Germany as the savior of the EU and herself

There is a widespread opinion that modern Germany marks the leaders of the European Union not only economic, but also political. Berlin showed the European Union that in our times of crisis, when production develops in China, Vietnam and already in Africa, and in Europe and America declines, a strong industry and economy (more precisely, the strongest in the EU) has a right to exist. Looking at today's Germany, other observers see it even contains the peaceful renaissance of the Reich: “Do the Germans want power over Europe (the world)? .. They will have to build Great Germany, chewing on Europe. We'll have to spend money on the Slavs and other "Orthodox", to teach them the German teams ... "

Germany as the savior of the EU and herself

Considering the fact that in Germany there is some kind of democracy, it will be allowed to doubt the compulsory construction by the Germans of “Great Germany” and “chewing on Europe”. Angela Merkel (Chancellor) has quite a high authority, and so that he remains high, she will ask her people: what do you want, dear Herry and Frau? And half of the Herr and Frau will answer her: We don’t need Europe at all, we will live well without the European Union. That is not just not bad, but much better than in its composition. Give a Deutschmark! - that's what half, if not most Germans, will say to Chancellor Merkel.

In mid-September, 2012, TNS Emnid, conducted a large-scale survey among Germans, French and Poles (over a thousand people in each of the three countries), as a result of which It revealed: almost two thirds of the population of Germany (65%) thinks that it would be better for the country to abandon the euro. These two thirds most believe that their life with a mark would be “much better” or “relatively better” than with the euro.

Judging by the survey data, the Germans are not going to peacefully “seize” Europe, but rather are unhappy that Germany is forced to support the weak economies of the EU, in particular, the “long-suffering” Greece. Moreover, thrifty Germans fear that the eurozone financial crisis will strike at their savings. 49% of Germans believe that Germany without the European Union would be better.

For comparison, the French, whose economy is not as brilliant as the German one, are more positive about the euro: here, only 36% of respondents believe that a return from euro to franc will improve the country's economy. Just over a third of the population is ready to leave the European Union.

In early September, Moody's lowered the outlook for the European Union; henceforth it is “negative.” The reason for this was precisely the risks of the most powerful economies of the Union: Germany, France, Great Britain and the Netherlands.

However, at the moment Germany’s anti-crisis policy, in which many analysts see, by the way, is not the “fifth Reich”, but the EU’s financial savior (at least temporary), not the “one-person”, but the joint one. Germany is not going to pay for the sins of debtors alone. Frau Merkel's approach is not at all aggressive and imperial, but pragmatic and consolidating - and skillfully built on a compromise between extreme points of view.

Chancellor Merkel считаетthat Germany (and at the same time France, the second EU economy) is entrusted with "special responsibility" for saving Europe. As we see, Frau Merkel does not believe in the new imperial future of Germany at all. On the contrary, it stands for the European community, and not for the total centralization of the EU, led by some successful manager countries in the face of the Union’s advanced economies, which will impose their will on outsiders like Spain or Greece, which is on the verge of leaving the economic community ( now there is a general strike: there are no buses, trains, no planes flying, and even doctors ... yes, that doctors, journalists - and they are on strike).

Speaking at an event dedicated to the 50th anniversary of reconciliation after World War II, Ms. Merkel said that Germany and France should work to strengthen ties between states, because “good and trusting relations cannot be considered a given.” Moreover, Germany and France will work for the future of Europe together with other European countries. Here is her words: “We need to strengthen and stabilize the eurozone.” And also: “We are working to make Europe’s economy more healthy and sustainable. In this regard, Germany and France have a special responsibility. ”

The German chancellor is very little like the invader of Europe, you see. The German people, who partly want to go back to the Deutsche Mark and who are not afraid to leave the EU, are also not like the nation that was determined to dictate its will to Europe.

But another thing is that in the eurozone countries they are talking about German dictate - economic. This is a kind of financial blockade: the Germans set the conditions, but there is nothing left for the crisis countries to follow. That is to do what Angela Merkel orders. Otherwise - the pipe, that is, "default". On the other hand, the Germans save those countries (like Greece again) that their money was being knocked while the Germans worked and saved. The Greeks, great experts in the field of mythology (not only pagan, but also political - see Plato’s “State”), having joined the EU as a feeder, should once and for all assimilate: it was not the Olympic gods who created the man, but created labor. And if materialism is not their best, then welcome out of the EU. Salvation of drowning in this case is the work of the drowning themselves.

The other day, the “big three,” that is, the European Central Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the European Commission, will finally decide what to do with this very Greece. If Greece is still allowed to “float free”, then an unprecedented large-scale financial crisis will occur in the EU that will break out not only in a matter of days, but in hours. The capital will flow from Greece, the stock markets will stop, many banks may close, investors will temporarily lose access to accounts, etc., etc.

To prevent this terrible European economic "aramageddon", however, special measures have already been developed, including buying (without restrictions) debt bonds of crisis countries - of course, Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal and others, where financial matters are most bad and where austerity measures help little, and at the same time they harm, causing mass discontent, protests, demonstrations, clashes with the police, strikes, pogroms, the use of water guards and rubber bullets by guards (as was the case in Madrid the other day) and . In short, the EU is unsteady, and no special financial measures can not do.

Angela Merkel constantly repeats: there will be no Europe without the euro. With this slogan, the Chancellor is going to go to the polls. In the end, not all Germans decided to switch to the brand and secede from the EU. Now, if it does not burn out with Greece and other debtor countries, then ... In this case Germany already has Yes suitable money:

“There is a 10 denomination of Deutsche Marks, an absolutely ordinary bill that was in use until the introduction of the Euro. Other banknotes were issued in 60's, at the height of the Cold War. Almost no one was holding them in their hands. Special series. This money should have been used in the event of the start of the Third World War.

Banknotes worth 19 of billions of special marks were recently discovered in the old bunker of the German Central Bank. Then they were transported somewhere. It is known total 29 billion ersatz marks was released. Not much, given the current size of the German economy, but that's enough. After all, the Germans, and especially German companies, practically do not use cash. And to convert funds in the accounts is not a problem. The price marks can still be exchanged for euros. ”

But these are all speculations of journalists, having nothing in common with practice.

Germany follows the eurozone rescue strategy only: after all, the collapse of the euro will cost German banks, insurance companies and industrial firms, as well as citizens, approximately EUR three trillion.

Therefore, in addition to the plan of the ECB Head Mario Draghi, the person responsible for direct purchase debt issues in troubled EU states, recently, 12 September, finally approved a new system to deal with the financial crisis through the EU budget control agreement (“euro pact”) and the agreement on the creation of a special fund to save the euro - European Stabilization Mechanism (European Stability Mechanism, ESM). The new mechanism was approved by the German Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe and declares the rejection of the previous principle, according to which each EU country pays for its debts itself (this principle was established when the European single currency was introduced). On the same day, September 12, the world's financial markets reacted positively to the momentum from Karlsruhe. European stock index rose up by 1,1%, returning to the highest point after March 2012, and the euro against the dollar was $ 1,2885, which is the highest figure since May. Finally, the cost of risk for bonds in Italy and Spain has decreased.

Chancellor Merkel immediately delivered a speech in the Bundestag, in which, among other things, she said: "This is a good day for Germany and a good day for Europe." She added: “Once again, Germany is sending a strong signal to Europe and the whole world. Germany is resolute in its responsibility in Europe as the largest economy and significant partner. ”

Like this. Germany is a strong partner, not the financial colonizer of Mother Europe. Try to find here the arguments about the “fifth”, or some other “Reich” there ...

The authorized capital of the ESM fund is € 700 billion. Each of the eurozone participants has a share in it proportional to the GDP of his country. For example, Germany It has 27,146% (€ 190,024 billion), France - 20,386% (€ 142,701 billion), Italy - 17,914% (€ 125,395 billion), Spain - 11,904% (€ 83,325 billion), Netherlands - 5,717% (€ 40,019 billion .), Belgium - 3,477% (€ 24,339 billion), Greece - 2,817% (€ 19,716 billion). The least have: Cyprus - 0,196% (€ 1,373 billion), Estonia - 0,186% (€ 1,302 billion), Malta - 0,073% (€ 0,511 billion). You also need to know that of the total amount of 80 billion - direct contributions 17 of the founding countries of ESM, of which € 23 billion - German money. The remaining € 620 billion represents only guarantees and warranties from eurozone countries. It is easy to understand that the Greek, Italian or Spanish obligations - candy wrappers.

The German “power” over Europe can manifest itself upon ratification of the agreement on ESM: the agreement enters into force if it is ratified by the member countries that have 90% of its total capital. Without ratification by Germany having 27,146%, ESM could not start work.

And so that other analysts did not think that in Germany, supposedly marching towards the “fifth Reich” and preparing to suppress Europe soon, despite the opposition of the German people, the aforementioned German people applied democracy (which comes, by the way, from Greece).

The fact is that 37 of thousands of Germans, and with them several deputies of the German parliament and the parliamentary group “Left” (these are former communists) from the Bundestag filed collective claims to the German Constitutional Court - just for compliance with the ESM agreement and the “European Covenant” with the country's constitution . Legal skeptics wondered whether these agreements were undermining Germany’s budget sovereignty. 12 September court decided: no, do not undermine.

The constitutional judges also determined the conditions that limit Germany’s participation in the ESM: first of all, the limit of the country's financial obligations is the amount of the authorized capital of € 190 billion. Exceeding this amount is permissible only with the consent of the German representatives in the fund and subject to approval by the Bundestag.

So much for democracy - with which Angela Merkel will surely be reckoned, having taken her pre-election promises not from the ceiling.

The German left believes that the EU rescue mistake is in disregard for the true causes of the financial crisis in the eurozone. “We believe that the so-called system of saving the euro passes by the real causes of the crisis. For example, it does not affect financial speculation, instead, thanks to commitments to save money, European countries are driven into economic chaos ", - says Chairman of the German Left Party Katya Kipping.

This is true, but there are no win-win options in the crisis struggle. Debt obligations themselves (interest-bearing securities) are a reason for speculation. Critics of the economic policy of Germany and the ECB are not able to offer other options - except that Germany’s exit from the EU and the transition to the Deutschemark. But 37000 votes for such a decision is clearly small. And Angela Merkel is well aware that the rejection of the euro will lead to a fall and the German economy. A cautious policy of support with minimal losses for the Germans is the best alternative to all “uncompromising” solutions, which is fraught with destabilization. It is necessary only Germany to give a hint about their parting with the EU - the EU will collapse. Even rumors of this can devalue the euro.

By the way, with regard to the plan for the redemption of state bonds Mario Draghi, then he now verified (lawyers of the European Central Bank and the Bundesbank) - already in compliance with the requirements of EU legislation. Transparency and democracy is enough.

According to experts, the program of unrestricted buying up of government bonds may violate the cornerstone position of the EU, prohibiting direct coverage of the state budget deficit of member states by single bodies of the community. The reason for the verification was that in the process of adopting 2012 in August by the Board of Directors of the ECB of a program of unrestricted buying up of government bonds of problem countries in the eurozone, one person voted against it, namely, the head of the Bundesbank Jens Weidmann.

At the same time, Germany calls on the EU crisis countries to save. Measures unpopular, however, you love to ride from a hill - be able to carry sleighs.

And the crisis countries econom dictate Germany do not like. Perhaps some gentlemen here really see the "fifth Reich". For example, the former Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi the other day He accused Berlin is that in the course of the crisis, the euro has dictated economy to the EU partners, and this only aggravated the economic downturn. Mr Berlusconi, giving an interview to the Italian edition of the online newspaper Huffington Post, said that Germany is a hegemon state that dictates the rules of economy and discipline to other European countries. He also noted that on the site of the current Prime Minister Mario Monti would not be such a "vassal of Germany."

If Berlusconi, with his right orientation, criticizes Germany, what German “fifth Reich” can we talk about?

The “refutation” of ideas about the “dictate” of Germany over Europe can also be found in the recent collective proposal of the heads of foreign ministries 11 from 27 of the EU countries to create an EU presidency, elected by universal suffrage, the establishment of the EU foreign ministry, the introduction of a single European entry visa and even the possible formation of a unified army. This is reported in the draft reform adopted following the meeting of the group on the future of the European Union, which includes the foreign ministers of Austria, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal and France (the largest and most influential states of the European Union, with the exception of the UK). It is clear that the main role in this group is played by Germany and France.

However, the project can also see Germany’s good chances of “dictating”: after all, the reform project suggests the abolition of the right of veto, which a number of EU countries now possess in matters of foreign policy and security, as well as upon ratification of the European treaties. In the case of approval of the reform, the EU countries will have to support those foreign policy measures with which they disagree.

If it is ironic to assume that Angela Merkel becomes president of the EU and Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle, then supporters of the idea of ​​the “fifth Reich” can declare, if not right, then some perspicacity.

However, the idea of ​​creating a common EU army and a single defense market belongs Germany, France, Italy, Spain and Poland. It is a consolidation, and not at all dictated. And against this idea were made, we note, not the Germans, but the British, who remember their imperial past.

In a word, whatever one may say, but Germany sees its future in the EU. We are not talking about total centralization of Europe through the suppression of its aggressive Germans, but about saving the European Union and saving the Germans themselves (saving three trillion euros in their large and deep pockets). Another thing - if you can not save the European Union. But in this case Germany will not preside over anyone ...

Observed Oleg Chuvakin
- especially for
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  1. +1
    28 September 2012 08: 48
    Germany’s ambitions do not subside, and I think she cannot afford to bear the financial burden of all of Europe, plus in the event of a possible scenario of the global crisis, she will completely abandon this venture! Yes
    1. borisst64
      28 September 2012 14: 07
      "crisis countries do not like Germany's economic diktat"
      "German ambitions are not abating"

      Who pays, he orders the music. Germany is strong with factories. And trade and tourism consume money earned by industry. The laws of political economy have not been canceled.
    2. B_O_B
      28 September 2012 19: 52

      European Parliament: a new look at the economic crisis.

      This is what ended the meetings of the expert commission on economic problems in the Eurozone.
      The commission included experts on economics and human rights.
      The findings of the commission are as follows (briefly):
      - the option to continue issuing the euro in the long run is disastrous;
      - the gold standard has become obsolete - it was yesterday, but no way, not tomorrow in the global economy;
      - the resource basis of the economy (for Europe) has not proved itself;
      - a new currency invariant is needed;
      - the alignment in global market structures is unstable and undefined.
      In view of the initial data, a new paradigm was proposed - "Tolerant Economy".
      “Tying the invariant of the new currency to the tolerance rating is not news of the day, as some journalists would like to present it,” said one of the experts, and continued, “this has already been discussed for the last decade on the sidelines of the European Parliament, but now only this has been brought up for general discussion. Moreover, Europe has a huge resource. "
      In the process of discussion with exchange experts, as well as with the agencies "Moodys" and others, nothing incredible in the process
      they don’t see preparations for the transition to a new invariant (the process of evaluating quotations by country should not take more than two, three months).
      The question was also asked - "Is it worth keeping the euro or introducing a new currency in the event of the collapse of the Eurozone or a new reformatting." To which the answer was received that this will depend on a complex of factors, the main of which will be political will to promote the new paradigm, as well as the development of a methodology for the practical deployment of this system, especially for developing countries.
      The next day, on the air of a Spanish radio station, the presenters joked about the definition of a new name for the euro currency - "gayro" lol .

  2. +4
    28 September 2012 08: 51
    Chancellor Merkel believes that Germany (and France at the same time, the second EU economy) has a “special responsibility” for saving Europe.

    The doctrine of the “special mission of the German nation” was carried out again in 1934 — and again?
  3. +3
    28 September 2012 08: 53
    the Germans will never leave the thought of "their" Europe. the Fritz need to unite with us, not giving a damn about Europe. then the rest will themselves fall under such an alliance. and many wars and other sad memories connect us with the Germans. are already accustomed to each other, like two friends, they either fight or reconcile
    1. +4
      28 September 2012 09: 44
      Yes, the Germans should not miss the chance to build special relations with Russia. Drang nah osten in our time can be very beneficial for both Russia and Germany.
      1. +4
        28 September 2012 11: 13
        And they do not miss. On their sidelines, authorities have long been exaggerating the idea of ​​closer cooperation with Russia. The Germans are pragmatic and well aware that we and China are the real ally, we are closer. Our resources and their pedantry multiplied by quality is power. I understand that this issue has long been considered quietly, they will sort it out with ambitions and you see, the matter will go. After all, it was not in vain that one of the Germans said - Russia can only be dealt with because they do not reproach us with the Second World War at every corner, unlike the others.
  4. +3
    28 September 2012 09: 27
    in fact, if their economy is the strongest there, it’s useless to argue ... the eurozone steam engine in one phrase ...

    Chancellor Merkel believes that Germany (and France at the same time, the second EU economy) has a “special responsibility” for saving Europe.
    it's pure facts ... confused with Nazi Gernanius is not entirely ethical, there the level of that propaganda is one of the lowest in the world
    1. +3
      28 September 2012 09: 37
      Quote: sasha 19871987
      there the level of that propaganda is one of the lowest in the world

      Oh no, read Goebbels about the USSR

      Millions of workers with a beggarly salary that simply cannot be imagined in Western Europe; millions of grieving and suffering peasants from whom their land was taken, devastated and ruined by an insane experiment on paralyzing collectivism; hunger, from which millions of people die every year (and this is in a country of such a gigantic extent that it can serve as the breadbasket for all of Europe!); creation and equipping of the army, which, according to the statements of all the leading Bolsheviks, will be used to carry out the world revolution; the rude and ruthless ruling of this handful of terrorists, leading to the abyss of the state and party apparatus, consisting mostly of Jews, all speak a completely different language, and the world cannot listen to it indefinitely, because this is a story about nameless suffering and unimaginable deprivations, suffered by a people with a population of one hundred and sixty million people.
      1. +2
        28 September 2012 11: 06
        Quote: Vadivak

        Oh no, read Goebbels about the USSR

        Hitler also wrote something similar in Mine Campf.
  5. 0
    28 September 2012 09: 43
  6. +3
    28 September 2012 09: 44
    Well, I still would not argue that Germany is not striving for the Fifth Reich .... is striving .. and even like .... it just wants to realize its dominance economically, which, given the country's most powerful economy, is very possible .. now economic power no weaker than military-political .....

    And the potential of Germany is huge, which is no secret ....
    1. +3
      28 September 2012 12: 07
      Quote: volkan
      Well, I still would not argue that Germany is not striving for the fifth Reich .... striving .. and how ...

      I would say not for the Reich, but for the order, everyone should flock for what they have done. And not only show the other as a Polish and do nothing but roll up the sleeves.
  7. 0
    28 September 2012 09: 52
    It is difficult to say what will happen to the European Union in the future, most likely it will fall apart or the number of members will decrease. I looked in the news about Greece and Spain, and at least kill doesn’t leave the feeling, someone needs it.
  8. Beck
    28 September 2012 09: 59
    In Europe, the process of creating a single geopolitical union is underway. With common borders, a single defense, a single economy, a single legislation, a single social structure. That is, just like a geopolitical union is developing in the Eurasian space with the participation of Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus and in the future, the accession of other CIS countries.

    What is bad, what is negative?

    This is a clear example of globalization and it is unreliable. Some European countries cannot compete in econimics with such giants as the USA, China, and India. Therefore, Europe is united in one state. Into a powerful economic power. And it is natural that composers cannot be equal. Someone is more developed economically, someone less. Germany and France are more developed and bear a greater burden of responsibility. Just like in the Eurasian Union, Russia is more developed.

    And why blame Germany for any desire for "Nazi" supremacy? This is only if you put on glasses with the prism of political relations of the 30s. Since then, the world has changed enormously.
  9. +3
    28 September 2012 10: 56
    My opinion. You need to work and not mess around. Then there will be no time for any nonsense. No Reich, No Muselman unrest.
    I want to say about the brand and the euro.
    When I had 50 marks in my pocket I was rich. The brand for the euro was changed 1 to 2. If I have 50 euros in my pocket now, that’s 100 marks, I’m poor.
  10. Odessa
    28 September 2012 11: 16
    ************************************************** ***************************
    1. +1
      28 September 2012 11: 22
      Well, Odessa, well, thanks amused!
      1. Odessa
        28 September 2012 11: 33
        1. +3
          28 September 2012 12: 46
          I remembered the anegdote about the sailor Rzhevsky "Madame, let me vpendyurit"
      2. +5
        28 September 2012 11: 33
        D. Vava and Comrade Andela have long agreed on everything. One is fluent in German, and the other is Russian only a little geography her need to learn. otherwise it will live beyond the Arctic Circle. In Germany, about 20% thought so to take from 100% of the firms that have washed off to China. They return to Europe and funds are transferred to Russia to create enterprises there. And the trend is increasing.
        1. +5
          28 September 2012 11: 37
          Hi Henry, join the trend-to Russia wink
          1. +2
            28 September 2012 11: 59
            Quote: Alexander Romanov
            join the trend-to Russia

            Hi Sash! So one point already works. Now, before the new year, sort it out with a park and a shaitan arba. After the plans for another one.
        2. +3
          28 September 2012 12: 11
          The rich people bring down Germany because there are frenzied taxes on luxury, so all of their companies and money are stored mainly in England, all the same it would be good to be friends with Germany.
          1. +2
            28 September 2012 12: 23
            Absolutely right, but they do not have to cross the river and you have to pay something here. For example, to collect all taxes in a pile which I pay so it is 51%.
            And money that you don’t even fall into your account is trying to invest somewhere so that there is less profit.
            1. +3
              28 September 2012 12: 56
              Do you think such taxes are bad or good, is your opinion purely subjective?
              1. +4
                28 September 2012 13: 05
                But this is purely my opinion, probably many will disagree with him.
                I think that they are good. I will explain my opinion. The good thing about what makes it makes people develop. Do not put money into a small pill and invest in something. By this, a person becomes richer, not by money, but by production, for example. In this way, he helps others to become richer in the sense that he gives others the opportunity to earn money, not to stand still but to think and earn.
                1. +5
                  28 September 2012 13: 53
                  Thank you hi I completely agree with you, back in Russia, the boyars were trading with everyone in a row, and what they earned in the chests was hidden by the wealthy and not Russia, and here the state also helps people and, as you correctly put it, people are developing, there’s already a desire for Of course, some businessmen do not agree with some innovations, re-equipment of production, since many have the goal of making as much money as possible, while doing as little as possible. A huge plus for you from me hi
          2. +2
            28 September 2012 18: 02
            Rich people and large companies (and this is probably 99% of the total amount) illegally store money in Luxembourg, Liechtenstein and Switzerland (unlike Russians who do the same in England). There have already been so many scandals on this subject, just tin. Something like the tax police (Finanzamt) but with much greater rights and scope, stupidly buys moles and informers in the banks of these countries, pays a couple million euros for one CD with the accounts of German customers. Switzerland is furious. She even issued an arrest warrant through interpolation for several high-ranking German investigators (* important * in Russian) on these matters.
            1. stalker
              28 September 2012 21: 01
              Switzerland is already high time for eggs to take, which the United States and many European countries are trying to do.
  11. +2
    28 September 2012 11: 28
    In my opinion, the entire EU project was invented to omit Europe's main competitor to the Saxo-Saxons, the project participants are too different, they have too little discipline and too much independence, and the enemy is too powerful $ pressures and crushes. And besides Germany is dependent on the CAA and Israel it’s hard to be independent with such bosses.
    1. Odessa
      28 September 2012 11: 54
      .And in addition, Germany is dependent on the CAA

      And from beer too drinks laughing
      1. +2
        28 September 2012 12: 02
        Quote: Odessa
        And from beer too

        In Germany, beer is liquid bread. And the bread is holy good drinks
        1. Odessa
          28 September 2012 12: 11
          Heinrich ruppert,
          In Germany, beer is liquid bread. And the bread is holy

          I take my word for it as a resident of Germany. Beer is drunk on wheat, but yeast is also used for brewing beer. drinks
          1. +2
            28 September 2012 16: 32
            Why was your comment deleted? request
          2. +2
            28 September 2012 18: 21
            A visitor came to the pub and ordered four glasses of beer. When I had a drink, I ordered three more. Then he asked for two, and finally one. Falling under the table, he complained to the waitress:
            - What a strange organism I have - the less I drink, the worse it is for me. That's always like that! smile
            1. 0
              28 September 2012 21: 27
              A woman complains to a psychiatrist:
              “Recently, my husband has been acting in a strange way.”
              After drinking beer, he eats a mug, leaving only a pen.
              “It's strange,” the doctor says, “because the most delicious is the pen!”
        2. +1
          28 September 2012 18: 11
          Do you know that

          That with a hangover only exhausted beer helps. Do not be lazy the day before in the evening to open a bottle of beer and put it in the refrigerator.

          That the oldest brewery is the German "Weichenstephan" in Freising near Munich. The brewery was founded in 1040.

          That with a good beer, the foam should hold for at least three minutes. The foam on the beer should be dense, white and consist of very small bubbles.

          That the largest brewery is the American "Adolph Course" in Colorado. It produces 2,5 billion liters of beer annually.

          That the smallest brewery can be considered an exhibit of the brewing museum in Pilsen. The current copy of the brewery was made by a Czech master for the 1958 Brussels international exhibition. She brews 30 liters of beer at a time.

          That the largest collection of beer labels (350 thousand copies) belongs to the Norwegian Jan Solberg.

          What the yeast sediment says about the liveliness and naturalness of the beer. This applies not only to wheat beers. For example, the classic barley beer of the Belgian monks "Shimei" is also bottled according to the old technology, without filtering.

          That the largest beer mug with a lid was made by Selangor Pjuta in Malaysia in 1985. Its height is 198,7 centimeters, the capacity is 2796 liters.

          That the smallest beer bottle in the world is made in the Swiss village of Wadenswil near Zurich. It holds 40 milliliters of beer and costs 9 francs.

          That in Russia beer was brewed very strong. Foreigners noted that you can’t drink Russian beer without drinking drunk. Ivan the Terrible monopolized brewing, prohibiting its production at home. Only two hundred years later, peasants were allowed to brew beer for domestic consumption on major holidays (four days a year).

          That the ancient Romans considered beer a gift from the fertility goddess Ceres and glorified it in hymns and odes.

          That the ancient peoples of Mesopotamia as early as the 70th century BC knew XNUMX different recipes for making barley drink. In Babylon, the law of King Hurapi, protecting the quality of beer, was in force. For his dilution with water, the brewer was threatened with the death penalty: he was drowned in a barrel of home-made intoxicated potion.

          That the Bavarians were the first to grow hops. From this began the great glory of Bavarian beer. And until the XNUMXth century, they put all kinds of nonsense in beer: heather, laurel, broom, wormwood and ivy.

          That the fabulous King Gambrinus, who, according to German legend, invented beer, had a real prototype, it was Duke Jan Primus, an avid beer lover.

          That the composition of the "correct" beer (barley, hops, water) was established by the "Law on the Purity of Beer", passed in 1516 by the Bavarian Duke Wilhelm.
  12. +5
    28 September 2012 17: 18
    I welcome everyone, I glanced briefly, so briefly so things on tonsils will be interesting to brag about later.
    the computer is buggy I can’t answer, but I especially welcome Esther and Henry. Henry how you put everything on the shelves and you feel the responsibility of a person to his country. What can not be said about some of the inhabitants of our fauna. And on the topic, so remember the series of books about Angelica?

    • Angelica / Marquise of Angels (French Angélique / Marquise des Anges) - 1957
    • Way to Versailles / Angelica Marquise of the Angels (fr. Angélique, le Chemin de Versailles) - 1958
    • Angelica and the King (fr. Angélique et le Roy) - 1959
    • Indomitable Angelica / Angelica in Berberia / Angelica and the Sultan (fr. Indomptable Angélique) - 1960
    • Rebel Angelica / Rebel Angelica / Rebel Poitou / Angelica in rebellion (Angélique se révolte) - 1961
    • Angelica and her love / Love Angelica / Angelica in love / Angelica and Rescator (fr. Angélique et son Amour) - 1961
    • Angelica in the New World (fr. Angélique et le Nouveau Monde) - 1964
    • The temptation of Angelica / Angelica in Goldsboro (fr. La Tentation d'Angelique) - 1966
    • Angelica and the Demon / Devil (fr. Angelique et la Demone) - 1972
    • Angelica and the conspiracy of shadows (French Angélique et le Complot des Ombres) - 1976
    • Angelica in Quebec (fr. Angélique à Québec) - 1980
    • Road of Hope (fr. Angélique, la Route de l'Espoir) - 1984
    • Triumph / Victory of Angelica (fr

    Perhaps Merkel is the only one of the German Chancellors to be repeated all the way. I wish the final was triumphant.
    1. Odessa
      28 September 2012 17: 28
      Hi Sparrow!
      I wish the final was triumphant.

      Under the Arc de Triomphe! wassat
    2. +3
      28 September 2012 17: 32
      Greetings, Sasha. I have responsibility for the two countries and try to create something good everywhere. That I was born in the USSR and gave the oath. I am trying now to link the production so far successfully. God grant to go to the level that I want. drinks
  13. +5
    28 September 2012 17: 38
    Quote: Odessa
    Under the Arc de Triomphe!

    Quote: Heinrich Ruppert
    I have responsibility for two countries

    Esther, well, I doubt that Nicolas is an aisle of dreams for a woman, although in principle love is evil.

    Heinrich good luck in your endeavors. If not a secret, share your thoughts in muzzle PM. I will not give advice honestly. Production?
    1. +4
      28 September 2012 17: 42
      Quote: vorobey

      Yes, already a little works in Russia.
  14. +4
    28 September 2012 17: 49
    Quote: Heinrich Ruppert

    separate respect
  15. Stasi.
    28 September 2012 18: 51
    Germany is becoming more and more tired of feeding all these Eastern Europeans who work and think in a completely different way. Perhaps Germany wanted what is called economically subjugating Europe and the European market for the German economy and German goods, but nothing came of this idea. On the neck of the Germans sat with great pleasure the Eastern Europeans, who wanted the Westerners to feed them at their own expense. The fact that the Germans want to return the Deutschmark is not surprising. It was the strongest and most reliable currency in Europe. And perhaps it will be right if Germany leaves the European Union and returns the brand, this will allow the Germans to save their savings and strengthen the German economy.
    1. +5
      28 September 2012 21: 04
      Once upon a time, Germany was one of the architects and creators of the European Union. It was an old dream to create the United States of Europe. She was not greedy, gave almost everything that was in her power. She closed her eyes to a lot, attributing this to the imperfection of the economies of weak countries (and that as soon as they immediately, they would get on their feet and harness themselves in a par with the Germans), and attributed to them those qualities that were not and never will be. The Germans are Euro-romantics. They wanted to dissolve themselves in these new US. But in reality, everything turned out differently - the weak, envious, undeveloped and thieving new EU members took everything that they were given for granted, not in a hurry to give something or also to shoulder a shoulder. Slowing down the development of the EU, as well as any German initiatives, violated any EU laws, whether according to financial discipline, or the adoption of any EU laws, or whatever else you liked, if the States whispered all sorts of nasty advice to their ears. And then the Germans received their sight, and made conclusions. There are so many examples that listing does not make sense. But Germany has invested so much that there is no turning back. There is such a saying, it happens that a wife owes you so much that you never leave her ...

      If you liked the comment, plz plyusanite to get out of grayness, otherwise yesterday thousands were probably leaked to me 2 ratings for excessive erudition ... (so to speak, it will be a science, but you always have to pay for it).
      1. biglow
        28 September 2012 21: 37
        here it’s better not to argue with Turkish lovers, they’re hot mountain guys
      2. biglow
        28 September 2012 21: 38
        here it’s better not to argue with Turkish lovers, they’re hot mountain guys
        1. +2
          28 September 2012 21: 44
          This is my trouble, I could not pass by. request
  16. +1
    28 September 2012 19: 48
    Merkel is a smart woman. (cap)
    1. +2
      28 September 2012 20: 41
      Rather rational and wise ... Black belt - the seventh is given in the art of compromise ...
  17. +1
    28 September 2012 22: 29
    For what Merkel can be respected, she did not go down to vulgar rejuvenation. Bravo, Madame!
  18. maxiv1979
    29 September 2012 10: 37
    Germany would save itself, demographics are zero, a couple of decades and there will be Turkmenistan) clowns, they still climb to others, but women themselves do not give birth and cultivate homosexuals)