Military Review

September 28 1939 of the USSR and Germany signed an agreement "On friendship and the border"

38
September 28 1939 of the USSR and Germany signed an agreement "On friendship and the border" 28 September 1939, the USSR and Germany signed an agreement "On friendship and the border." He was signed by German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, he arrived in Moscow on September 27, and on the Soviet side Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR. Joseph Stalin, the Soviet plenipotentiary in Germany, A. A. Shkvartsev, and the German Reich to the USSR, Friedrich-Werner von der Schulenburg, also took part in the negotiations on the conclusion of the German-Soviet agreement. This agreement consolidated the liquidation of the Polish state and confirmed the earlier concluded Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact of August 23 from 1939. The contract was valid until 22 June 1941, when, after the German attack on the USSR, all Soviet-German treaties lost their force.

According to the Treaty on Friendship and Frontiers, the Soviet and German governments, after the collapse of the former Polish state, viewed exclusively as their task the issues of restoring peace and order in this territory and ensuring the peaceful existence of the peoples living there, corresponding to their national characteristics.

Several additional protocols were attached to the contract. The confidential protocol determined the procedure for the exchange of Soviet and German citizens between both parts of dismembered Poland. Two secret protocols corrected zones of "interests" in Eastern Europe in connection with the division of the Polish state and the upcoming "special measures in Lithuanian territory to protect the interests of the Soviet side" (Lithuania moved into the sphere of influence of the Soviet Union in exchange for Polish lands east of the Vistula, departed to Germany). There were also established the obligation of the parties to stop any "Polish agitation" affecting the interests of the two powers.

Poland on the road to death

Modern Poles like to call themselves the “victims” of two totalitarian regimes - Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin. Between them, they put an equal sign and some even want to bill modern Russia for the occupation, dismemberment and destruction of the Polish state. What is particularly disgusting is that in Russia there are their accomplices who want to “punish” our homeland.

However, if you look closely at stories Of the Republic of Poland in 1918 — 1939 (II Polish – Lithuanian Commonwealth) then it can be found that the Polish state was not an “innocent victim” of the wiles of its aggressive neighbors. Since 1918, Warsaw has been pursuing an active foreign policy aimed at restoring Great Poland “from sea to sea”. The main direction of the expansion of the Poles was eastern, however, and other neighbors experienced the territorial claims of Warsaw. Polish politicians did not prevent the start of a big war in Europe. In fact, Poland was a "hotbed of war," in every way rocking the "pan-European boat," did everything to start a world war. In September, 1939, Poland had to pay for the mistakes of previous years and the policies of its government.

Until 1918, the Polish people lived in three empires - Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia. In World War I, all three empires were defeated and collapsed. The victorious states of Great Britain, the United States and France isolated the Poles from the fallen powers and connected them to the Kingdom of Poland, which gained independence from the hands of the Bolsheviks. In the east, the border of Poland was determined by the so-called. "Curzon line". The Poles took advantage of the fact that their lands were surrounded by defeated empires and their debris and seized much more land than they were assigned. So in October 1920, the Polish armed forces seized part of Lithuania with the city of Vilna (the historical capital of Lithuania). From the Poles also suffered Germany and the new state of Czechoslovakia. Entente was forced to recognize these squatters.

In the spring of 1920, when the territory of Russia was torn apart by the Civil War, Polish troops easily captured large areas of Ukraine and Belarus, including Kiev and Minsk. The Polish leadership, headed by Józef Pilsudski, planned to restore the Polish state within the historic borders of the Commonwealth 1772 of the year, with the inclusion of Ukraine (including Donbass), Belarus and Lithuania. Polish elite, after the defeat of Germany and Russia in the First World War. planned to dominate Eastern Europe. The Soviet armies launched a counter-offensive and drove the enemy from the Soviet territories. However, Lenin and Trotsky lost their sense of proportion and confident at the beginning of the revolution in Poland, turning it into one of the socialist republics, and gave the order to invade Polish territories proper. Tukhachevsky suffered a serious defeat near Warsaw. Under the Riga Peace Treaty of 1921, extensive lands were ceded to the Polish state, which were located east of the Curzon Line, with a predominance of non-Polish population. The structure of Poland includes Western Ukraine and Western Belarus, the Grodno province, the Volyn province and part of the territories of other provinces of the former Russian Empire. This agreement has already laid a "mine" under the relations of the two countries. Moscow sooner or later had to raise the issue of the return of Ukrainian and Belarusian lands. Warsaw was unhappy with the results of the war - it was not possible to create the Rzeczpospolita within the boundaries of 1772. Having seized such booty, the Poles in the following years pursued a policy of national oppression and colonization of the eastern regions. Lithuanians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Rusyns and Russians became second-class citizens in Poland. This, until the very beginning of the Second World War, determined the consistently poor relations between the USSR and Poland, with Warsaw regularly acting as the initiator. In particular, at the beginning of the 1930, the USSR had trade agreements with almost all countries of the world, and Poland agreed to conclude such an agreement only in the 1939 year, several months before its death.

Betrayal of France and external aggression. 12 March 1938, Germany sent troops to Austria. However, on the eve, 10 March, an incident occurred on the Polish-Lithuanian border, a Polish soldier was killed there. Poland rejected the offer of Lithuania to create a joint commission to investigate this incident. An ultimatum was put forward demanding to recognize Poland as belonging to the Vilna region and establish diplomatic relations between the states. This ultimatum was also supported by Germany. The Polish press launched a campaign calling for a march on Kaunas, Warsaw began to prepare for the seizure of Lithuania. Berlin was ready to support the occupation of the Lithuanian Poles, saying that he was only interested in Klaipeda (Memel). The Soviet Union was forced to intervene. The head of the Soviet foreign affairs agency 16 and 18 March summoned the Polish ambassador and explained that although there is no military alliance between Lithuania and the USSR, the Union may intervene in the Polish-Lithuanian conflict.

France was an ally of Poland and found itself in a difficult situation. Germany seizes Austria, and the Poles, in alliance with the Germans, threaten Lithuania. Allied Poland gets the prospect of war with the USSR. Paris offers Warsaw to calm down and help the French in the Austrian issue. However, the Poles reproach the French that they do not support them in the Lithuanian question. An interesting picture emerges: the Third Reich captures Austria and is preparing to bring down the Versailles system completely, France is afraid of this and wants to attract as an ally of the USSR, which also looks with dismay at the emergence of a “hotbed of war” in Europe. At this time, the official ally of France, Poland, with the blessing of Germany, is preparing to seize Lithuania. As a result, the issue of the admission of Soviet troops through Polish territory, in the event of war over Austria, was not resolved positively. Thus, Warsaw allowed Berlin to seize Austria without consequences and weakened France. In fact, the Poles helped to commit the first aggression in Europe. Although the simultaneous harsh actions of France, the USSR and Poland against the aggressor, which would have supported Britain, could have stopped the future great war.

Warsaw also played an important role in the process of the destruction of Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia had a defensive alliance with France directed against Germany (France had the same alliance with Poland). When Berlin made claims against Prague in the 1938 year, it was in the interest of the French that the Poles enter into a military alliance with the Czechoslovakians. However, Poland categorically refused to do so. A similar situation will arise in the 1939 year, when Warsaw will withstand the heavy pressure of Paris and refuse to enter into a military alliance with the Soviet Union.

Further events will show that Warsaw had a predatory interest in Czechoslovakia - the Poles wanted to snatch their cousses from the country that came under attack. The French concluded a military agreement with the USSR on the defense of Czechoslovakia against the Germans in 1935. Moreover, Moscow pledged itself to help Czechoslovakia only if France helped her. In 1938, the Germans demanded that Prague give away a part of the territory - the industrially developed, mineral-rich region in the north and north-west of the Czech Republic, the Sudetenland (received its name from the Sudety Mountains located on its territory). As a result, France, as an ally of Czechoslovakia, in the event of an attack by the Germans, was to declare war on the Third Reich and strike at it. At this moment, Paris’s ally, Warsaw, declares to the French that in this case Poland will remain aloof from the conflict. since not Germany attacks France, but France attacks Germany. In addition, the Polish government refuses to let the Soviet troops in Czechoslovakia. In the event that the USSR tried to force its way through Polish territory, then apart from Poland, Romania would have entered the war with the Union (the Poles had a military alliance with the Romanians against Russia). By its actions, Warsaw completely deprived France of the motives to defend Czechoslovakia. Paris did not dare to defend Czechoslovakia.

As a result, Warsaw had a hand in the famous Munich Agreement, when Italy, Germany, France and England gave the Sudetenland region to Berlin. The Polish military-political elite not only did not support their ally, France, at this difficult moment, but also took a direct part in the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia. 21 and 27 September, in the midst of the Sudeten crisis, the Polish government presented an ultimatum to the Czechs about the “return” to them of the Cieszyn region, where 80 thousands of Poles and 120 thousands of Czechs lived. In Poland, anti-Czech hysteria was injected, there was a process of creating volunteer detachments, which were sent to the Czechoslovak border and organized armed provocations. Aircraft of the Polish Air Force invaded the airspace of Czechoslovakia. At the same time, the Polish and German military agreed on a demarcation line in case of an invasion of Czechoslovakia. September 30 Warsaw sent a new ultimatum to Prague and at the same time with the Nazi troops launched its army in the Cieszyn region. The Czechoslovak government, remaining in international isolation, was forced to cede Cieszyn region to Poland.

Poland attacked Czechoslovakia completely independently, without the consent of France and England, and even in alliance with Germany. As a result, speaking of the instigators of the Second World War, it is impossible to focus only on Germany, Italy and Japan, the Republic of Poland is one of the aggressors who started the war in Europe.

Friendship of Nazi Germany and Poland. Before the Nazis came to power in Germany, Berlin’s relations with Warsaw were tense (due to the Poles’s seizure of German lands after the First World War). However, when the National Socialists came to power in Germany, the situation radically changed. The Polish elite became a close, although not official, partner of Berlin. The union was based on a common hatred of the Soviet regime. Both the Polish elite and the Nazis cherished the dreams of a “living space” in the East, the vast territories of the USSR were supposed to smooth out the contradictions between the two states.

In the 1938 year, when Poland was preparing to participate in the division of Czechoslovakia, Moscow distinctly warned Warsaw that the USSR could take appropriate measures. Warsaw asked Berlin for his attitude to this problem. The Polish ambassador to Germany informed Warsaw that the Reich in the case of the Polish-Czech conflict would maintain a friendly attitude towards the Polish state. And in the case of the Polish-Soviet conflict, Germany will take a more than benevolent position (Berlin hinted at military support in the war of the Polish state with the Soviet Union). At the beginning of 1939, Berlin and Warsaw conducted negotiations on cooperation against the USSR. Polish Foreign Minister Jozef Beck told the German side that Warsaw is claiming Ukraine and access to the Black Sea.

Poland before the fall. In 1939, Berlin puts forward an ultimatum to the Poles - to provide a corridor for the creation of a railway transport line to East Prussia and to give Danzig. Poland, in response, announces mobilization. It is clear that, in view of such a threat, Poland would not be prevented by a new strong ally. Britain and the USSR offer Poland and Romania to expand the scope of their defensive alliance, sending it to the German threat as well. However, the Polish government categorically refuses. The Polish military-political elite believes that they have all the trump cards in their hands - an alliance with France and guarantees of England. The Poles are confident that the case will end only with threats; the Germans will not dare to war with a powerful coalition of countries. As a result, Hitler will hit the USSR, not Poland. In the event of a German attack on the USSR, through the Baltic States and Romania, the Polish government was going to realize plans to seize Soviet Ukraine.

At this time, the Soviet Union made enormous efforts to create a military bloc with Britain and France (allies of Poland) to prevent a big war in Europe. The Polish government continued its suicidal course and flatly refused military assistance from the USSR. The Anglo-French-Soviet negotiations continued for four months, but did not bring positive results. One of the main reasons for the failure of the negotiations, along with the position of the British government, which pushed Berlin to march to the East, was the unwillingness of Warsaw to send Soviet troops into its territory.

France took a more constructive position - in contrast to the British, the French could not sit on their islands. The death of the Polish state meant that France no longer had allies in Europe, and she was left alone with Germany. The USSR and France even no longer demanded a full-fledged military alliance with the Russians from Poland. The Polish government was asked to provide only a corridor for the passage of Soviet troops, so that they could join the fight against the Germans. Warsaw again responded with a categorical refusal. Although the French also removed the question of the future withdrawal of Soviet troops - they promised to send two French divisions, and one British division, so that the support would be international. The Soviet government, Britain and France could provide absolute guarantees for the withdrawal of the Red Army from Polish territory after the end of the conflict.

As a result, Moscow, realizing the desire of Poland and England to provoke a conflict between the USSR and Germany, decided to gain time, and agreed to conclude a non-aggression treaty with the Germans.
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  1. erased
    erased 28 September 2012 09: 06
    +5
    The contract was concluded on time. He not only delayed the war, but also allowed the USSR to continue its game. Europe realized that it would not be able to pit Germany and the USSR right away.
    Poland followed Czechoslovakia, and then France itself. The British troops draped and were released by Hitler - a famous stop order.
    The old truth was confirmed - Russia has only two allies - the army and navy. the rest can betray, as happened in the late 80s.
    1. Click-Klyak
      Click-Klyak 29 September 2012 16: 20
      0
      Can you find the number of the "famous" stop order?

      Quote: erased
      He not only delayed the war, but also allowed the USSR to continue his game

      This game could have ended badly, if not for the "Europe", which seemed to want to play someone off.
      1. Su24
        Su24 3 October 2012 12: 45
        +1
        I will not say the number of the order, but this is a famous episode of the French campaign, when on May 24 German troops were ordered to stop the offensive on Dunkirk, allegedly in order to give an opportunity to bring up the infantry units and rear. During this time, more than 300 thousand allied troops managed to leave the continent and cross over to England. This episode is mentioned in many descriptions of Operation Gelb, for example, in Halder's diary, and in the memoirs of military leaders, for example, by Guderian and Manstein.
        1. aleks
          aleks 4 October 2012 15: 04
          0
          always sell, sell everywhere is their 1000-year-old history, and we there too - why?
  2. Jaros81
    Jaros81 28 September 2012 09: 31
    +2
    The agreement was concluded, but the strangest thing is that the so-called "secret protocols" did not exist. The first to provide this fake were German lawyers to mitigate the guilt of their fascist clients. And what is being presented today does not stand up to criticism (either these are translations from English, it is not clear why, or poor copies on which you cannot see anything).
    1. Click-Klyak
      Click-Klyak 29 September 2012 16: 22
      0
      The fact of concluding secret protocols has long been recognized. You are behind the times.
      1. aleks
        aleks 4 October 2012 15: 06
        0
        Do not blather, if not in the subject
  3. Sasha 19871987
    Sasha 19871987 28 September 2012 09: 32
    0
    there is nothing more to say in fact, this is history, and how it went, you can’t change it anymore, we just draw conclusions — men and young ladies, if they’re studying this site)
  4. Orik
    Orik 28 September 2012 10: 54
    +3
    Poland "from sea to sea", second-class people in the occupied territories, all this is repeated from time to time. At the heart of the Polish ambition, because of it they have repeatedly lost their statehood, this will also be repeated. smile
    1. Zmitcer
      Zmitcer 28 September 2012 11: 13
      -12
      Quote: Orik
      they have repeatedly lost their statehood

      this is where the flaw in your story is revealed. as you were taught: there are "evil" Poles, and there is the "liberator" Race. And what was the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, what was the BNR, they do not tell you about this. As they do not say that Muscovy occupied, under the guise of "liberation" from Poland, the territory of modern Belarus. And even before your occupation, we were Litvin. It was already with the "light" hand of the scribes of the invaders that the Orthodox Litvinians wrote down-Belarus, and the Catholics-Pole. And this ON was from sea to sea, not Poland.
      Quote: Orik
      all this is repeated from time to time
      and today again there are rumors about "unification" - OCCUPATION. But we will hold out. Long live Belarus!
      1. Lech e-mine
        Lech e-mine 28 September 2012 11: 43
        +4
        THE POLES ALSO LEAFED BETWEEN THE HAMMER AND A VALVE
        Have Fritz look BOA before dinner, delicious rabbit ha ha.
        1. apro
          apro 28 September 2012 11: 53
          +4
          Quote: Leha e-mine
          THE POLES ALSO LEAFED BETWEEN THE HAMMER AND A VALVE

          They didn’t really want to be a hammer, but the Germans decided that there were more problems with them than profit and wrote off the accounts. In general, the contract was an ethnic demarcation agreement and nothing more. IV Stalin took his own.
          1. Click-Klyak
            Click-Klyak 29 September 2012 16: 24
            0
            Quote: apro
            Not really, they also wanted to be a hammer, but the Germans decided that there were more problems with them than the profit and were written off

            What are the problems with them if they wanted to fight against the USSR together with the Germans? Sin not to use.
            The fact of the matter is that they did not want to fight.

            Quote: apro
            IVStalin took his

            Since when did Bukovina become hers for Russia?
      2. Orik
        Orik 28 September 2012 12: 07
        +5
        Well, why, we perfectly know the history of the GDL including how it was created during the period of the weakening of Russia and the reasons that influenced the unification with Poland. It really was in its heyday from sea to sea. The main difference between Moscow and Vilna is that the first was able to work out a unifying idea, and the second was staggering between Orthodoxy-Catholics-Uniate and was not able to work out an idea uniting the occupied territories. The result is visible to everyone. Russia has become an empire, and you have lost statehood. Although people like you will not convince you of anything, the result of experienced inferiority. About BNR is a joke from March to December 1918 lol
        1. Zmitcer
          Zmitcer 28 September 2012 12: 21
          -4
          Quote: Orik
          consequence of experienced inferiority

          I already wanted to give you +, but .. But without rudeness and arrogance, those like you cannot do. So maybe those like you are trying to hide their inferiority. Just like your rulers, they cover up the occupation with "brotherly friendship."
          Quote: Orik
          how it was created during the period of weakening of Russia

          But this is the next portion of lies or the inferiority of education. Quite the opposite. Muscovy strengthened its position due to the weakening of the ON. Which was the loss of Smolensk, in particular.
          1. smile
            smile 28 September 2012 12: 58
            +2
            Zmitcer
            Something a little too much you are talking about someone's usefulness .... psychologists call it a "client request" ... :))) would you go, or something, you checked your usefulness ... suddenly fell off? :)))))
            1. SHILO
              SHILO 28 September 2012 13: 36
              0
              smile (3)
              Zmitcer
              Something a little too much you are talking about someone's usefulness .... psychologists call it a "client request" ... :))) would you go, or something, you checked your usefulness ... suddenly fell off? :)))))

              Vladimir hello hi - didn’t they mean it by chance? yes
              1. smile
                smile 28 September 2012 14: 43
                0
                SHILO
                And hello to you!
                And how did you guess? :)))) only - shhhhhh, don't tell anyone else! :))))
                1. SHILO
                  SHILO 28 September 2012 16: 55
                  0
                  Vladimir fear God !!!!! laughing
            2. Morani
              Morani 29 September 2012 02: 02
              -1
              about alcoholics surfaced.
              Quote: smile
              would have gone, or something, checked their usefulness ... suddenly fell off

              would go or something to check for the presence of birrh in his kitchen. What language is the ON Statute written in? miracle
              1. smile
                smile 30 September 2012 22: 29
                0
                Morani
                Hey. And what is "byrla"? Sorry, I don't speak your jargon .. :)))
                Unhappy, don’t you know when their writing appeared at all? And you do not know whose writing was used by Latvians, Estonians? Finally, the Chukchi, who invented writing language (by the way, earlier than the Latvians ...), so who were they by nationality? Germans and Russians? And the Mongols prevailed in Arabic script .... so, in your opinion, did the Arabs conquer them? And in what language did they write in Silesia, for example, in the era of the Hussite Wars, remember? .... well, what, you see your crap, finally? Well this was your most important argument? ... :)))
          2. Orik
            Orik 28 September 2012 13: 12
            +3
            The first one. Who do you identify with? With the Lithuanians, then what claims to Smolensk? The settlement of Lithuanian tribes by 1200, from the south corresponds to the current border of Lithuania and Latvia, from the west of Estonia. Most of the lands belonging to Belarus were part of the lands of Kievan Rus. Who has a “lie or defective education”?

            The second one. After crushing blows to the fragmented Rus of the Mongols, the Lithuanians gradually captured the western and southern lands of the former Kievan Rus. Then, as a result of internal clashes, weakened, and Moscow returned the original! You write nonsense, you don’t understand who you are, and then you want respect?
            1. Zmitcer
              Zmitcer 28 September 2012 17: 11
              -3
              Quote: Orik
              Moscow returned the original
              You did not surprise me. Ignorance, rudeness, falsehood are your arguments. You guys got stuck in the 80s. You live the same knowledge, argue with the help of communist methods and cling to your past - lazy people and slaves.
              As for the story, a small excerpt from the news. I think you can read it, it's in Russian, and your Bulgarian dialect is close to it.
              The friend Kangres of Belarus has a lot of fun: palatolag of Suzdaltsў pakinu hall to the sign of pratestu. Padchas of the report of the naval navigator Zigmantas Käўpa “Karotka XVIII stagoddze і gistory ON” and the pack of masks and palms of the camp Andrei Suzdalts. Iago aburyla phrase “Adstalaya Dziarzhava Rasіya zopoplіvae kudy great peredavuyu - ON - and robotic with the highest calony”

              Letters are great, but I’m writing in English, and not in the Belarusian language - dzyarzhaўnai language ON.
              If you can’t overcome it yourself, if God offended, then Google will help you. hi
              1. Orik
                Orik 28 September 2012 17: 39
                +2
                As required to prove, not a single fact is a single verbiage. laughing
            2. Vitmir
              Vitmir 28 September 2012 18: 28
              +1
              Hmm, why can't you identify yourself not with Lithuanians, not with Russians, not with Jews and not even with Tatars, but with Belarusians? Are you already denying us the right to be ourselves? This is not the first time for you ... To whip the nonsense about "Moscow has returned the original" - it is possible for youngsters from RNU ...
          3. Dobrokhod Sergey
            Dobrokhod Sergey 28 September 2012 13: 20
            +3
            Quote: Zmitcer
            Just like your rulers, they cover up the occupation with "brotherly friendship."


            Zmitcer, do you know the meaning of the word "occupation"?
            1. Brother Sarych
              Brother Sarych 28 September 2012 16: 55
              +1
              It would only spoil the air in a public place ...
        2. Vitmir
          Vitmir 28 September 2012 18: 31
          -2
          Uniatism is precisely the attempt to create a unifying non-Russian Orthodox religion. Roughly trampled by Russia and the idea of ​​advice.
      3. smile
        smile 28 September 2012 12: 53
        +2
        Zmitcer
        Hello! Who about what, and Belarus about Litvin ... :))) Hai live. who won’t bother ... :)))) Can it really be so unbearable for you. that the evil Russians freed Belarusians from Polish oppression? I can’t imagine that in Belarus someone might not know how you lived under the Poles .....
        The fact is, dear comrade, that history was really not quite correctly taught to us, but not in that sense. which you mean to us. so that we don’t think too much about the Poles brothers, try not to show the true face of the peace Poles ... I remember Churchill called Poland the hyena of Europe ... by the way, at the beginning of the article, the author said softly. that since its formation in 18 Poland became a hotbed of war ... for some reason, the author did not directly say. that after the formation of Poland instantly declared war on ALL of its neighbors ... :)))
        And I will not call your story flawed - it is ordinary, but here are people who believe in tales, and who are trying to abandon their national roots with all their strength and can not be called ... I can’t wait until the Chinese say that they really Tatar-Mongols, not Chinese ... but what, exactly the same logic. ... just do not wait for it - they have everything in order with their heads ...
        1. Vitmir
          Vitmir 28 September 2012 18: 26
          0
          When will it finally reach you that in the period between the worlds under the Poles, Belarusians lived an order of magnitude better than under the advice? And how many were actually Russian in those councils and in that NKVD? Do not know, do not speak for others. Polish oppression, Mlyn ...
          Enough to repeat the stupid Soviet propaganda campaigns that it is best to live on the collective farm in the world!
      4. Brother Sarych
        Brother Sarych 28 September 2012 16: 53
        +1
        Another "alternatively gifted" dreamed about the country "from May to May" ...
      5. rexby63
        rexby63 28 September 2012 22: 50
        +4
        On the night of September 29-30, 1938, the notorious Munich Agreement was concluded. In an effort to "appease" Hitler at all costs, England and France surrendered to him their ally - Czechoslovakia. On the same day, September 30, Warsaw presented an ultimatum to Prague, demanding the immediate satisfaction of its demands regarding the Tieszyn region. As a result, on October 1, Czechoslovakia ceded to Poland the region where 80 thousand Poles and 120 thousand Czechs lived. However, the main potential of the Poles was the industrial potential of the occupied territory. The enterprises located there accounted for almost 1938% of pig iron smelted in Poland at the end of 41 and almost 47% steel. As Churchill wrote about this in his memoirs, Poland “with the greed of a hyena took part in the looting and destruction of the Czechoslovak state.” The capture of the Tieszyn region was considered as the national triumph of Poland. Jozef Beck was awarded the Order of the White Eagle, the grateful Polish intelligentsia awarded him the title of Honorary Doctor of Warsaw and Lviv Universities, and the propaganda editorials of Polish newspapers very much resembled the articles of today's Polish pro-government publications on the role of modern Poland in Eastern Europe in general and in the fate of Ukraine in particular. So, on October 9, 1938, the Gazeta Polska wrote: "... the road that is open to us to a sovereign, leading role in our part of Europe requires in the near future tremendous efforts and the solution of incredibly difficult tasks."
    2. Konrad
      Konrad 29 September 2012 19: 32
      +3
      Quote: Orik

      Poland "from sea to sea"

      And the USSR -
      "from the taiga to the British seas" is also not sickly!
  5. Ash
    Ash 28 September 2012 11: 26
    +6
    The situation is very clear: when the Poles were strong, they organized interventions deep into our lands. Did they really think that they could get away with it? Stalin knew the story very well and did what the situation required. So, the Catholic Slavs should not be so sprayed with the address of Orthodox compatriots. (By the way, Poland itself refused military assistance to the USSR even before the conclusion of this treaty, apparently hoping for Western civilized Frenchmen. And if the latter betrayed it, then you do not need to blame the USSR for that.)
  6. Beck
    Beck 28 September 2012 12: 00
    -9
    The article is a complete falsification. Unceremonious juggling and turning the facts upside down, for the sake of Ur patriotism.

    - "According to the treaty" On Friendship and Borders ", the Soviet and German governments, after the collapse of the former Polish state, viewed exclusively as their task the issues of restoring peace and order in this territory and providing the peoples living there with a peaceful existence corresponding to their national characteristics . "-


    As an author, he softly walks. The SECTION of Poland between Germany and the USSR by the agreement of 1939 calls the DECOMPOSITION of Poland. Greater ZINISM and not.
    The tasks of the aggressors turned out to be EXCLUSIVELY restoring peace and order. The Poles lived quietly, so there was no need to occupy them, from two sides in order to restore peace and order - Nonsense.

    Also, an obligation was established by the parties to suppress any “Polish agitation” affecting the interests of the two powers.

    That is, to shut up the Poles with their mouths so that aggressors would not complain about the occupation of their homeland.

    In fact, Poland was a "hotbed of war", in every way rocked the "pan-European boat", did everything to make the world war begin. In September 1939, Poland had to pay for the mistakes of previous years and the policies of its government.

    Yes. The author of the article has great historical hallucinations. It turns out that if Poland did not want to be divided and be independent, then this was the "hotbed of war". And why is fascist Germany called the initiator of the 2nd World War. These "nasty" Poles started World War II as they resisted the aggressive plans of their neighbors. Straight FALSIFICATION at the root. So we can say that Russia itself is to blame for the Tatar invasion, because the Russian princes rocked the boat of Asian calm. For this, Russia paid with Batu's ruin.

    Ugh! MARASMUS.
    1. Lech e-mine
      Lech e-mine 28 September 2012 12: 05
      +9
      you are always wrong, dear BEK -Poles took an active part in the CZECHOSLOVAKI section I DO NOT THINK THAT THEY ARE WHITE AND FURNISHED (a piece of a foreign country was also snatched) for which they paid
      1. smile
        smile 28 September 2012 13: 10
        +7
        Lech e-mine
        I’ll add - they grabbed a small piece, and shook their mouths of the hoo - Polsk from mozh to mozh - this is not the commissars invented.
        By the way, the hairpin to Messrs. Beck and the Belarusian, who stubbornly calls himself Lithuanian - At the lamp of Polish democracy - Pilsudsky, he said, had a dream - to get to Moscow and write on the Kremlin walls - Talking in Russian is forbidden .... you like to see it ? ...
        Personally for the Belarusian Lithuanian - of course, the god of horns did not give a vigorous cow and Poland overstrained, but in the part of Belarus that fell under their authority in the 20m they did it. You were forbidden to speak your native language in public places, you were forbidden to teach it in schools, even the Orthodox Church spread rot, I am silent about the Ukrainian and Belarusian villages that were burned for disobedience ..... by the way, they did not teach you Lithuanian either ... :) )))) clamped Rydna Litvinsk mov, sobbaki! :))))) (sorry that in Ukrainian - I don’t know how to use Belarusian… but in Lithuanian you yourself won’t understand ...:)))) ... so really nostalgia for a Polish stick tortured you ?
        1. Lech e-mine
          Lech e-mine 28 September 2012 13: 46
          +4
          smile-YES it is - POLISH BLITZKRIG to CZECHOSLOVAKIA (a Polish tank crosses the Czechoslovak border)
      2. Click-Klyak
        Click-Klyak 29 September 2012 16: 31
        0
        Quote: Leha e-mine
        the Poles took an active part in the CZECHOSLOVAKIA section I DO NOT THINK THAT THEY ARE WHITE AND FURNISHED (a piece of a foreign country was also snatched) for which they paid


        White and fluffy did not survive.
        The Poles took away the controversial Teshino region (at one time the Czechs captured it, using the Soviet-Polish war). According to the logic of our cheers-patriots-returned theirs.
    2. Dobrokhod Sergey
      Dobrokhod Sergey 28 September 2012 13: 24
      +2
      Quote: Beck
      Ugh! MARASMUS.


      This applies to all that you wrote above.
    3. REPA1963
      REPA1963 28 September 2012 22: 27
      -1
      Plus you .....
    4. Click-Klyak
      Click-Klyak 29 September 2012 16: 29
      0
      Great analysis.
      I will add from myself

      Before the Nazis came to power in Germany, relations between Berlin and Warsaw were tense (due to the capture of German lands by the Poles after the First World War). However, when the National Socialists came to power in Germany, the situation changed radically.
      What has this changed? Hitler stopped demanding the return of German lands?

      Poland attacked Czechoslovakia completely independently, without the consent of France and England, and even in alliance with Germany
      What is called the UNION?
      But the USSR also attacked Poland in alliance with Germany, or what?
  7. Tirpitz
    Tirpitz 28 September 2012 12: 41
    +10
    I am grateful to this agreement as Ukraine has grown with new lands both in the west and in the south. And the fact that in our country they are making a terrible monster from the USSR, I think is not right. Where would Ukraine be now if not for the USSR.
    1. apro
      apro 28 September 2012 12: 47
      +6
      Quote: Tirpitz
      Where would Ukraine be now if not for the USSR.

      But would she be at all?
      1. ivachum
        ivachum 28 September 2012 15: 40
        0
        It would be .... In fairy tales and myths .... drinks
      2. wax
        wax 29 September 2012 00: 07
        +1
        And there would be Poland. But with such ambitions, she will never again be in this century again.
  8. Allegedly
    Allegedly 28 September 2012 14: 52
    +3
    Poland entered into a non-aggression pact with Germany, almost completely analogous to the Molotov-Ribentrop Pact back in 1934. The agreement was signed in Berlin by German Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurat and Polish Ambassador to Berlin Jozef Lipsky on January 26, 1934. The agreement was concluded on the initiative of Hitler and Pilsudski, although formally Pilsudski did not head Poland, it really had a decisive influence on the adoption of foreign policy decisions in Poland until his death in 1935. This was one of the first foreign policy successes of the German government under the leadership of Hitler. There was a similar pact with Germany and France and England ...
    1. Taratut
      Taratut 2 October 2012 08: 57
      0
      Absolutely the same? In the sense? What did they share - the USSR?
  9. Wolkin
    Wolkin 28 September 2012 15: 53
    +7
    Good article, from me "+"
    .... By the end of the 1930s, it became obvious that a new world war would take place anyway.
    At the same time, its potential participants were divided into three groups: firstly, England, France and
    US perspective; secondly, Germany with its allies; thirdly, the USSR. It followed that in
    the upcoming battle, two will beat one one, and he will have a hard time. Also an example
    demonstrated by the United States in the 1st World War, clearly showed: whoever enters the fray
    later than the others, it will receive tangible benefits. Both Hitler and most Western leaders
    democracies hoped that they would jointly fight against the USSR.
    It is clear that under these conditions the main task of Soviet diplomacy was to prevent
    wars with the combined forces of the western world. The paradox of history is that solving it
    Poland helped - the worst enemy of the USSR. More precisely, the ambitiousness of Polish leaders. Was worth
    they should at least show a sense of reality by agreeing to become Hitler’s junior partner,
    and events would flow naturally. In full accordance with the plot of many Soviet
    books and films of the 1930s about the impending war, our country was awaited by an allied attack
    Polish-German forces. It would have been much harder to beat him off in real life than in
    movie.
    However, the intransigence of Warsaw has done its job. German-Polish war was becoming
    more inevitable since both sides desired it. Under these conditions, Stalin concluded a pact on
    non-aggression. As a result, instead of being blocked against the USSR, Germany and England with
    France began a war among themselves. This meant that the Soviet Union would not have to fight with
    both at the same time. Moreover, the USSR got the opportunity to join the war later
    other participants, and even with some freedom of choice - on whose side
    to speak out.
    Stalin counted on this, openly declaring that on September 7, 1939
    conversation with the leadership of the Comintern:
    “The war is between two groups of capitalist countries ... for the redivision of the world, for
    domination of the world! We are not averse to having them fight well and weaken each other ...
    We can maneuver, push one side against the other, so that we’re better torn. ”
    (1941: In 2 books. Book 2 / Comp. L.E. Reshin and others M., 1998. S. 584) ....
    Igor Pykhalov
    DOES THE MOLOTOV-RIBENTROP PACT BE ashamed?
    1. Skavron
      Skavron 28 September 2012 16: 53
      +4
      Plus. Ossetians knew a lot about foreign policy
    2. Orik
      Orik 28 September 2012 16: 55
      +5
      And who is ashamed? History teaches us, and the fifth column is trying to shame.
  10. AK-74-1
    AK-74-1 28 September 2012 16: 43
    +2
    Great article. Day of great diplomatic success. 28.09.1939 can be put on a par with 13.04.1941 (agreement with Japan) and 2.08.1945 (the results of the Potsdam Conference are announced).
  11. bask
    bask 28 September 2012 17: 16
    +2
    And that Stalin did well. Restored the historical border of .SSSR-Russia.
    1. Vitmir
      Vitmir 28 September 2012 19: 00
      -6
      That is, he restored what in your favorite Soviet history textbooks was called the "Russian Empire - the prison of peoples" (although the rags did not reach Finland, they broke them off).
      Decide for yourself, finally, who is the greater Emperor or Secretary General? Or dream of His Imperial Majesty Stalin II?
      1. wax
        wax 29 September 2012 00: 14
        +3
        Finland gave freedom to Lenin. But Stalin did not reconsider Lenin's decisions. If you think that Stalin couldn’t bring Finland to its knees before the Second World War, then you won’t mind that, following the results of the Second World War, it was not difficult to solve such a problem.
        1. Click-Klyak
          Click-Klyak 30 September 2012 20: 02
          0
          Quote: Wax
          If you think that Stalin couldn’t bring Finland to its knees before the Second World War, then you won’t mind that, following the results of the Second World War, it was not difficult to solve such a problem

          Why do you think so?
          I had to look back at the United States.
  12. REPA1963
    REPA1963 28 September 2012 22: 23
    -4
    Aftar forgot a little that until 1918 there were three more sections of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in which the Russian Empire actively participated, so why pray mercy to the psheks ....
    1. Alexander Petrovich
      Alexander Petrovich 28 September 2012 22: 54
      +2
      1918m ???? please explain, but why should we love them? For the fact that they burned Moscow? Or how did you mock us?
      1. Konrad
        Konrad 29 September 2012 19: 42
        0
        Quote: Alexander Petrovich
        Or how they mocked us

        Please tell us how these bastards scoffed at you? I sympathize ...
    2. Ruslan67
      Ruslan67 29 September 2012 19: 35
      +2
      what kind of country was this that had to be divided three times? territorial misunderstanding and no more
  13. Light source
    Light source 28 September 2012 22: 30
    +1
    Austria-Hungary, Germany and Russia. In World War I, all three empires were defeated and collapsed.


    Russia did not lose the first world war, but simply left it. You yourself know who is to blame.
  14. jury08
    jury08 29 September 2012 00: 43
    -3
    As Russians are so liberators, as Poles are so invaders!
    And smile- you need to learn history !!!!, and not talk nonsense!
    1. smile
      smile 30 September 2012 22: 21
      -3
      jury08
      Let’s talk about what I’ll do after you undergo treatment in the appropriate clinic ... otherwise it’s kind of pointless to talk with you ... and, by the way, please write to me in response, and not where- somewhere in the corner ... otherwise I didn’t see you before on time .... :))))
    2. Vitmir
      Vitmir 31 January 2013 15: 19
      0
      You should not be surprised - there are many Russian-speaking people who are still worried that Poland is no longer in their hands, that Belarus is a separate state, that Russia is already far from 1/6 of the land, etc.
      And they teach a special story, invented by the same imperial chauvinists, where the Poles are invaders (no difference between the Poles, Litvinians, Zhmudins, etc.), where the ON did not exist at all, and Muscovy is Russia, moaning under long-term the Tatar-Mongol yoke, and rightly the Third Rome.
      For such peppers, a clear indicator is the bestial hatred of Poland and the cries of "Belarus is the western edge of Russia."
  15. xomaNN
    xomaNN April 18 2013 19: 24
    0
    And Poland, by the inertia of the 20s, imagined itself to be a "central" European power. A player worse than Stalin and Hitler combined. The diplomacy of that time was even mean and venal now in most countries. Therefore, like a game of cards of a gang of cheaters, someone lost the beginning of the game.