Military Review

Japanese tanks of the Second World War. Part I

Twenty years before the outbreak of war with China and the ensuing offensive on all of Southeast Asia, the Japanese Empire began the formation of its armored forces. The experience of the First World War showed prospects tanks and the Japanese took note of it. The creation of the Japanese tank industry began with a thorough study of foreign vehicles. For this, starting in 1919, Japan purchased small lots of tanks of various models from European countries. In the mid-twenties, the French Renault FT-18 and the English Mk.A Whippet were recognized as the best. In April 1925, the first Japanese tank group was formed from these armored vehicles. In the future, the purchase of foreign samples continued, but was not particularly large. Japanese designers have already prepared several of their own projects.

Japanese tanks of the Second World War. Part I
Renault FT-17 / 18 (The 17 had the MG, the 18 had a 37mm gun)

Tanks Mk.A Whippet of the Imperial Army of Japan

In 1927, the Osaka Arsenal revealed to the world the first Japanese tank of its own design. The car had a combat mass of 18 tons and was armed with a 57-mm cannon and two machine guns. Armament mounted in two separate towers. It is obvious that the first experience of the independent creation of armored vehicles was not crowned with particular success. Tank "Chi-I" was, in general, not bad. But not without so-called. childhood diseases, which was excusable for the very first design. Taking into account the experience of testing and trial operation in the troops, four years later another tank of the same mass was created. "Type 91" was equipped with three towers, in which there were 70-millimeter and 37-millimeter cannons, as well as machine guns. It is noteworthy that the machine-gun turret, being designed to defend the machine from the rear, was located behind the engine compartment. The other two towers were located in the front and middle of the tank. The most powerful weapon was installed on a large middle tower. The Japanese used this weapon scheme and layout on their next medium tank. "Type 95" appeared in 1935 year and was even built in a small series. However, a number of design and operational features ultimately led to the abandonment of multi-tower systems. All further Japanese armored vehicles were either equipped with one turret, or costing chopping or armored machine gunner.

The first Japanese medium tank, which was called as 2587 “Chi-i” (sometimes it was called “medium tank №1”)

"Special tractor"

After abandoning the idea of ​​a tank with several turrets, the Japanese military and designers began to develop a different direction of armored vehicles, which eventually became the basis for a whole family of combat vehicles. In 1935, the Japanese army adopted the 94 Type light / small tank, also known as the TK (short for Tokubetsu Keninsya, literally “Special Tractor”). Initially, this tank with a combat weight of three and a half tons - because of this, in the European classification of armored vehicles, it was listed as a wedge - was developed as a special vehicle for the carriage of goods and escort convoy. Nevertheless, over time, the project has developed into a full-fledged light combat vehicle. The design and layout of the tank "Type 94" subsequently became a classic for Japanese armored vehicles. The TK case was assembled on a frame from the corners of rolled sheets, the maximum thickness of the armor was 12 millimeters of the upper part of the forehead. The bottom and the roof were three times thinner. In front of the hull housed the engine-transmission compartment with a Mitsubishi “Type 94” gasoline engine with 35 horsepower. Such a weak engine was enough for the entire speed of 40 km / h on the highway. The tank suspension was designed according to the scheme of Major T. Khara. Four track rollers on a caterpillar pair were mounted on the ends of the balancer, which, in turn, was mounted on the body. The suspension spring was a shock-absorbing element mounted along the body and covered with a cylindrical casing. On each side of the chassis was equipped with two such blocks, while the fixed ends of the springs were in the center of the chassis. The armament of the “Special Tractor” consisted of a single “Type 91” machine gun of 6,5 caliber of a millimeter. The project “Type 94” was generally successful, although it had several flaws. First of all, the claims were caused by weak defense and insufficient armament. Only one rifle caliber machine gun was effective. weapons only against a weak opponent.

"Type 94" "TK" captured by the Americans

"Type 97" / "Te-Ke"

The technical assignment for the next armored vehicle implied higher levels of protection and firepower. Since the construction of the “Type 94” had a certain potential in terms of development, the new “Type 97”, also known as “Te-Ke”, in fact became its deep modernization. For this reason, the suspension and design of the Te-Ke case was almost completely similar to the corresponding 94 Type units. At the same time, there were differences. The combat weight of the new tank has grown to 4,75 tons, which, in combination with the new, more powerful engine, could lead to major changes in balancing. To avoid too much load on the front track rollers, the OHV engine was placed in the rear of the tank. The two-stroke diesel engine developed power up to 60 hp. At the same time, an increase in engine power did not entail an improvement in ride quality. The speed of the “Type 97” remained at the level of the previous tank “TK”. Moving the engine to the stern required a change in the layout and shape of the front of the hull. So, thanks to the increase in free volumes in the bow of the tank, it was possible to make a more ergonomic workplace of the driver with a more comfortable "cutting" protruding above the front and top sheets of the body. The “97 Type” protection level was slightly higher than the “94 Type” protection. Now the whole body was assembled from 12-millimeter sheets. In addition, the upper part of the hull sides had a thickness of 16 millimeters. Such an interesting feature was due to the angles of inclination of the sheets. Since the frontal was located at a greater angle to the horizontal than the side, a different thickness allowed to provide the same level of protection from all angles. The crew of the tank "Type 97" consisted of two people. They did not have any special observation devices and used only viewing slits and sights. The workplace of the tank commander was located in the fighting compartment in the tower. He had a gun caliber 37 mm and 7,7-mm machine gun. The “Type 94” gun with a wedge gate was manually charged. Ammunition of 66 armor-piercing and fragmentation projectiles fit along the sides, inside the tank hull. The penetration rate of an armor-piercing projectile was about 35 millimeters from a distance of 300 meters. The twin machine gun "Type 97" had more ammunition 1700 rounds.

Type 97 Te-Ke

Serial production of tanks "Type 97" began in 1938-39's. Before its termination in 1942, about six hundred combat vehicles were assembled. Appearing at the very end of the thirties, "Te-Ke" managed to participate in almost all military conflicts of that time, from the battles in Manchuria to the landing operations of the 1944 of the year. At first, the industry could not cope with the release of the required number of tanks, so it was necessary to distribute them between the units with special care. The use of "Type 97" in battles went with varying success: weak booking did not provide protection against a considerable part of the enemy's firepower, and our own armament could not provide adequate firepower and effective fire range. In 1940, an attempt was made to install a new cannon with a longer barrel and the same caliber on Te-Ke. The initial velocity of the projectile increased by one hundred meters per second and reached the level in 670-680 m / s. However, over time, the failure of this weapon also became clear.

"Type 95"

A further development of the light tank theme was “Type 95” or “Ha-Go”, created a little later “Te-Ke”. In general, it was a logical continuation of the previous machines, but not without major changes. First of all, changed the design of the chassis. On previous machines, the steering wheel also played the role of a track roller and pressed the caterpillar to the ground. On the "Ha-Go" this detail was raised above the ground and the caterpillar acquired a more familiar look for the tanks of that time. The design of the armored hull remained the same - frame and rolled sheets. Most of the panels had a thickness of millimeters 12, which is why the level of protection remained the same. The basis of the power plant of the tank "Type 95" was a six-cylinder two-stroke diesel horsepower 120 hp. This engine power, despite the fighting weight of seven and a half tons, made it possible to preserve and even increase the speed and the throughput of the car compared to the previous ones. The maximum speed of "Ha-Go" on the highway was 45 km / h.

The main weapon of the Ha-Go tank was similar to the 97 Type armament. It was an 37 mm 94 type cannon. The gun suspension system was made in a rather original way. The gun was not fixed rigidly and could move in both vertical and horizontal planes. Due to this, it was possible to direct the gun roughly by turning the turret and adjust the tip using its own turning mechanisms. Ammunition guns - 75 unitary shells - located along the walls of the fighting compartment. Additional weapons "Type 95" first were two 6,5-mm machine gun "Type 91". Later, with the transition of the Japanese army to the new cartridge, their place was taken by machine guns "Type 97" caliber 7,7 millimeter. One of the machine guns was installed in the rear of the turret, the other in a rocking installation in the front sheet of the armored hull. In addition, on the left side of the hull there were embrasures for firing from the crew’s personal weapons. The crew "Ha-Go", for the first time in this line of light tanks, consisted of three people: driver mechanics, gunner equipment and the gunner's commander. The duties of the technician-shooter included control over the engine and firing from the front machine gun. The second machine gun was controlled by the commander. He also loaded the gun and fired it.

The first experimental batch of Ha-Go tanks was assembled back in 1935, and immediately went to the troops for trial operation. In the war with China, due to the weakness of the army of the latter, the new Japanese tanks did not achieve much success. A little later, during the fighting at Khalkhin-Gol, the Japanese military finally managed to test the “95 Type” in a real battle with a worthy opponent. This check ended sadly: almost all of the Kha-Tung army had “Ha-Go” destroyed by tanks and artillery of the Red Army. One of the results of the fighting at Khalkhin Gol was the recognition by the Japanese command of the insufficiency of 37-millimeter cannons. During the battles, the Soviet BT-5, equipped with 45-mm guns, had time to destroy the Japanese tanks before they reached the distance of a confident defeat. In addition, the composition of the Japanese armored formations were a lot of machine-gun tanks, which clearly did not contribute to success in battle.

"Ha-Go", captured by American troops on the island of Io

In the future, tanks "Ha-Go" collided in a battle with American equipment and artillery. Due to the significant difference in caliber - the Americans were already using tank 75 caliber millimeters with might and main - Japanese armored vehicles often suffered heavy losses. By the end of the war in the Pacific, 95 Type light tanks were often converted into stationary firing points, however, their effectiveness was also low. The last battles with the "Type 95" took place during the Third Civil War in China. Trophy tanks were handed over to the Chinese military, with the USSR sending the People’s Liberation Army to captured armored vehicles, and the United States to the Kuomintang. Despite the active use of the "Type 95" after the Second World War, this tank can be considered quite lucky. From 2300 more than built tanks to our time in the form of museum exhibits lived a half dozen. A few dozen more tanks in damaged condition are local landmarks in some Asian countries.

The average "Chi-Ha"

Shortly after the start of testing the “Ha-Go” tank, Mitsubishi presented another project, rooted in the early thirties. At this time, the good old concept "TK" became the basis for the new medium tank, which received the name "Type 97" or "Chi-Ha." It should be noted that "Chi-Ha" had little in common with "Te-Ke". The coincidence of the digital development index was due to some bureaucratic issues. Nevertheless, the matter was not without borrowing ideas. The new "Type 97" had the same layout as the previous machines: the engine in the stern, the transmission in the front, and the fighting compartment between them. The construction of "Chi-Ha" was carried out on a frame system. The maximum thickness of rolled hull sheets in the case of "Type 97" increased to 27 millimeters. This provided a significant increase in the level of protection. As practice later showed, the new thicker armor turned out to be much more resistant to the armament of the enemy. For example, the Browning M2 large-caliber machine guns confidently hit “Ha-Go” tanks at distances to 500 meters, but on the Chi-Ha armor they left only dents. More solid booking led to an increase in the tank's combat mass to 15,8 tons. This fact required to install a new engine. In the early stages of the project, two motors were considered. Both had the same power in the 170 hp, but were developed by different firms. As a result, the Mitsubishi diesel was chosen, which turned out to be a little more comfortable to manufacture. Yes, and the ability to quickly and conveniently communicate with the designers of tank builders and engine engineers did their job.

Considering the current development trends of foreign tanks, the Mitsubishi designers decided to equip the new 97 Type with more powerful weapons than previous tanks. The 57 mm 97 type gun was mounted on the swiveling turret. As on the "Ha-Go", the gun could swing on the trunnions not only in the vertical plane, but also in the horizontal, within the sector width 20 °. It is noteworthy that the fine aiming of the tool horizontally was carried out without any mechanical means - only by the physical strength of the gunner. Vertical guidance was performed in the sector from -9 ° to + 21 °. The standard gun ammunition was 80 high-explosive and 40 armor-piercing shells. Armor-piercing ammunition weighing kg in 2,58 per kilometer punched up to 12 millimeters of armor. At half the distance the penetration rate increased by one and a half times. Additional weapons "Chi-Ha" consisted of two machine guns "Type 97". One of them was located in the front of the case, and the other was intended to defend against an attack from behind. A new gun made tank builders go for another crew increase. Now it consisted of four people: driver, gunner, loader and the commander-gunner.

In 1942, on the basis of the "Type 97" was created the tank "Shinhoto Chi-Ha", which differed from the original model of the new gun. 47-mm gun "Type 1" allowed to increase ammunition to 102 shells and at the same time increase armor penetration. The barrel length of 48 calibers dispersed the projectile to such speeds at which it could penetrate to 68-70 millimeters of armor at a distance of up to 500 meters. The renewed tank proved to be more effective against armored vehicles and enemy fortifications, in connection with which mass production was begun. In addition, a considerable part of the more than seven hundred and more made "Shinhoto Chi-Ha" was re-equipped during the repair of simple tanks "Type 97".

The combat use of Chi-Ha, begun in the very first months of the war in the Pacific theater of military operations, until a certain time showed sufficient effectiveness of the solutions applied. However, over time, when the United States entered the war, which already had tanks such as M3 Lee in the army, it became clear that all of Japan’s light and medium tanks simply could not fight them. For reliable defeat of American tanks required accurate hits in certain parts of them. This was the reason for creating a new tower with a gun "Type 1". Anyway, none of the modifications of the “Type 97” could not compete on equal terms with the equipment of the enemy, the USA or the USSR. Including as a result of this, out of about 2100 units, only two entire tanks “Chi-Ha” survived to our time. Another dozen preserved in damaged form and is also a museum piece.

On the materials of the sites:

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 26 September 2012 08: 11
    Something, but the Japanese tanks were absolutely salvage, on the rubbish that they produced in the WWII war it was possible to fight only with the Chinese partisans.
    1. Prohor
      Prohor 26 September 2012 08: 42
      Tanks were not needed at all in their theater of operations, so they weren’t particularly steamed ...
      Although, they say, on some of their tanks, it was possible to install railway wheels under our track! laughing
      By the way, along with their tanks, they had anti-tank guns and rifles with a complete "... it", they were not even close to ours.
      1. Sakhalininsk
        Sakhalininsk 26 September 2012 13: 13
        Among the Yap, only the fleet was supplied at a high level. Everything else is a full hat with small flashes (Zero fighter at the beginning of the war).
        1. Ivan Tarasov
          Ivan Tarasov 26 September 2012 21: 15
          I would not say that everything was so bad.
          The design idea was on top, which can not be said about the leadership ...
          For example, the Homare engine was generally out of competition. The Ki-84 "Hayate" was a magnificent machine, and after the appearance of (extremely belated) 30 mm cannons (I must say, the best in the world in their class), the machine turned into one of the formidable WWII fighters. The shortsightedness of the Japanese military leadership is simply amazed - even in 41st Horikoshi proposed to put Kinsei on Zero, if the leadership were more forward-looking, the results of the air battles would have been completely different. The military also pulled the MK-9, "Reppu" was ready at the beginning of 44, but due to the donkey stubbornness of the command, who did not want to accept the new engine, by the beginning of the 45th the Navy became defenseless from the air.
      2. SenyaYa
        SenyaYa 26 September 2012 20: 55
        Plus disgusting machine guns and rifles
  2. Krilion
    Krilion 26 September 2012 08: 23
    Japanese tank in the museum of Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk

  3. understudy
    understudy 26 September 2012 08: 45
    Despite the absurdity of the Japanese armored vehicles of that era, the technological breakthrough made by them in subsequent years is striking. That is what is surprising.
    1. Allegedly
      Allegedly 26 September 2012 12: 06
      Excuse me, are you alluding to the miraculous side effects of radiation? I also suspected that the Japanese had little dirty secrets. But judging by this logic, the amers have already irradiated Afghanistan and Iraq so much, and * the Panasonic * they are not doing. I’m guessing, maybe they irradiate somehow wrong? what ...
      1. bamboo
        bamboo 28 September 2012 18: 17
        they irradiate the chinas with their ablations)) laughing
  4. Brother Sarych
    Brother Sarych 26 September 2012 09: 01
    Indeed, against the background of the development of the fleet and aviation, such land-based sucks simply amaze!
    Although with whom they had to fight something on land? Consider India reached by land without any problems and with such tin boxes, and the Allies barely managed to get them out of there only in 1945 ...
    1. Prohor
      Prohor 26 September 2012 09: 40
      Correct if I am wrong, but in aviation they, too, did not seem to shine.
      The pogrom in Pearl Harbor took place due to the suddenness and massiveness of the strike, and not at all because of the perfection of the aircraft.
      1. Civil
        Civil 26 September 2012 11: 24
        Well, why, for those tasks, ZERO was very good, another thing to use!
        1. saruman
          saruman 26 September 2012 12: 16
          Zero was the best naval carrier-based fighter until 1944. This is recognized even by Norman Polmar, a recognized specialist in the history of the aircraft carrier fleet.
      2. SenyaYa
        SenyaYa 26 September 2012 20: 58
        Correct, the Japanese carrier-based aviation was the best in the world at the time of the attack on pearl harbor. Exaggeration
      3. Ivan Tarasov
        Ivan Tarasov 27 September 2012 17: 38
        Japan's aircraft were among the best in the world.
        Ki-67 bomber, B-7A2 deck torpedo bomber, Ki-84, Ki-83, N1K2J fighters.
  5. Leisure
    Leisure 26 September 2012 09: 17
    The Japanese laid the main emphasis on the fleet and aviation, so the ground forces were in such an unsightly form.
    The last tanks in the photo are similar to BT.
  6. borisst64
    borisst64 26 September 2012 11: 43
    I saw Japanese tanks on Poklonnaya Hill. Something awkward and wretched.
  7. Greyfox
    Greyfox 26 September 2012 11: 53
    In the explanatory dictionary, opposite the word "squalor" as an illustration, you should place a photo of these nedotanks smile
  8. Bugor
    Bugor 26 September 2012 11: 59
    My grandfather, who fought in Manchuria (a lorry driver) said that our units simply did not notice the resistance of the Yapov tanks. Either because they were not there, or because there was no sense in such tanks ...
    He said that the biggest losses were from artillery. Yapis shot well. But here is the pace of advancement of our troops (my grandfather did not have time to bring diesel fuel and shells) - is this not a sign that the Japanese tanks are a complete g .......
  9. Allegedly
    Allegedly 26 September 2012 12: 19
    For those functions that these tanks were intended, they are in order. To capture the defenseless countries is more than enough, and in terms of combating partisans and riots of the population of the occupied territories is also OK. The Japanese did not plan to face the T-34-85 and IS. But the SA had all sorts of goodies: * Katyusha *, the best fleet at that time, and so on. Even in the most terrible masochistic fantasies, I think they did not plan this. But if it weren’t for two atomic bombs, I’m scared to imagine what they would do with them ...
    1. Common sense
      Common sense 26 September 2012 13: 43
      the best fleet at that time, and so on

      Oh well
    2. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 26 September 2012 15: 48
      Soviet soldiers examine abandoned Japanese equipment after fighting on the Khalkhin Gol River.
      In the foreground is a light tank Type 95 HaGo, armed with an 37-mm Type 94 gun, the exhaust system of the 120-powerful Mitsubishi NVD 6120 diesel engine is visible.
      On the left, a fighter inspects the 75-mm gun, the “improved 38 type”, the main field weapon of the Kwantung Army in the battles at Khalkhin Gol. Despite the archaic design, this weapon, thanks to its light weight, lasted in the troops until the end of the war.
      Location: Mongolia.
      Shooting time: 1939.
      1. Kars
        Kars 26 September 2012 16: 08
        Not to this part along the way, but I like the photo.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 26 September 2012 17: 30
          this is ours, all of ours with us!
    3. Vitmir
      Vitmir 26 September 2012 19: 00
      SA still has all sorts of goodies: ... the best fleet at that time

      As many as two nonsense in one phrase. And the fleet of the army, and even the best. Best compared to Japanese, eh? 3 ha ha!
  10. Sergl
    Sergl 26 September 2012 12: 33
    Militaristic Japan, whose economic potential in the pre-war era was equal to a small European country, managed to create a strong fleet, army and aviation.
    1. Fox
      Fox 26 September 2012 17: 24
      fleet helped them build the British.
      1. Sergl
        Sergl 27 September 2012 07: 27
        Quote: Fox
        fleet helped them build the British.

        But they did not build for them.
        In addition, the most interesting examples of that time (IMHO) - heavy cruisers, battleships of the "Yamato" type - for the most part their own designs.

        And the lack of resources gives rise to resourcefulness. So well, they didn’t have armor-piercing bombs before the raid on Pearl Harbr — old armor-piercing shells adapted them.
  11. Bugor
    Bugor 26 September 2012 14: 01
    Quote: JACOB
    But if it weren’t for two atomic bombs, I’m scared to imagine what they would do with them ...

    You will remember when the Yankees bombed. And then compare with the successes of the same American army, not to mention the Soviet (until 6.08).
    There was no sense (military) in using THESE bombs. Purely political step.
    1. Common sense
      Common sense 26 September 2012 21: 07
      How was it?
      There were 370 total casualties from the bombing, including those who died from cancer years later ... Japan immediately surrendered.
      Before the surrender, the Japanese army had the lowest percentage of killed to prisoners - one hundred twenty to one. That is, if instead of bombing Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the American military command chose the option of landing on the islands, and victory with conventional weapons, then there would be ten times more victims from this "humane" decision among the JAPANESE.
      Not to mention the hundreds of thousands of their soldiers ...
      So the decision to bomb Japan was primarily rational, and only then political.
  12. Karlsonn
    Karlsonn 26 September 2012 15: 44
    Soviet marines on the background of the wrecked Japanese tank "Ha-go" on the island of Shumshu, Kuril Islands.
    Shooting time: August 1945.
  13. wasjasibirjac
    wasjasibirjac 26 September 2012 16: 10
    Yes, this is not a combat vehicle, but a misunderstanding on the tracks.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 26 September 2012 17: 45
      Well, so categorically I would not say, there was still such a misunderstanding, with competent defense, these misunderstandings could do a lot of things.

      Japanese amphibious tanks Type 2 "Ka-Mi" captured on Shumshu Island. On the islands of Paramushir and Shumshu, two battalions of the Japanese marines (ricusentai) were based, which had 16 tanks of this type.
      1. Glenn witcher
        26 September 2012 18: 40
        It looks better with pontoons. But this is a completely different story. wink
  14. Vitmir
    Vitmir 26 September 2012 18: 17
    And to whom are these troughs interesting?
    Well, if I have a lone model "Ha-go" in a row of foreign counterparts, it collects dust.
    But the Japanese have good modern cars.
    1. Karlsonn
      Karlsonn 26 September 2012 18: 56
      Quote: VitMir
      And to whom are these troughs interesting?

      Interesting primarily for those who are beginning to be interested in armored vehicles and the history of its creation, if you know about these "troughs" - well done, and someone may not yet know this aspect of the issue. And what a pompous trough belay any country that now has a tank of its own production, came to it by a long road of trial and error, the Japanese are no exception. The Japanese would hardly have approached the creation of "Type 10" without going through a rake in 20-40 years. "Ha-Go", as you know in 1935, well, the Germans also did not shine with "Tigers" in 1935, and ours did not use "IS-ah".

      Soviet tank crews driver Yakimenko and gunner Protazanov at the captured Pz.Jag self-propelled guns. I. The Western Front, 1942
      1. Vitmir
        Vitmir 26 September 2012 19: 20
        If we start stories about equipping the "Japanese military", "militarists" and samurai of the 30-40s with military equipment, so about something really interesting, in which they were strong - IMHO fleet (the largest battleships, submarine aircraft carriers etc.) and aviation.
        And the roots of modern Japanese tanks do not grow from their ancient tankettes, but from American models of the second half of the twentieth century. The Japanese, as conquered, with true enthusiasm absorbed examples of the technical thought of the winners.
        1. Karlsonn
          Karlsonn 26 September 2012 19: 44
          firstly, this is the first part of the releases about Japanese armored vehicles, as the author of the release states;
          secondly, why are you signing here for all, personally you are not interested in armored vehicles - go by, at the gunpoint no one forces you to go in and read;
          thirdly, but you tell us that the Japanese are half-educated
          Quote: VitMir
          with true enthusiasm absorbed examples of the technical thoughts of the winners.
          ; Of course, the attack on the Somme didn’t give German military and engineering thought, and all the other leading tank countries made their cars in complete vacuum, you can name at least one spherical horse, I mean a model of a tank that would not have any influence from outside and in the construction of which the experience of creating foreign cars would not be taken into account (Mk.1 is not counted, the idea was stolen from the construction of medieval rams). I look forward to breaking patterns.
  15. gercog_75
    gercog_75 26 September 2012 18: 35
    I served in Paramushira. It’s nice to see pictures from the islands that are dear to me. thanks for the pictures
  16. Axel
    Axel 26 September 2012 20: 26
    Yes, tanks are not important for the fleet was the best in the Pacific
  17. Ivan Tarasov
    Ivan Tarasov 26 September 2012 20: 47
    Japan's strategy is pretty shortsighted.
    Having a huge length of borders with the USSR (Manzhou Guo), the Japanese completely did not care about land defense.
    Back in the mid-30s, it was necessary to pay attention to this factor, and take measures (build several tank factories in Manchukuo, and with the help of the German military, build a concept for the use of large armored forces). And tanks in the Far East were needed completely different than for use on the islands. Having built several factories for the production of synthetic gasoline in Manchukuo, diesel engines for this theater should have been completely abandoned. Having bought a license for a 40 strong Maybach in the early 300s, create a medium tank (based on Chi-Khe) with a mass of up to 23 tons, armed with a 75 mm long-barreled cannon.
    The start of production of Chi-Well, the Japanese greatly delayed, and yet, for the island war it was the best tank.
    In subsequent parts, it will be interesting to learn about the Japanese ZSU, 20 and 37 mm, on the basis of light and medium tanks, these were single samples, but the author should tell about them.
    We look forward to continuing.
    1. Common sense
      Common sense 26 September 2012 21: 11
      There was a Soviet-Japanese non-aggression agreement. The Japanese did not violate it in 1941, difficult for the USSR, and expected the same from Stalin.
      1. Karlsonn
        Karlsonn 26 September 2012 21: 30
        Stomping towards Australia, capturing a vast territory, with a huge population, spraying the army and navy on hundreds of islands of Japan did not have the resources to attack the USSR both human and technical, the Far Eastern Army was the most equipped in the USSR with both people and weapons for the 1941 year and Despite the large transfer of units during the war years to the German front, the units were constantly replenished with people and equipment, with the exception of some examples of uniforms (for example helmets), so do not cast a shadow over the wattle fence if Japan could I would have attacked. The Japanese began to see clearly even at Halkin-Gol, when the Soviet model of lightning war was demonstrated. Taking into account all the reasons, the Japanese General Staff came to the conclusion that it is easier to smash South-East Asia for resources than to climb off-road in the Far East (these are not English colonies for you), and since this war for Japan was primarily a war for resources, the conclusion is obvious (at least from today's perspective).
    2. SenyaYa
      SenyaYa 26 September 2012 21: 19
      You are a brilliant strategist! Yamamoto, Mikawa, Yamashita smoke aside ... and why did the Emperor think))))

      Why build tank plants in Manzhou Guo ???? What immediately to build on the border with Vladivostok ....

      And you taste how synthetic fuel is obtained and from what ????? Duck here is a terrible secret from COAL !!!!! (Main component) ..... In Japan, it’s generally full of coal! don’t know what to do!
      1. Ivan Tarasov
        Ivan Tarasov 26 September 2012 22: 47
        Coal was mined in China.
        It was not in vain that Manzhou Guo was called the forge of the Empire, it was an important component of Japanese industry, there were resources extracted and military factories available.
        1. SenyaYa
          SenyaYa 26 September 2012 23: 13
          You are confusing manchuria with manchuzh go?
          1. Ivan Tarasov
            Ivan Tarasov 26 September 2012 23: 27
            On March 1, 1932, the state of Manzhou was formed on the territory of Manchuria.
            1. Karlsonn
              Karlsonn 27 September 2012 01: 09
              hey the Far East, fellow countrymen - explain comrades about monsoons wink and what to shove onto the Far East in front of the monsoons in the summer of 1941, if there is only one railway line, which is interrupted by explosions in the tunnels and two primers which in August turn into an impenetrable swamp, much more stupid, given the quantity and quality of the Far Eastern Army, than attacking Pearl Harber, the Japanese already had experience of war in the Far East: ours retreated to the taiga and cho belay with that aviation, artillery, tanks, and small arms, Japan would have received a third army in the rear, besides the Nenets Autonomous Region and the Kuomintang, but about tanks from Manchuria, I would like to ask: was Japan ready to cut back on the construction of ships and planes for armored vehicles? were there free workers qualified for the large-scale construction of tanks, how much steel, armor and other resources could Japan donate to the war with TWO? Where are the actual power plants that could service the Japanese tank factories, how long is the shoulder of coal supply, for the energy of the plant, what is the stability of work, taking into account the hostility of the mentality of the local population and the presence of three armies in the rear?
  18. ovfilin
    ovfilin 27 September 2012 08: 02
    The technical characteristics of these facilities to compare with analogues of land countries, in my opinion does not make much sense. Another question is interesting - where else can they be found: -We on the islands, Sakhalin, Mongolia?
    Maybe someone saw? Tell me
    An eyewitness to one of the trips to the islands of the Kuril ridge in 1975-76 talked about tanks, guns, other equipment abandoned at the battlefield, just along roads, etc. Perhaps they are still lying around and suitable for museum restoration. After collecting the data, other org. actions etc.
  19. Festaval
    Festaval 31 March 2013 20: 13
    I can agree with many. Although they say how many people, so many opinions. At that time, Japan had the most developed fleet. Fox in his post said that the British helped them build the fleet, I doubt that such a cunning nation shared anything with anyone (I exclude the exchange with beads and Indians). By all indicators, the Japanese Navy was the best in the world. Aviation, I agree not bad. But the samurai comrades did not choose correctly one of the branches of the development of their aviation, namely weapons and their control. (this is why Kamikaze fanatics appeared), well, where it’s seen - a telescopic sight on a fighter .... In short, a sniper running at a speed of 500-600 km / h and aiming through optics at a target running at the same speed.
  20. Festaval
    Festaval 31 March 2013 20: 21
    I can say one thing about the ground forces, they weren’t particularly wasted ... Therefore, one cannot look at not only their tanks, but also weapons in full without tears. Arisaka rifles (1904 onwards) Nambu pistols, Tactics of action and supply. And what kind of a ground forces charter came into force after Pearl Harbor ...