, Putin said the same thing to the French and Germans. So, apparently, it was not a surprise for anyone.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 26 March 2022 16: 50
                +2
                (Russian-Belarusian maneuvers clearly unnerved him)

                And it was a no brainer what this concentration of army units was leading to.
        3. parusnik
          parusnik 26 March 2022 08: 15
          +7
          Oak forests, the Taman Peninsula was also dotted, we have one place called "Oak Market", once there was trade there. Under Soviet rule, there was a pheasant reserve, oak trees grew, now, a secret object .. Remains of former luxury, you can see along the banks of the erik, but these are not even groves, but so ..
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 26 March 2022 08: 56
            +3
            Now it's hard to even imagine. Steppe vegetation appears. But, if there are floodplain forests, oak trees could grow there. Although I was only passing through your area.
            1. parusnik
              parusnik 26 March 2022 10: 14
              +4
              Yes, it’s hard to imagine now, it’s hard to imagine that galleys sailed along the Erik, Protoka, Kuban, and other rivers, there was a brisk trade .. It’s hard to imagine the steppes in which bustards and many other living creatures were found .. It’s already hard to imagine how strong it was the Blue Line was fortified, it was necessary to force swampy areas, numerous rivers, this is not there now, but what can we say about the oak forests that once existed ..
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 26 March 2022 10: 19
                +3
                The eternal struggle of the Forest and the Steppe. And how the person intervenes. In the taiga zone, the forest will take its toll. Not right away, but it will. But your picture from the past is clearly reflected in the mind.
                1. parusnik
                  parusnik 26 March 2022 11: 12
                  +5
                  Sergey, read the Bible, in terms of climate change and human influence on it. An interesting picture is obtained, as it was before and how everything has changed.
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 26 March 2022 11: 32
                    +3
                    Are you talking about the Flood or the Egyptian executions?
                    1. parusnik
                      parusnik 26 March 2022 12: 29
                      +6
                      These are separate episodes, I mean the whole picture .. If we talk about the Universal Flood, then this is more about the flood, in some separate region, most likely Mesopotamia, Egyptian executions should most likely be tied to some kind of natural disaster that occurred in Mediterranean .. Speaking about climate change and human influence on it, he meant one region, modern Israel, Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon.
                      1. VLR
                        26 March 2022 13: 13
                        +4
                        Some researchers believe that the biblical story about the "10 plagues of Egypt" (the book "Exodus" of the Old Testament) reflected a real event - the eruption of the Santorin volcano. Two "executions" are meant: "hail of fire" and "Egyptian darkness."
                      2. parusnik
                        parusnik 26 March 2022 15: 49
                        +2
                        Quite, especially, eruptions in Santorini, and "executions" coincide in time, and similar executions were observed in other geographical points during large volcanic eruptions.
              2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 March 2022 13: 50
                +1
                Yeah, it's hard to imagine now, it's hard to imagine that galleys went along Erik, Protoka, Kuban.

                If I'm not mistaken, Erik and Protoka were originally artificially dug channels?
                1. parusnik
                  parusnik 26 March 2022 15: 45
                  +3
                  They are considered branches of the Kuban, the Protoka is 140 km, the length of the Cossack erik is 32, the fact that they are man-made is a legend. Allegedly, the erik was dug for 40 or 20 years .. No, work on the construction of diversion channels was carried out. But the nature of the Kuban River, wayward, it changed its course yes and the weather is the same, storms, winds, hurricanes, mud volcanoes, natural disasters were enough to carry out such work. Again, if we take the legend as a basis, then no one knows who dug it. Since in our places, before the arrival of the faithful Cossacks, Nekrasov Cossacks lived for a long time, who loved places that are difficult to get close to and easy to leave. You have specific information, I will be glad if you share it, especially on the Protoka River, which was still known to the Nogais and Tatars.
                  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                    Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 March 2022 18: 34
                    +1
                    No Alex! I just visited your area and the legend grabbed the living. To be honest, it didn’t fit in my head how the Old Kuban could flow from the Sea of ​​\uXNUMXb\uXNUMXbAzov to the Black.
                    1. parusnik
                      parusnik 26 March 2022 19: 34
                      +3
                      So she entered the Black Sea at one time. Near Anapa there is an old channel of the Kuban, that’s what the Old Kuban is called, a very small river overgrown with sedge and reeds. Then, due to some natural reasons, it changed its course, but it happened more than once. the peninsula is a seismic region. Until the 9th century, if I’m not mistaken, it was an island, not even an island, an archipelago. For example, there is a Slavic settlement under the village of Golubitskaya, when an excavation was carried out, in the early 80s, a report about it was published in the newspaper Izvestia and quite large. The settlement is quite large by 10 thousand, located on the island, the rampart is still preserved, and if you go up on a paraglider, the picture is clearly visible, but excavations are not carried out, since the village is the uppermost layer. Residential buildings, vegetable gardens, communications. By the way, the legs about the fact that someone dug the Black Sea grow from the tale, how the Cossacks dug a new channel of the Kuban, dug the Cossack Yerik. Do you know why, they dug for 20 years Eric? In order to desalinate the Akhtanizovsky estuary, which in itself was fresh and was. By the way, when he was a boy he asked this question to our history teacher, he laughed for a long time, having laughed, he said, you still think that the Cossacks dug the Black Sea. Then he explained for a long time that and how, unfortunately, I forgot a lot. I also advised to contact the geography teacher, she additionally opened her eyes.
        4. balabol
          balabol 26 March 2022 15: 38
          +2
          For the Turks, this forest should have been ready for the construction of ships. Trunks, depending on the grade, intended use, shipbuilder and many other parameters, dried for at least 5 years, satisfactorily - 10 years and normally - 15 years.
          1. Fat
            Fat 26 March 2022 19: 57
            +1
            hi Vladimir.
            The Spaniards were the first to think about drying the forest before building ships. Before the development of the New World, they had little forest, and a large fleet was required even to transport the loot from America. The first ordinances for drying were issued by Philip II, the tree had to be stored under the roofs and lie for at least two years, and once a year the tree was moved and turned over.
            This measure then played a cruel joke with the Spaniards, because Holland, building ships from damp wood, was able to simply crush the enemy with quantity. The Ottomans seem to have done the same as the Dutch...
            Around the time of Charles I, the problem with the forest arose in England. Holland, as the most stingy nation in the world, at the end of the war, also thought about how to extend the life of ships. Both France of the time of Colbert and Russia of the late Peter I thought about this.
            It took the Dutch 2-3 years to prepare oak for ship framing and cladding, and 5 years for the British.
            I can fully describe both methods of harvesting, but it's long.
            It is difficult to say how the British got their die hard ("impenetrable"), perhaps this is a feature of British coastal oak, very rich in tannins, or perhaps the result of etching with gallic acid.
            Sincerely
            1. balabol
              balabol 26 March 2022 21: 24
              +1
              It's stupid to argue with your words. I actually wrote in a streamlined way - depending on a lot of factors - time, country, technology. The construction of ships requires not only oak, but also other species. Some particularly critical elements required a more careful approach to the selection of materials and their preparation for production.
              Of course, economic factors also played an important role in the implementation of construction projects. Commercial ships - one approach, warships are different criteria.
              An interesting example of the construction of a ship for the delivery of "Thunder Stone" to St. Petersburg. By decree of Catherine, the Admiralty, those naval departments, were engaged in this. They did everything possible and impossible, but did not give up their forest from New Holland. They chose the most expensive contractor, just to enter into the contract that he builds from his own material.
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 26 March 2022 08: 07
    +3
    His grave can be seen in Escorial.
    Michel de Gilderodt. "Escorial". Oh, youth, the smell of the scenes ... smile Not all Petersburgers remember the festival of amateur youth theaters in St. Petersburg, in the early 90s of the last century. The winner was broadcast on local TV
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 26 March 2022 16: 53
      +1
      Not all Petersburgers remember the festival of amateur youth theaters in St. Petersburg, in the early 90s of the last century.

      I remember such a festival in 1966 in Moscow, the STEM festival, had the good fortune to be present.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 26 March 2022 17: 48
        +2
        This festival was probably held in the year 1994, moreover, this festival was one play by Michel de Gilderodt "Escorial", almost all the contestants staged it
  4. astra wild2
    astra wild2 26 March 2022 08: 25
    +3
    Colleagues, Valery, good morning. Do you know how nice it is to see good material on the site in the morning?
    It seems like a day off and interesting materials, but I won’t be able to stay for a long time Alas, I have a lot to do
  5. know
    know 26 March 2022 08: 27
    +4
    A sad, but probably natural evolution of a romantic knight into a cruel medieval commander: "to live with wolves, howl like wolves"
  6. lisikat2
    lisikat2 26 March 2022 09: 02
    +2
    Good morning everyone. Account 1 . 1 "Standard Grand Master of the Order of the Hospitallers" and "Green Banner of the Prophet Muhammad".
    Interestingly, but at least, Some of those trophies have been preserved now?
    1. VLR
      26 March 2022 13: 32
      +2
      The exchange is unequal: the banner of the prophet is a shrine and the main banner of the Ottoman fleet. For the Holy League, this was the banner of the Virgin Mary of Guadalupe, which was carried by the flagship Real. And the banner of the Maltese grandmaster is the standard of one of the League units.
      1. lisikat2
        lisikat2 26 March 2022 14: 31
        +2
        Valery, you know better, but I can’t and don’t want to argue
  7. deddem
    deddem 28 March 2022 16: 07
    0
    Quote: Korsar4
    The trend is clear.
    A good mature oak plantation takes hundreds of years to form. And who will give them?

    Well, yes.
    Vaughn, recently the local state defense procurement in Denmark reported on the successful closing of a contract for laying and growing timber to make up for losses from the "Copenhagenization" of the fleet in 1807.