Military Review

Strategic universal КР 3М25 Thunder - Meteorit Complex

At the end of 1976 of the year, according to the resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers, the design bureau under the direction of V.Chelomei begins to develop a draft of a long-range universal CU. The rocket was immediately developed in 3 variants:
- sea-based for submarines of the SSGN 949М / 675 / К-420;
- air-based for strategic aircraft such as Tu-160 / 95;
- ground-based for installation on mobile launchers.

The design sketches are protected at the end of the 1978 year of the maritime version, at the beginning of the 1979 airborne year. Creation and assembly of cruise missiles took place at the facilities of the Khrunichev plant, development and creation of engines for the upper stage led by the design bureau of Himavtomatika.

Marine option - complex "Meteorit-M"
In May, the 1980 of the year begins the first tests of the marine modification of the rocket. The tests were carried out with a ground test bench. The tests were unsuccessful - the RBM "Meteorite" was not able to leave the launcher. The following three test launches also failed. On the fifth launch, the cruise missile successfully descended from the PU and flew a range of about 50 kilometers. There is information that on the Black Sea there were launches from a sinking stand. Later launches were carried out with the submarine K-420 of the project 667М. Before 1988, at least 30 CR launches 3М25 were completed.
The main problems identified by the tests:
- the work of the correction system for the RC RL-image of the territory;
- operation of the plasma education system (protection complex);
- the work of the main engine.

Strategic universal КР 3М25 Thunder - Meteorit Complex

From 1988, the state tests of “Meteorit-M” begin with the UKR of the database 3М-25 together with the main carrier of the SSGN K-420. Nuclear submarines K-420 - is refitted SSBN project 667A. On the submarine installed inclined launch CM-290. Initially we planned to install launchers standardized with Granit rockets, but when refitting the submarine it became obvious that it was not possible to implement such a solution. The slope of launchers amounted to 45 degrees. Missiles launched from flooded launchers. Missile launch was possible from depths down to 40 meters at speeds of less than 10 nodes.

The main characteristics of SSGTs K-420:
- displacement - 13.6 thousand tons;
- dimensions - 152 / 14.7 / 8.7 meters;
- immersion slave / max - 380 / 450 meters;
- speed above / under water - node 15 / 23;
- armament: 12 launchers with 3М25, 4 TA caliber 533mm, 2 TA caliber 400mm.

The launches were carried out both from the ground test stand and from the board of the submarine. A total of 50 launches of the 3М-25 were completed. The ratio of unsuccessful and successful launches is 50: 50. At the end of 1989, the development of the Meteorit-M marine complex was stopped based on the results of state tests. Navy missiles and missiles are being removed from the nuclear submarine, and it is like a torpedo submarine in the 1990 year, the Navy is being commissioned.

Aviation option - Meteorite-A complex
Since ground tests of the missiles were carried out for the naval complex, the aviation complex was immediately tested from the carrier-aircraft. All launches were made with Tu-95MA (approximately 20 starts).

Initially, the CD for the Meteorit-A complex was called “255 Product”. The rocket was suspended on a wing pylon, from where it started. It was first launched at the beginning of 1984 of the year - the launch was unsuccessful. The next launch also failed. Later on, the 3М-25А missiles were almost completely refined and tested at the Kapustin Yar test site. Due to the small length of the landfill, the tests were held with a turn of 180 degrees, which was a non-standard solution for rockets with speeds around 3M. However, although the complex was already ready, in 1992, its development also ceases.

Ground option - complex "Meteorit-N"
The ground-based Meteorit-N complex with the 3М-25Н rocket was designed, built, and tested, presumably, in the 1981 year. Structurally, it resembled a marine version of the complex with the RBM database 3М-25. To create a complex developed technology stealth, which were later used for other projects. The likely reason for the termination of the creation of "Meteorit-N" - the Treaty on the reduction of the INF.

CR DB 3М-25 "Thunder"
The rocket feature is a unique complex for overcoming enemy air defenses. He was called a complex of protection with the system of formation of plasma. Plasma generator, working forward, provided a camouflage air intake propulsion engine. However, the flaws in the high-voltage equipment of the system very often led to accidents. In addition, to ensure the protection of the missile, an EW complex was installed, which independently produced false towed targets.

The missile is made according to the aerodynamic scheme of the "duck" type with a triangular folding wing, as well as a folding lower plumage. The engine air intake is made under the fuselage. An autonomous inertial type system was installed in the rocket with correction of the read data of the radar of the RK image of the territories. To process radar information, a powerful computer was used. To carry out combat flights of the Kyrgyz Republic in navy created a computer center for the development of digital maps with an accurate adjustment system. Tests of the rocket revealed big problems using the correction system, but by the beginning of 1981, a solution had been found in the form of recognition of the contours of the contrast image. Such a decision was subsequently recognized as promising and recommended for use on UBB 15F178 and Albatros intercontinental ballistic missiles.

The starting acceleration stage of the sea and land rocket was the same. It was installed under a rocket with two liquid propellant rocket engines developed by Voronezh KBKHA. RD-0242 provided a total thrust of 24 tons and had controlled rotary nozzles. To remove 3-25 from under water, 2 starting solid propellants were used. Stage engines - upgraded first stage engines from the intercontinental "15А20 / УР-100К". The pneumatic hydraulics system is very similar to that of the P-29 (4K75) underwater launch ballistic missile. The developer (KBXA) conducted 48 tests - 96 engines. Combat tread time - 32 seconds. For the aviation 3М-25А, at first they planned to install an accelerating solid propellant rocket motor, but it was missing in the final version.

Marching engine - turbojet CR-23 (CR-93). Developed at the Ufa motor-building association "Motor". It was assumed that the CPC would accelerate the missiles to a super speed of more than one Mach, on which the propulsion engine was supposed to start. However, this has not been achieved in trials. The engine created traction in 10 tons (ground) and 8 tons (height 24 km).

To start the MD had to use the branch of the CDS at speeds less than one Mach. This resulted in a loss in flight range. To compensate for the use of new high-energy fuel. Though it was more expensive, it provided the missile with a flight to the required range. A stabilization compartment was installed in the tail section of the CD, after dropping it, a turbo starter or spin-up solid propellant of a disk version with tangential nozzles was launched. It was installed at the rear end of the turbine shaft. Having started the turbine, it was disconnected and thrown out through a nozzle. The turbine went into the afterburner mode, on which, having worked for a couple of tens of seconds, it went into normal operation.

A total of about 100 units of KP 3М25 / 3М25А units were created, 70 units were used for testing. In the 1993 year, when the development of the Thunder was fully stopped, the 15 3-25 units of finished products remained at the plant.

Missile launchers:
- under the Monolith-M complex, it was originally planned to use the SSGN of the 949M project, but it did not undergo unification with the Granit complex. After it was planned to install the complex on the SSGN of the 675 project, but this project was not implemented. The next step was to retrofit the SSGN of the 667M project to the SSGN K-420. The submarine with the number 432 was re-equipped at the Sevmash unit for two years. The descent of the SSGN 420 took place on 15.10.1982 of the year. Established 12 launch complex "Monolith-M", because of which the total length of the submarine increased by 20 meters. Expanded rocket compartment to 15 meters. The following systems and complexes were installed: “Klever”, “Kite-44”, “Andromeda”, “Tobol-AT”, “Molniya-LMNNUMX”, “Rubicon”, “Bor”.

- a strategic bomber Tu-95MS was re-equipped under the Monolith-A complex. The aircraft numbered 04 was re-equipped at the Taganrog aircraft factory. Installed on the carrier SU RK "Lira" and two pylons under the wing.

In August, the 2007 of the year at the MAKS-2007 air show was presented a missile complex without a CPC, which was marked “Meteorite-A”.

Key features of 3М-25 / 3М-25А:
- length - 12.5 / 12.8 meters;
- diameter - 0.9 meter;
- wing - 5.1 meter;
- starting weight - 12.6 tons;
- weight of the CU without CPC - 6380 / 6300 kilogram;
- range - 5 thousands of kilometers;
- marching speed - up to 3 M (3500 km / h);
- cruising altitude - 20-24 km;
- The weight of the warhead - one ton (nuclear charge);
- flight time - more than 60 minutes.

Information sources:,965.0.html

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  1. gregor6549
    gregor6549 28 September 2012 09: 04
    As far as I am aware, the program for creating the KR Meteorite was one of the largest failures in the history of the Chelomey Design Bureau. In pursuit of universalism, he failed, "to bring to mind" neither the aviation nor the sea version of the Meteorite, and the customer from the Navy had to use other types of missile launchers of this design bureau, which were not so "monetary", but efficient and reliable. And the Air Force used completely different types of missiles from other design bureaus.
    1. andrei332809
      andrei332809 28 September 2012 09: 15
      You are not quite right. 3m25 before launch in the series there were only 2 test launches. new buildings had already been built for the production of this product. but a hunchback came and, at the insistence of the Arugan friends, included it in the list for reduction. so, before it had time to appear, the product was hacked. as well as a beautiful thing, one boat to the Mediterranean, and all of Europe, all Arabs and Jews at gunpoint
    2. Rockets
      Rockets 28 September 2012 09: 23
      Quote: gregor6549
      KR Meteorite was one of the largest failures in the history of KB Chelomei.

      In the 90s, our country had a failure Nothing surprising, the collapse of the USSR There was no money, communications were broken, not to fine-tune. The main hurt. The road will be overcome
    3. Engineer
      Engineer 8 August 2015 21: 43
      fortunately this is only your opinion without any reason
  2. ShturmKGB
    ShturmKGB 28 September 2012 10: 06
    I hope now they will see this rocket in the army ...
    1. Windbreak
      Windbreak 28 September 2012 10: 35
      a rocket with a speed of 3 M already yesterday, it is necessary to switch to hypersound
      1. FID
        FID 28 September 2012 14: 46
        Yes, this hyper was given to you. Why is it needed?
        1. Windbreak
          Windbreak 28 September 2012 16: 03
          Because a hypersonic missile has a much better chance of confronting an enemy air defense / missile defense system, it’s better to send a pack of low-flying and hard-to-detect X-102s to the enemy, rather than flying at an altitude of 20-24 at a speed of 3M
        2. PLO
          PLO 28 September 2012 16: 03
          Do you happen to know that this rocket has prospects?
        3. Rockets
          Rockets 28 September 2012 19: 29
          Quote: SSI

          Yes, this hyper was given to you. Why is it needed?

          For example, a rocket with a weight of a couple of tons, at a speed of 5 max, a warhead is not needed. If she gets into an aircraft carrier, she will drown him. And knocking her down is not realistic today with modern air defense systems.
          1. Su24
            Su24 29 September 2012 09: 56
            Well, yes the S-400 shoots down targets at speeds up to 4,8 km / s, i.e. about 16 M.
            1. Rockets
              Rockets 29 September 2012 14: 16
              Quote: Su24
              Well, yes the S-400 shoots down targets at speeds up to 4,8 km / s, i.e. about 16 M.

              And let me ask, what was this tested on? Can you name a simulator?
              Or combat use of an object flying at such a speed.
              And for what purpose? By ballistic? quite possible....
          2. FID
            FID 29 September 2012 22: 06
            A couple of tons and hyper? What kind of energy should it be? How Zaporozhets-dump from the mountain?
        4. not good
          not good 29 September 2012 09: 48
          Even on 2 MAXs, a practical RCC, when hit without problems, passes through an SKR type ship through, and through a hypersound a through hole is not even a problem in an aircraft carrier. In addition, today there is not a single SPRA capable of destroying such a missile.
          1. Su24
            Su24 29 September 2012 09: 55
            And what is the problem from the through hole, I wonder?
          2. Engineer
            Engineer 8 August 2015 22: 02
            it’s not RCC, but a strategic carrier of nuclear weapons.
        5. afire
          afire 29 September 2012 12: 04
          potential missile defense, the same Ajis has much higher speeds ... so in terms of speed you can’t get away from it, will the second question fall or not
      2. Director
        Director 28 September 2012 19: 12
        And how will you intercept it at an altitude of 20 km.
        1. Windbreak
          Windbreak 28 September 2012 21: 31
          Ships with "Aegis" and "Patriot" air defense systems
          1. Rockets
            Rockets 28 September 2012 23: 22
            Quote: Burel
            Ships with "Aegis" and "Patriot" air defense systems

            February 24, 1991 The Aegis system missed 2 Iraqi Haiin-2 anti-ship missiles launched against the Missouri One was cut down by the British destroyer Gloucester
            And about the patriot of the Israelites, ask who screwed up against the dense Iraqi skads
            1. Windbreak
              Windbreak 29 September 2012 10: 02
              not correct examples. A rocket with a flight altitude of 20-24 km is not a low-altitude anti-ship missile system. Moreover, the Aegis was sharpened to combat Kh-22 missiles, and it is even faster than the 3M25.
              1. Rockets
                Rockets 29 September 2012 14: 30
                Quote: Burel
                Moreover, "Aegis" sharpened

                About the dancer, have I heard the saying hope?
                And this first case RCC interception in real combat
                Here is the reality, and it has nothing to do with manufacturers' advertising.
          2. Su24
            Su24 29 September 2012 09: 58
            It is true that Aegis can shoot down targets up to 2 km altitude with SM-20 missiles. And it's not an upgraded version yet.
            1. viruskvartirus
              viruskvartirus 29 September 2012 10: 18
              everything is so ... yes not so yes not so ... remember about "Putin's miracle weapon;" this rocket maneuvers in the upper layers! She has a plasma system that makes aiming even more difficult and 3 M is her cruising speed, if she starts to dive, the speed will be completely different ...
      3. alexng
        alexng 29 September 2012 19: 54
        The highlight of these missiles is masking plasma. And if it was possible to bring the high-voltage generator to failure-free operation, then the rocket will become super. Well, speed is a business.
      4. Yarhann
        Yarhann 2 November 2015 00: 13
        well, it’s not so simple there that the missile has an on-board defense complex for detecting attacks and shooting the LC, and how it can be protected today with protective equipment including electronic warfare, etc., etc. This is of course another question and another rocket - the rocket was a masterpiece for its time and really high-tech . Now, of course, it is already outdated in that design, there all the technologies are already old and the use of new ones will make a completely different rocket with different characteristics.
    2. Konrad
      Konrad 29 September 2012 19: 47
      I hope now they will see this rocket in the army ...

      Of course! When they go on an excursion to the museum! laughing
  3. gregor6549
    gregor6549 28 September 2012 10: 08
    Let's wait for other opinions. I still hold my own. And the reason is not in the "insidious Americans" and the "spotted" Gorby (he would have to wash away from other sins), but in the fact that on test launches from the K420 nuclear submarine converted for this missile and launched on 28/12/83, the missiles sometimes did not fly and half of the design range declared by the developers. Therefore, the sailors preferred the new "Meteorites" the older but more reliable and compact "Granites" (although the latter were not small "monsters" either). The fact that the aforementioned nuclear submarine had been carrying Meteorites on itself for several years, then where to put them together with the boat? Production costs, so to speak
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 8 August 2015 22: 00
      I repeat that this is only your erroneous opinion, because, well, the military couldn’t prefer strategic cruise missile with a range of 5000km anti-ship Granite rocket with a range of 550km. Well, no how! These are completely different missiles for different purposes. That's all your opinion and your inventions about the military. And insulting the work of thousands of people of KB Chelomey and the snowfields who worked on this missile is simply the ignorance of an amateur who does not understand the subject of the conversation.
  4. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 28 September 2012 10: 25
    It would be very correct if brought to mind and adopted ... that amers would have spoiled with bricks. "New life of the unique" Meteorite-A ""
    1. gregor6549
      gregor6549 28 September 2012 10: 34
      Why is there such confidence that you always need to bring to mind even what it makes no sense to bring. After all, the Customer in those days was not stupid at all and did not want to let money into the pipe, although sometimes it was necessary. For this, there were special research institutes in each type of the USSR Armed Forces that prepared the technical specifications for the development of weapons and military equipment, and then assessed how developed products correspond to these technical specifications. Moreover, to make such an assessment, funds were sometimes required not less, or even more, than actually for development. Anyone who did not cook this all is unlikely to be able to understand this. The rocket itself is just the tip of the iceberg. And in the underwater part of the iceberg, training grounds, test benches, hundreds of people involved in testing and evaluations, and much more, including serial nuclear submarines sometimes redesigned just for the sake of these tests.
      1. viruskvartirus
        viruskvartirus 28 September 2012 11: 34
        Well, the fact that not everything is so simple in this life, I realized a long time ago)) ... but what you have listed is reflected in the final cost, and that, a rocket that can carry a ton of "payload" for 5 thousand and flying at a speed of 3M is not worth it? ... what kind of "teeth" for strategists.
        1. gregor6549
          gregor6549 28 September 2012 12: 48
          So she could not convey, and the tooth turned out to be rotten.
  5. understudy
    understudy 28 September 2012 10: 27
    And the "racket" is beautiful ...
  6. Forget
    Forget 28 September 2012 13: 06
    Sorry, off topic of course, I would like to know what is happening with the NK 65 motor? are there any progress?
  7. Ilyukha
    Ilyukha 28 September 2012 15: 21
    Quote: gregor6549
    As far as I am aware, the program for creating the KR Meteorite was one of the largest failures in the history of the Chelomey Design Bureau. In pursuit of universalism, he failed, "to bring to mind" neither the aviation nor the sea version of the Meteorite, and the customer from the Navy had to use other types of missile launchers of this design bureau, which were not so "monetary", but efficient and reliable. And the Air Force used completely different types of missiles from other design bureaus.

    I completely agree with you. A 12-ton cruise missile is, you know, a typical example of the Soviet military mono-structure, which ruined the economy. At such a range and BR work fine. Using such a monster from a bomber — it’s the same as launching a plane from another plane — looks cool, just silly. The technically dead end, extremely unreliable project was completed on time. This is something like a tank with an atomic engine, or a flying submarine.

    1. iSpoiler
      iSpoiler 28 September 2012 17: 31
      Speak schA ..
      A ballistic missile is less your way, and cheaper .. ??
      Yes, and let him fuck with a bomber, 5000km - I don’t even know sales, we fly at such ranges except for the BR.
      The technical task was given to KB, why did it .. ??
      I’m thinking that it’s not just been doing it like that, a fig mountain of people, means, time, it has been utterly crushed since 1976 ..
      I don’t agree with your opinion, this gigantism was far from being just that, there were goals, meaning we needed appropriate means and tools ..

      This is like morality in the army .... he is sorry for the most part written in blood ... all these rules are ....
      if they served in the army remember the first time they threw a grenade .. ?? I was stunned when I was directly ordered to take a grenade in my right hand, a fuse in my left, wind a grenade on a fuse ... etc. to throw with our right hand, we laughed then they say we will soon masturbate as well ..
      and damn it was the same assholes when the "fire grenade" people pulled out the pin and shifted the grenade to the left hand because it is more convenient to throw ... poor officers ... they are then imprisoned then if that ...
      something like this
  8. maxiv1979
    maxiv1979 29 September 2012 15: 20
    a rocket needs a carrier, a giant rocket needs ... what is bad when a low-noise apl approaches and mounts 4-6 torpedoes? IMHO, not from a good life, aircraft carriers needed to be built