It was expected that the enemy during the operation could be used 320 missiles "Lance", 150 "Sergeant" and 350 "Pershing", having a maximum firing range of 75, 140 and 740 kilometers, respectively.
At the beginning of the 1960s, the Zashchita research paper for the first time investigated the possibilities of using it for air defense purposes. Experimental firing at a ballistic missile with the Krug complex, which has an additional semi-active homing channel, which provided small misses on the final part of the trajectory of the anti-aircraft guided missile, was conducted. These shots showed the possibility of fighting the Sergeant and Lance ballistic missiles with the help of an anti-aircraft missile system, but to solve the air defense tasks in relation to the protection of the Pershing ballistic missiles it was necessary to develop a new generation complex based on high-potential radar guidance and target detection , as well as anti-aircraft guided missiles with high energy characteristics.
Combat vehicles complex C-300В
During the research work "Binom" in 1963-1964, it was determined that the cover of the ground forces is most appropriate to carry out the joint use of three types of advanced anti-aircraft missile systems with the symbol "A", "B" and "C". Of these, "A" and "B" would be universal, capable of solving problems both of anti-aircraft and conventional anti-aircraft defense, and the latter - anti-aircraft. At the same time, the best combat capabilities, among which the ability of the "Pershing" missiles to be capable of striking the missiles of the Pershing missiles, should have been at the "A" complex. It was assumed that for the anti-aircraft missile complex "A" a rocket would be developed, close in size and mass to the Krug anti-aircraft guided missiles of the complex, but having twice the average flight speed and capable of intercepting the Pershing missile at higher altitudes 12 thousand m with the expected time of detection and taking a ballistic target for tracking. At the same time, even in the event of a nuclear charge detonation with a power of 1,5 Mt, the loss of a living openly located force was limited to the level of 10 percent, and taking into account the presence of most people in various shelters and armored facilities - a much smaller value.
Particular difficulties were associated with the detection of ballistic targets and targeting antimissiles (SAM). This required the creation of high-potential radar facilities of a new generation. According to the results of several experimental studies, it was established that the EPR of the detachable head parts of the "Pershing" BR, compared with aircraft, is two orders of magnitude smaller. The increase in the potentials of the radar stations by the growth of their power supply entailed a significant increase in the mass and dimensions of the radar station, which limited its mobility and mobility. An increase in the sensitivity of the radar receiver caused the noise immunity to deteriorate. A compromise solution was needed - the acceptable sensitivity of the receiver of the radar detection and guidance and transmitter power.
Based on the expected expenditure of the BR with ABC in the first strike of a potential enemy on the most important front-line targets, it was determined that for anti-aircraft missile systems of type "A" at the same time, at least 3 target channels in the air defense mode should be activated at the same time. Thus, it is desirable to have multi-channel and multifunctional missile guidance stations that provide fast autonomous search and detection of ballistic missiles in the sector of possible appearance, tracking and firing of antimissiles of a number of them. At the same time, elements of an anti-aircraft missile system (radar for early detection and target designation, multichannel guidance station, launchers with missiles) must be highly mobile (self-propelled, have navigation, orientation and topographical reference equipment, data transmission and communication, with embedded autonomous power sources).
Comparative chart for C-300B, C-300BM, "Patriot" PAC-2 and PAC-3
The limitation of capabilities along the far boundary of the zone of destruction of the anti-aircraft missile station was determined by the permissible weight of the multi-channel missile guidance station. It was decided that the main elements of the complex "A" should be installed on self-propelled chassis with a high cross-country capacity and a gross weight of less than 40-45 tons (maximum cross-country capacity on overpasses and bridges). The available and designed wheeled chassis as a base for the complex "A" could not be accepted, so the heavy chassis should have become a heavy chassis tank. This made it possible to locate electronic equipment (transmitting, receiving, indicator, computing, control and other) together with data transmission, communication equipment and an autonomous power source with a total weight of about 20-25 tons.
As the fundamental of those. Multichannel guidance station solutions have chosen a coherent pulse radar of a centimeter wave band having a passive phased antenna array (PAR). Work "on the light" was carried out from the horn transmitter of the transmitting device, which was connected to the receiving device in the mode of receiving the reflected signal. An X-ray-wide electron beam scan (in elevation and azimuthal planes) was performed by a digital beam control system that changes the phase of the received (transmitted) high-frequency energy that passed through the lattice elements containing the phase shifter associated with this system. The system provided search and tracking of the target in the range from -1 ° to -45 ° in azimuth, as well as in elevation relative to the normal to the plane of the phased antenna array, which was set at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizon.
The search sector, formed in this way, made it possible to detect and accompany ballistic missiles with any angles of incidence, and also provided sufficient coverage of the possible directions of launch of missiles along the covered object (in azimuth — 90 °). The search and tracking was supposed to be carried out according to a program that provides more frequent beam turning during the search in the direction of the expected rocket trajectories and to the surface directions in order to detect low-flying targets in time. When accompanied by a target being shot at - in the direction of this goal and the anti-aircraft guided missile being aimed at it. Accompaniment was to be carried out with the joint operation of the beam control system and tracking digital systems (SAMs and target motion prolongators) of a multi-channel guidance station. The station was supposed to use a single-pulse radar method. For the search and detection of targets, the total radiation pattern and the corresponding channel of the receiving device served; for tracking, differential (at reception) and total (at radiation) diagrams and corresponding channels of the receiver input part. The total radiation patterns and the corresponding receiver channels provided the greatest target detection range. The same radiation pattern provided the highest irradiation energy of targets during tracking. This increased the target tracking distance with the receiver differential channels.
Command Point 9C457
Receiver channels and differential radiation patterns made it possible to obtain high accuracy of the angular coordinates of the accompanied target and the SAM, which is inherent in the single-pulse radar method. During the search it was supposed to use longer impulses with high energy. During tracking - double-discrete bursts of signals that provide high power, excellent resolution, good tracking accuracy and target (in speed and range). All this made it possible to combine in the station a good target tracking accuracy and a long range, to provide effective protection against passive and active interference and the ability to recognize the target according to dynamic and signal signs. Calculations showed that with a transmitter power of 10 kilowatts, sensitivity of the receiving device 10-14 W, beam width 1, the multi-channel guidance station of the anti-aircraft missile system "A" will provide acceptable detection ranges for aircraft and ballistic missiles, cover zones from aircraft and ballistic missiles, the channel according to the zour and targets.
In the 1965 year, in accordance with the results of the research work, Binom developed the TTZ and the initial data on the design of a universal military A-type air defense missile system. The development of the preliminary design of this air defense missile system (cipher "Prism") was carried out under the direction of V. Svistov. in the Research Institute-20 of the Ministry of Radio Industry by the same decision of the military-industrial complex as the universal version of the Krug-M anti-aircraft missile system. Two variants of the anti-aircraft missile system were considered.
The composition of the first version of the system:
1. The command post has a communication hub, placed on 3-4 transport vehicles.
2. Multi-functional radar with a phased antenna array and a working sector 60-70 degrees in elevation and azimuth, placed on two or three transport units. The radar station had to be carried out:
- search, capture and tracking;
- recognition of the target class (BR or airplane);
- identification of the separating warheads of a ballistic missile against the background of false targets;
- extrapolation of the trajectory of a ballistic missile to determine the point of fall;
- control of the backlight stations, which ensure self-homing of the 1-guided missile at the final trajectory area and the issuance of target designation of the recognition and command guidance radar station (at the initial and middle trajectory sites);
- management of the XUR-1 trajectory before the homing head captures the target.
3. The station for determining the state belonging of a target operating in a single identification system.
4. The target illumination station, ensuring the capture of the GOS ZUR-1.
5. Zour-1 weighing 5-7 tons, having a combined guidance system (for the destruction of aircraft and BR).
6. The 2-3 3,5 has a command guidance system (for the destruction of aircraft).
7. Two types of launchers (with ZUR-1 and ZUR-2).
8. Radar target recognition and command guidance.
Radar software review 9C19M2 "Ginger"
In the second, simplified version of the complex did not provide for the use of homing for Zur-1.
In the Prism complex, the number of target channels could be brought to 6 (with an increase in the number of radar stations of precise targeting and recognition, as well as the number of launchers with the ZUR-1 and -2).
The total number of vehicles in the Prism complex with three target channels ranged from 25 to 27 units, which made the structure of the complex cumbersome, and its very expensive.
However, the main problems of creating a military anti-aircraft missile defense system in the project were solved.
This conclusion was made in the special research work "Rhomb" set up by the Gran in 1967 at the 3 research institute of the Ministry of Defense, the purpose of which was to evaluate the advance design of the Prism complex, and also to develop a tactical and technical project for it on the basis of design work to create a complex of cost and structure acceptable to the anti-missile defense forces of the SV.
Despite the over-saturation of the prism project “Prism” by various means, it should be noted that developed under the guidance of V. Svistov. in the research work "Prism" main tech. The decisions of the military antimissile complex and the advance project were, first of all, proof of the reality of the creation of a universal military complex. Initially, it was difficult to convince the leaders of the military-industrial complex and especially the chief designer of anti-missile defense complexes in the country's air defense system, Kisunko GV, who categorically denied the possibility of creating a system based on the proposed V. Svistovym. solutions (mobile radar with a phased antenna array, two missiles, and so on). Only the support of the minister of radio industry Kalmykov VD, the general designer of the air defense system of the Air Defense Forces of the country A. Raspletin. and Director of the Scientific Research Institute-20 of the Ministry of Radioprom Chudakov PM allowed to protect avanproekt, and create a self-propelled troop anti-aircraft missile system C-300В.
9C15М "Review-3" circular radar
On the other hand, at the same time, on the initiative of KB-1 of the Ministry of Radio Industry and the command of the Air Defense Forces, the proposal was considered to create a unified for the three types of armed forces of the USSR - the Ground Forces, the Air Defense Forces and the Naval fleet - anti-aircraft SAM-S-500U having a maximum range of destruction of about 100 km. This corresponded to the requirements for hitting aircraft with Prism or Type A complexes.
Only due to the attentive attitude of the Scientific and Technical Committee of the General Staff of the Armed Forces, and above all, R. Valiev. - the head of the direction of anti-aircraft missile systems - managed to organize a discussion of this proposal with customers from all types of Soviet Armed Forces and convince participants of the discussion that the proposed modification of the C-500U system for air defense troops of the Ground Forces will be rational only if it can provide missile defense to the extent required. The last at that time was not required for the Navy and the Air Defense Forces of the country, however, it caused the need to solve complex additional technical problems.
Taking into account the results of the complex and difficult discussions of proposals for C-500, the Decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR from 27.05.1969 assigned to develop for the Armed Forces of the USSR, according to the same tactical and technical requirements, a maximally unified air-defense system of a similar type, called C-300.
The Moscow design bureau Strela (former KB-1 of the Ministry of Radioprom, later joined the Almaz Scientific Production Association) created for the Air Defense Forces of the country an anti-aircraft C-300P, VNII RE of the Ministry of Shipbuilding Industry (later the Altair Research Institute) created for The Navy’s C-300F complex, and the MIE of the Ministry of Radio Industry (formerly Research Institute-20 of the Ministry of Radio Industry, later entered the Antey Scientific and Production Association) created the C-300 universal anti-aircraft and anti-missile system air defense of the ground forces.
9C32 missile guidance station
It was envisaged that for anti-aircraft defense from targets that fly at altitudes from 25 to 25 thousand m, at speeds up to 3,5 thousand km / h with ranges of 6 - 75 km, all unified complexes will be used developed by the Moscow design bureau Fakel Minradioprom (Chief Designer Grushin V.P.) Zur B-500Р having a combined guidance system. At the first stage, a simplified and cheaper B-500K missile defense system with a radio command guidance system for use at a distance of up to 50 thousand meters was created.
Sverdlovsk Machine-Building Design Bureau Novator MAP (Design Bureau 300 GKAT, Chief Designer Lyulev LV, then Smirnov VA) specially developed the KS-8 rocket to destroy targets at a height of 96 thousand meters. At the same time, the area in 35 km300 from Pershing missiles was covered.
However, the deep unification of the C-300 anti-aircraft missile system could not be achieved. In the C-300P and C-300В systems, approximately 50 percent were unified at the level of functional devices, only radar stations detecting a command post. In the air defense systems of the Navy and the country's air defense forces, a single anti-aircraft guided missile developed by Grushin PD was used.
The creators of the C-300V in the development process have abandoned the use of anti-aircraft guided missiles developed by two different design bureaus. The preference was given to the anti-aircraft version of the rocket Lyulyeva L.V.
The main assets of the C-300 modifications for different types of Armed Forces (except circular radar stations of the C-300P and C-300 systems created by the Scientific Research Institute of Radiotechnology and the anti-aircraft guided missile for the C-300F and C-300P developed by the Moscow design bureau Fakel MAP) various industrial enterprises that used their components and technologies that provided the various operational requirements of customers (fleet, troops, air defense of the country) to these facilities.
In the late eighties, the C-300P anti-aircraft missile system developers and customers were convinced that a universal mobile anti-aircraft missile system was required to ensure the protection of territorial anti-aircraft defense facilities from tactical ballistic missiles. This was the impetus for the beginning of work on the creation of such a system, which was designated C-300PMU.
The C-300В self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system was developed in accordance with the unified (common) tactical and technical requirements for the C-300, private tactical and technical requirements for the C-300В, additions to the tactical and technical requirements for the C-300В, addition to the tactical and technical requirements technical requirements for the radar "Review-3", which is used as a circular radar station in this system, the technical task for the development of the radar station of the program review "Ginger", as well as the supplement to it.
In accordance with the tactical and technical requirements of the S-300V air defense system, it was supposed to be a front-line air defense weapon and was intended for the destruction of cruise missiles, ground-based ballistic missiles (Pershing, Lance) and aviation (SRAM) based, barring active jammers, aircraft tactical and strategic aviation, combat helicopters in conditions of mass use of the indicated means of attack, in a difficult jamming and air situation, while conducting maneuver combat operations by covered forces. The use of two types of missiles was envisaged:
- 9М82 for action on Pershing ballistic missiles, SRAM aircraft ballistic missiles, on planes at a considerable distance;
- 9М83 for hitting ballistic missiles Lance and P-17 (Scud), aerodynamic targets.
The composition of the means of anti-aircraft missile system C-300В (9K81) included:
- command post 9С457, radar station of circular review "Review-3" (9СXNNXXМ);
- radar station program review "Ginger" (9C19М2) designed to detect the head of the ballistic missiles "Pershing", aeroballistic missiles SRAM, loitering production aircraft at a distance of up to 100 thousand meters;
- Four anti-aircraft missile complex.
Each anti-aircraft missile system consisted of:
- Multi-channel station guidance missiles 9C32;
- two types of launchers (9А82 - with two anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М82 and 9А83 - with four anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М83);
- puskozaryazhayuschih of two types (9A84 - to work with the launcher 9A82 and surface-to-air missile and 9M82 9A85 - to work with the launcher 9A83 and surface-to-air missile 9M83), as well as the means of those. provision and maintenance.
9М82 (9М82М) and 9М83 (9М83М) anti-aircraft missiles
The 9М83 and 9М82 missiles were operated in transport-launch containers 9Я238 and 9Y240, respectively.
The lead developer of the C-300В anti-aircraft missile system as a whole, the developer of the command post, a multi-channel missile guidance station, and a software review radar, were identified by the NIEMI (Research Electromechanical Institute) of the Ministry of Radio Industry. VP Efremov became the chief designer of the system, as well as these funds.
The development of the radar station of the circular review was carried out by the Research Institute of Measuring Instruments (NIIIP) of the Ministry of Radio Industry (formerly NII-208 GKRE). The project manager is the chief designer Kuznetsov Yu.A., then GN Golubev.
All launchers and start-charging installations were created by the State design bureau of compressor engineering (GKB KM) of the Ministry of Radio Industry (formerly SKB-203 GKAT, today - MKB "Start"). Chief Designer of Installations - Yaskin A.I., then Evtushenko V.S.
For faster equipping troops with highly efficient weapons The development of the C-300B system was carried out in two stages. The first stage is the development of a system for dealing with cruise missiles, Lance and Scud ballistic missiles and aerodynamic targets.
The prototype C-300B created during the first stage of development (did not include the program review radar, the 9М82 anti-aircraft guided missile and its corresponding launcher and launcher systems) at 1980-1981 passed joint tests at the Emben firing range Main rocket and artillery control Ministry of Defense (head of the landfill Zubarev VV). In 1983, the ZRS C-300B1 was adopted. The new system gave a start in life to the State Commission, chaired by Andersen Y.A.
During the second stage of development, the system was refined to ensure the fight against ballistic missiles "Pershing-1A", "Pershing-1B", jamming anti-aircraft jammers and aerobalistic targets SRAM at a distance of up to 100 thousand meters.
Joint tests of the entire system were also carried out at the Embeni test site of the Ministry of Defense XUUM-1985 in the 1986-300 test site (the head of the Unuchko VR site) under the supervision of a commission chaired by the newly appointed Andersen Yu.A. For the armament of the air defense forces of the Ground Forces of the S-1988V air defense systems, it was fully adopted in the XNUMX year.
All combat weapons of the ZRS were deployed on highly maneuverable and manned vehicles, equipped with navigation equipment, mutual orientation and topographic reference unified tracked chassis, developed by the Kirovsky Zavod production association. Also, these chassis were used for ACS "Peony" and unified with the T-80 tank for individual nodes.
Starter Charger 9А84
The command post 9C457 was designed to control the combat operations of the anti-aircraft missile system (anti-aircraft missile battalions) C-300В during the autonomous operation of the system and when controlling the superior command post (from the command post of the anti-aircraft missile brigade) in the air defense and air defense modes.
The KP in the missile defense mode ensured the operation of the anti-aircraft complex to repel impacts from the Pershing ballistic missiles detected by the Ginger radar, using the Pershing ballistic missiles and SRAM, and receiving radar data, controlling the combat modes of the Ginger radar and the multichannel station. guidance, recognition and selection of targets based on trajectory, automatic distribution of targets across the anti-aircraft missile system, as well as issuing sectors working radar "Ginger" to detect aeroballistic and ballistic targets, interfering directions for locating the position jammers. The command post took measures for maximum automation of management.
The command center in the airborne defense mode ensured the operation of up to four anti-aircraft missile complexes (each with six target channels) to repel airborne aerodynamic targets detected by a radar station of circular review Obzor-3 (maximum 200 units), including with interference, produced a set-up and further tracking of targets (maximum 70 units), receiving data on targets from a higher command gear and a multichannel missile guidance station, identifying target classes (ballistic or aerodynamic), the choice more dangerous targets.
The command point for the target distribution cycle (was three seconds) ensured the issuance of target indications to the 24 anti-aircraft missile system. The average working time of the command post from receiving marks to issuing target indications when working with a radar station of a circular review (review period 6 seconds) was 17 seconds. During the work on the Lance ballistic missiles, the targets for issuing target indications ranged from 80 to 90 kilometers. The average working time of a command post in missile defense mode is no more than 3 seconds.
All the equipment of the command post was located on the crawler "834 object". The equipment consisted of: special computers (computers), equipment for speech and telecode communication lines, an air defense missile system control station (three workstations), equipment for documenting the work of the command center and combat equipment of the system, navigation, orientation and topographic reference equipment, an autonomous power supply system, equipment life support. Orientation weight - 39 tons. Calculation - 7 people.
Radar review-3 circular review (9С15М) is a three-coordinate coherent-impulse radar station for detection of a centimeter wave band having instant frequency tuning, electronic program control of the beam in the elevation plane, angle, plane, the w / o waveform, X-ray control, in the elevation plane, to go to the elevation, to control the beam, X-ray numeric, X-ray wavelength-wise radar
The radar station implemented two modes of a regular circular review of the airspace, which were used to detect aerodynamic targets and ballistic missiles of the Lance and Scud types.
The station's viewing area in the first mode was 45 degrees in elevation. At the same time, the instrumental detection range was equal to 330 km, and the review rate was 12 seconds. At a distance of 240 kilometers, the probability of detecting a fighter was 0,5.
The station's field of view in the second mode was 20 degrees in elevation, the pace of review was 6 seconds, the instrumental distance was 150 kilometers. To detect ballistic missiles in this mode, a program was provided for slowing down the rotation of the antenna in the missile defense sector (about 120 degrees) and increasing the viewing angle in elevation to 55 degrees. In this case, the speed of updating information - 9 seconds. The fighter in the second mode was reliably detected in the entire instrumental range. The detection range of a Lance-type ballistic missile was at least 95 thousand, and the Scud type missile was at least 115 thousand.
To increase the potential of the radar station in separate directions, to protect it from passive, active and combined interference, four more programs for reducing the antenna’s rotational speed were provided for, which could be implemented in two modes of regular review. The rate of information update when using these programs increased by 6 seconds, and the slowdown sector was equal to 30 degrees.
Radar noise immunity was provided by using an antenna that has a low and rapidly falling to the background level (around 50 dB) level of side lobes of the radiation pattern, optimal filtering and limitation of echo signals, automatic temporal gain control of the receiver, a three-channel auto-compensator of interference, a non-linear selection circuit of moving targets ( automatic consideration of wind speed, noise intensity analysis and incoherent accumulation of signals), automatic inter-survey blanks some areas of probed directions having an intense level of interference from local objects. The station could determine the bearings (angular coordinates) of the production planes of the barrage noise and give them to the C-300В command post. At the site of intense interference from local objects and meteorological formations, there was the possibility of blanking automatic data acquisition.
The radar of the circular review in the automatic data acquisition mode provided for the period of the review the issuance of marks up to 250, among which there could be targets up to 200 marks.
The mean square error in determining the coordinates of the targets was: in range — less than 250 m, in azimuth — less than 30 'in elevation - less than 35'.
The station resolution was in range - 400 m, in angular coordinates - 1,5 °.
The radar of the circular review consisted of the following devices:
- An antenna, which was a one-dimensional flat waveguide grating, having software electro-hydraulic rotation in azimuth and electronic scanning of the beam in elevation;
- a transmitting device, which is made on a traveling-wave tube and two ampllitrons (average power is about 8 kW);
- a receiver having a high-frequency amplifier on a traveling-wave tube (sensitivity around 10-13 W);
- automatic data retrieval device;
- anti-jamming device;
- a computing device based on 2 spec. COMPUTER;
- equipment for determining the state belonging of the Password system;
- equipment navigation, orientation and topographic location;
- gas turbine power supply unit, voice and telecode communication equipment with the command center of the C-300В system, life support equipment;
- autonomous power supply system.
Various equipment and all devices of a circular viewing radar were mounted on the 832 object tracked chassis. Station weight - 46 tons. Calculation - 4 person.
Radar station of the program review "Ginger" 9С19М2 is a three-coordinate coherent-impulse radar station of the centimeter range, which has a high energy potential, electronic control of the beam in two planes and high throughput.
Two-plane electron beam scanning made it possible, during a regular review, to quickly provide an analysis of targeting sectors from the system command center or high-speed cyclic references (1-2 seconds) to detected marks for linking them to high-speed targets.
The use of a narrow-beam antenna (around 0,5 degrees) in a radar station, probing signals having a linear frequency modulation and a high compression ratio, ensured a small pulse volume. This, in combination with the wind speed autocompensation scheme, the digital loop compensation system and electronic scanning, ensures high protection of the program survey station from passive interference.
The high energy potential, which was achieved through the use of a high-power amplifying klystron in the transmitting device, in combination with the used electron beam scanning and digital signal processing provided a good degree of protection from active noise interference.
The radar of the program review implemented several modes of operation. One of the modes was provided for the detection and tracking of the head parts of Pershing type ballistic missiles. The viewing area in this mode was in azimuth from -45 ° to + 45 °, in elevation from 26 ° to 75 ° and in range from 75 to 175 km. The angle of inclination of the normal to the surface of the PAR in relation to the horizon was equal to 35 degrees. The search sector review time, taking into account the tracking of two target paths, was from 12,5 to 14 seconds. Maximum can be accompanied by 16 tracks. Every second, motion parameters and target coordinates were transmitted to the command center of the system. The second mode is the detection and tracking of aircraft ballistic missiles such as SRAM, as well as cruise missiles with aeroballistic and ballistic launch. The azimuth range was from -30 ° to + 30 °, in elevation from 9 ° to 50 ° and in range from 20 to 175 km. The target movement parameters were transmitted to the command point 9-457 with a frequency of 0,5 Hz.
The third mode is the detection and further tracking of aerodynamic targets, and direction finding of jammers at distances up to 100 kilometers. The azimuth viewing range was from -30 ° to + 30 °, in elevation from 0 to 50 degrees and in range 20-175 kilometers at an angle of inclination of the FAR to the horizon - 15 degrees. The direction of the survey was set via telecode lines by the station operator or from the command point of the system. The incoming target designation from the command point of the system, with a regular review of the zone, automatically interrupted the review, and after working off by the control center the review was resumed. The speed of updating information depended on the size of a given search zone and on the jamming environment. At the same time, it varied in the 0,3 range - 16 seconds. The coordinates of the detected target were transmitted to the command post. The standard errors of the calculation of the coordinates of the targets in range did not exceed 70 meters, in azimuth - 15 ', while the elevation angle was 12'.
The equipment of the radar station was located on the tracked self-propelled gun "object 832". Station weight - 44 tons. Calculation - 4 person.
The multichannel guidance station 9C32 implemented:
- search, detection, capture and automatic tracking of aerodynamic targets and ballistic missiles according to the indication of targets from the command point of the system and autonomously (ballistic missiles - only according to the control center from the command point);
- generation and transfer to launchers of derived coordinates and target coordinates for targeting light stations located on the units, as well as anti-aircraft guided missiles launched from the launcher and launch-loading installations on the target;
- control of fire weapons (launchers and launchers) both centrally (from the command point of the system) and autonomously.
The multichannel missile guidance station could simultaneously carry out a sector search of targets (autonomously or according to the data center) and accompany 12 targets, while it could control the operation of all launch-loading and launchers of the anti-aircraft missile system, transferring to them the 12 guided missiles 6 targets information. The station simultaneously carried out a regular viewing of the surface edge, where low-flying targets could be located.
The station was a multichannel three-coordinate coherent-pulse radar of centimeter range on targets and guided missiles. The radar had a high energy potential, electronic scanning of the beam in two planes, provided by the use of a phased antenna array at the station and a beam control system created on the basis of spec. COMPUTER.
The station used a single-pulse method of ranging and direction finding of targets and various types of probing signals, which ensured the determination of the coordinates of the targets, their derivatives with high resolution and accuracy. The station uses digital signal processing in all modes.
The multichannel missile guidance station provided for two modes of operation - autonomous operation and, according to the control center, from the command post. In the first mode, targets were searched by azimuth in the 5 ° sector and by the 6 ° elevation angle. In the second, a review was made of the sector -30 ° ... + 30 ° in azimuth and 0 ° ... 18 ° in elevation. The bisector (azimuth) of the sector of responsibility was set by rotating the phased antenna array within ± 340 degrees.
The station used two types of probing signals. Quasi-continuous (pulse packs, having a large discreteness) - unmodulated and with frequency linear modulation in the pack. It was used to search for targets according to the control center, review sectors of autonomous search, as well as for automatic tracking of targets. A pulse signal having a linear frequency modulation was applied only in the case of a search in offline mode.
The processing of the received signals was made by quasi-optimal filters. The formation, as well as processing of the signal, having intrapulse linear frequency modulation, was carried out on the dispersive delay lines (high compression ratio). The quasi-continuous signal was processed by the correlation-filter method with fusion at the intermediate frequency of the received signals using narrow-band filters.
A special computer served to control the systems of a multichannel missile guidance station during the search, detection and automatic tracking of targets. With automatic tracking, error signals were transmitted to the tracking coordinate system, which gave estimates to the computer in time of the coordinates and their derivatives. According to this data, the computer closed the tracking loop and issued control signals (codes) to the synchronizer, beam control systems, and other systems of the multichannel station. The ambiguity of determining the speed and range when searching for quasi-continuous signals was eliminated in the automatic tracking mode using the derivatives of the range.
Multichannel missile guidance station while operating in DD mode provided detection of fighters at an altitude of over 5 thousand meters at a distance of 150 km, Lance ballistic missiles - 60 km, SRAM-80 km aviation ballistic missiles, Scud ballistic missiles 90 km, heading "Pershing" - 140 km. From the moment of detection to the transition to automatic tracking of the target with the definition of motion parameters, it took from 5 seconds. (SRAM and Pershing) to 11 seconds (fighter). Working autonomously with a multi-channel missile guidance station, the detection of fighter aircraft took place at a distance of up to 140 kilometers. RMS errors in determining the angular coordinates, speed and range of targets when they were automatically followed by fighter range were 5-25 meters, speed - 0,3-1,5 m / s, and elevation angle and azimuth - 0,2-2. For the head part of the "Pershing" in range - 4 90 meters, in speed - 1,5-35 m / s, in elevation and azimuth - 0,5-1 d. The resolution in range was 100 meters, in elevation and azimuth - 1 °, in speed - 5 m / s.
The multichannel missile guidance station consisted of:
- An antenna system based on a passive phased antenna array and having phase control of an 1 ° beam, working "for clearance" when it is irradiated with a transmitter horn radiator and receiving the reflected signals by the same switched horn;
- the transmitting system on the axis of the chain of klystrons, which developed an average power of about 13 kW (pulse power - 150 kW);
- receiving system with high-frequency amplifiers, which provided high sensitivity - up to 17 W;
- two special computers;
- beam control systems;
- display systems;
- devices of primary signal processing;
- control systems of antennas for quadrature auto-compensators of interference and the main antenna;
- tracking coordinate system;
- control and alarm systems;
- telecode communication systems with launchers and the command center of the system;
- navigation, orientation and topographical reference systems;
- autonomous power supply systems (a gas turbine generator is used);
- life support systems.
All of the above equipment was mounted on a tracked self-propelled gun "object 833". Station weight - 44 thousand kg. Calculation - 6 people.
The 9A83 launcher is intended for:
- transportation and storage of four ready-to-use anti-aircraft guided missiles 9М83 in TPK (transport and launch container);
- prelaunch automatic preparation and launch of anti-aircraft guided missiles (from the very launch 9А83 or launch-loading 9А85 installation);
- calculation and issuance of radio correction commands for software inertial flight on an 9М83 rocket in flight, as well as target illumination with continuous directional radio emission to ensure the functioning of the semi-active Doppler homing head (using the target illumination station located on the PU).
The 9А83 launcher is capable of providing simultaneous pre-launch preparation and launch of two missiles at intervals of 1-2 seconds. Pre-launch preparation of anti-aircraft guided missiles - less than 15 seconds.
The 9A83 launcher was charged using the 9A85 launcher.
With a preliminary cable connection, the switching time of the launcher equipment from its own ammunition of missiles to the ammunition of a launch-charging installation is up to 15 seconds.
By transmitting from the multichannel missile guidance station through the TsU telecode radio link and the commands, the launcher provided training for anti-aircraft guided missiles, testing the ZU of the illumination station installed on it, generating and displaying information about the target entry / exit time on the launch indicator, transferring the solution tasks for a missile guidance station, launching two missiles, analyzing the presence of interference from GOS anti-aircraft guided missiles and transmitting the results to the guidance station.
The launcher after the launch of the missiles ensured the issuance to the missile guidance station of data on the number of guided missiles launched from it and from the launch-loading installation associated with it. In addition, the PU carried out the inclusion of the antenna and transmission system of the illumination station for radiation in the modes of transmission of commands for radio correction of the missile flight and target illumination.
The 9A83 launcher consists of:
- devices for installation of the transport and launch container in the starting position (equipped with a hydraulic actuator);
- electronic equipment with specials. COMPUTER;
- equipment for pre-launch preparation of the self-homing system of anti-aircraft guided missiles;
- equipment of starting automatics;
- equipment for pre-launch preparation of an inertial system;
- station illumination of the target;
- navigation equipment, topographic binding and orientation;
- telecode communications equipment;
- autonomous power supply systems (gas turbine generator);
- life support systems.
All launcher hardware was mounted on the 830 object tracked chassis. The total weight of the launcher with a guided missile ammunition - 47,5 thous. Kg. Calculation launcher - 3 person.
The 9А82 launcher was designed to transport and store two fully operational 9М82 missiles in transport and launch containers and to carry out operations performed by the launcher. According to the main characteristics, constructive construction and operation of 9А82 from PU, 9А83 differed only in the device for transferring transport and launch containers to the starting position and fur. part of the station highlighting the target. The launcher was mounted on the 831 object tracked chassis.
Startup and logging facility 9XX vehicles), and for self-loading.
It takes 9-83 minutes to load the 50А60 launcher with a full missile load. Crane lifting capacity is 6350 kg.
A launch-charging installation differs from a launcher by the presence of a crane mounted in place of a target illumination station and various electronic equipment. The installation has cables connecting the rockets placed on it and the 9-83 launcher equipment. At the start-charging installation, the gas-turbine power supply unit was replaced with a diesel one.
All equipment with anti-aircraft guided missile ammunition is located on the tracked "835 object". The weight of the launcher and ammunition of the anti-aircraft missile system - 47 thousand kg. Calculation - 3 person.
The 9А84 launch-charging station was designed to transport and store 2М9 missiles in 82 transport-launch containers, launch 9М82 anti-aircraft missiles, load the 9А82 launcher, load this launcher, and self-charge the equipment. In its device, the launch charging device 9А84 differed from 9А85 only in the design of the device for placing transport-launch containers in the starting position. According to the principles of operation and the main characteristics was similar to the installation 9А85.
The 9М83 anti-aircraft guided missile was intended for the destruction of aircraft (including aircraft that maneuver with overloads to 8 units and under conditions of radio interference) of cruise missiles (including low-flying ALCM types) and ballistic missiles of Lance and Scud types. The 9М82 anti-aircraft guided missile carried out the same functions and could hit the headpieces of the "Pershing-1A", "Pershing-1B", SRAM aviation ballistic missiles, active jamming planes at a distance of up to 100 kilometers.
The 9М82, 9М83 anti-aircraft missiles are two-stage solid propellant missiles with first-stage gas-dynamic controls and made according to the "carrying cone" scheme. Missiles were housed in transport and launch containers. The design of the missiles is the most unified. The main difference was the use of a higher power launch stage at 9М82.
The head units of the missiles housed the following onboard equipment units for 9М82 and 9М83:
- non-contact explosive device, self-homing equipment;
- onboard computing device;
- inertial control system.
Warhead anti-aircraft guided missiles.
On the tail section of the marching stage were installed four aerodynamic steering and the same stabilizers.
The launch of anti-aircraft guided missiles was carried out in a vertical position of transport-launch containers using a powder accumulator of pressure located in it. After the missiles exited the transport and launch containers, the process of declining them to a given angle began (several impulse engines from eight existing ones were involved). The production process was completed by the time the launch stage was completed. During launch on aerodynamic targets in the far zone, the engine of the sustainer stage was started with a delay of up to 20 seconds. in relation to the time of completion of the starting engine.
On the passive and marching parts of the flight, the rocket was controlled by deflecting four aerodynamic control surfaces. An anti-aircraft guided missile was aimed at a target or an inertial control system (proportional navigation method with a transition in 10 seconds before approaching the target for homing), or a command-inertial control system (switching to homing took place during the last three seconds of flight). The latter method of targeting was used when firing at the target under the conditions of the retransmitted interference (response) of the external cover. The flight of a guided missile under inertial control went along energy-optimal trajectories. This made it possible to achieve extremely high missile reach.
Flight task in the computing device anti-aircraft guided missile was introduced with special. The launcher computer and during the flight were corrected by radio commands received from the transmitter of the launcher by the homing equipment.
The optimal selection of the homing command, which was carried out according to information from the 9М82 incendiary ZRU control system and the homing equipment, made it possible for the missile to hit small targets, such as the SRAM avalanche ballistic missile and the Pershing ballistic missile.
When shooting at the directional multichannel guidance station, the active clutter is added to the task by a corresponding indication, which is used to make a setting that ensures that the target 9М82 is hit at a distance of up to 100 kilometers. On board anti-aircraft guided missile for 0,5-2 seconds. before the meeting point, a team was worked out, to begin rolling the rocket along the roll in order to coincide at the moment of the missile warhead detonation, the maximum field density of the warhead fragments flying in the direction of the target. For 0,3 seconds to the point of the meeting, a non-contact explosive device of an anti-aircraft guided missile was activated, which issued a command to undermine the warhead. With a big blunder, an anti-aircraft guided missile was self-destructing by exploding a warhead.
The homing equipment of an anti-aircraft guided missile had a high sensitivity to radio-correction and homing channels, which ensured a reliable homing head of a missile of any target at a distance sufficient for rendezvous and destruction. The inertial rocket control system ensured a high accuracy of its output to the capture point by the homing equipment.
When operating the C-300В self-contained air defense system during an air raid and expected strikes, the Lance and Scud missiles with a circular radar radar station reviewed the space and issued radar information about the detected targets to the command center of the system. Orders and information about the operating mode of the radar station of a circular review were transmitted from the command point of the system. According to the data obtained, the command post calculated the routes of the targets, determined the classes (ballistic type Lance and Scud or aerodynamic) targets and their degree of danger, carried out the distribution of the chosen targets for firing (taking into account the combat readiness, employment and ammunition of anti-aircraft guided missiles anti-aircraft missile complex) and gave instructions multichannel station guidance.
Multichannel guidance station on the incoming data searched, detected and captured for automatic tracking of targets assigned to the shelling. Capture could be done manually (by station operators) or automatically. After the start of the automatic tracking, the coordinates of the targets were sent to the controls for identification with the tracks of the controls. If necessary, the command post could issue a multi-channel guidance station to cancel instructions or to prohibit fire. An indication from the command post could have a sign of priority for firing a specific target. The priority sign meant that the goal should have been destroyed without fail. Also, the command post could give the guidance station of the missile an indication of an autonomous search for targets flying at low altitude in the sector by the elevation angle 1,4 ° and the azimuth of 60 °. The coordinates of the autonomously detected low-flying targets were transferred to the command post and identified with the tracks of the command post.
The commander of the air defense missile system after the capture of the target by the missile guidance station designated the 9А83 launcher to launch the 9М83 anti-aircraft guided missiles at the appropriate target or targets. The transmitter of the illumination station on the PU by this command was switched on to the equivalent of the antenna. About this to the multichannel guidance station received a corresponding report. According to the station, the illumination station antenna was oriented in the direction of the normal to the plane of its phased antenna array. Coordinates of the target, their derivatives began to arrive from the multichannel station of guidance to the launcher, and commands were issued to prepare the 1 or 2-x 9М83 guided missiles on the launcher or 985 launcher coupled to it. Upon completion of the operation, the launcher sent relevant information to the missile guidance station. According to the coordinates of the target and the parameters of its movement, received from the guidance station, the launcher calculated the angle and azimuth of the target site (for pointing the illumination station antenna), the coordinates of the anticipated meeting point, information about the time of entry / exit of the target into the affected area, and the flight task for anti-aircraft guided missiles.
The results of solving the problem of the meeting point were displayed on the scoreboard of the commander of the launcher and were transmitted to the missile guidance station. When located in the pre-empt's affected area, a permit was developed to launch an anti-aircraft guided missile. The commander of the anti-aircraft missile system authorized the launch, issuing commands to the launcher to open fire (with a successive salvo of two anti-aircraft guided missiles or one missile), and the launcher commander confirmed with a corresponding report the reception of the command. Upon completion of the operations on the controls, the "Start" button was pressed, on board the SAM after that, the firing plane and the flight mission were memorized. One or two rockets were successively launched from transport-launch containers, and a report about this was transmitted to a multichannel station.
The main characteristics of the C-300В anti-aircraft missile system:
1. Aerodynamic damage area:
- in range - to 100 km;
- in height - from 0,025 to 30 km;
2. The zone of destruction of ballistic targets in height is from 1 to 25 km;
3. The maximum speed of the targets hit - 3 thousand m / s;
4. The number of targets simultaneously fired by the division - 24;
5. The number of simultaneously induced battalion of anti-aircraft guided missiles - 24;
6. Rate of fire - 1,5 seconds;
7. The preparation time of anti-aircraft guided missiles for launch is 15 seconds;
8. The time of the transfer of the system to the combat mode from duty - 40 seconds;
9. Ammunition of anti-aircraft guided missiles of the battalion (on launchers and launchers) - from 96 to 192;
10. The probability of Lance missiles being hit by one anti-aircraft guided missile 9М83 - 0,5..0,65;
11. The probability of hitting an aircraft with one anti-aircraft guided missile 9М83 - 0,7..0,9;
12. The probability of hitting the head of the "Pershing" one anti-aircraft guided missile 9М82 - 0,4..0,6;
13. The probability of hitting a SRAM with one anti-aircraft guided missile 9М82 - 0,5..0,7;
The main characteristics of anti-aircraft guided missiles of the C-300В system (in brackets are the characteristics of a missile defense system in TPC):
Name - 9М83 / 9М82;
1. Length - 7898 (8570) / 9913 (10525) mm;
2. The maximum diameter is 915 (930) / 1215 (1460) mm;
3. Rocket weight:
- total - 3500 (3600) / 5800 (6000) kg;
- the first stage - 2275 / 4635 kg;
- second stage - 1213 / 1271 kg;
4.MASS of the warhead - 150 kg;
5. Average flight speed - 1200 / 1800 m / s;
6. Maximum overload - 20 units;
7. The boundaries of the zone of effective action:
- far - 75 / 100 km;
- top - 25 / 30 km;
- near - 6 / 13 km;
- lower - 0,025 / 1 km;
8. Potential target acquisition range (EPR 0,05m2) GSN - 30 km.
According to the command developed for launching an anti-aircraft guided missile, the transmitter of the illumination station was switched to the radiation mode by a wide beam through a horn antenna. In this mode, in the case of a maneuver of a target of a radio team with a launcher, developed according to data from a missile guidance station, the flight mission of the missiles was adjusted. When an anti-aircraft guided missile reached the target, the transmitter switched to a narrow beam (parabolic antenna) and irradiated the target with electromagnetic continuous energy for auto-gripping and tracking along the velocity of the missile’s homing equipment. According to the coordinates of the target, transmitted to the anti-aircraft guided missile through the channel of radio correction, and calculated on board the rocket, according to the data of the control system of its own coordinates, the turning moment of the guided missile is determined by the roll. The angle of rotation, which provided the target with a directional flow of debris from the warhead, was calculated from the data from the homing equipment. Also, information from the homing equipment is used for the final cocking of a semi-active radio fuse - a non-contact explosive device. After that, the control of the missile ceased, and the moment of detonation of the missile warhead was determined by a radio fuse.
After the meeting of the anti-aircraft guided missile and the target from the guidance station, the discharge command was transmitted to the launcher. After that, the switching of the illumination transmitter PU to the equivalent of the antenna occurred. From the missile guidance station to the command post of the system, a message was transmitted about the release of the launcher and the remaining ammunition of the missiles. The command post made further distribution and issued instructions on the air defense missile system, taking into account the information received.
The radar program review in anticipation of striking ballistic missiles "Pershing" when the system is offline, conducted a constant search for the azimuth in the sector 90 degrees and elevation in the range of 26 ... 75 degrees. On command from the center command center, the search sector changed in the rocket-hazard direction. In case of occurrence of marks in any angular direction in its vicinity, repeated beam reversals were carried out (additional inspection).
If the obtained marks met the criterion of the outset of the tracks, then the tracks of the target were followed, and its trajectory parameters were issued on the system KP. The command post compared information from the target and available data from other sources, displayed the target on indicators of the post of detection and reconnaissance, and also produced an extraordinary automatic target distribution. When choosing an unoccupied anti-aircraft missile system, which was issued an indication of target firing, the calculated point of the ballistic missile head falling relative to the complex, its mode of operation (according to the BR or aerodynamic targets), the presence of fire-fighting canals in the anti-aircraft complex guided missiles 9М82. Data on the standing points of the missile complexes and their condition was received at the command post of the system from all multichannel missile guidance stations. On the ballistic missile guidance station of the missile guidance station, the target search was automatically turned on in the target control sectors, and two 9А82 launchers were assigned to fire at the target (with two 9М82 SAMs at each launching or launching 9XXUMX X-gun and a set of 3D formations and target formations with target formations and target formations and target formations and target formations with a set of target formations and target formations and target formations (in the event). .
When a target was detected, the multichannel station of guidance switched to its automatic tracking and identified the coordinates of the target with DD, giving out, if they coincided, a report to the command post. Identification according to the station guidance was made at the command post. When a command to fire a two or one guided missile from a guidance station to a launcher was received from the station and the pre-launch preparation was completed, the launcher commander could launch missiles. Since the head part of the ballistic missile could have been accompanied by false targets, a head piece was made at the command post, and the target was fired on with a corresponding sign.
If the air enemy is threatened with the use of small-sized aviation ballistic missiles or SRAM rockets, the program review radar performed a regular space survey (in azimuth in the 60 sector of degrees and in elevation from 9 to 50 degrees) in the direction of the expected air strike. The detection of these targets and the set-up of their tracks were carried out in the same way as for Pershing ballistic missiles. However, in this case, at the command post of the system, from the station, marks and tracks were issued only for targets whose speed was higher than 300 meters per second. At the command post, target identification was carried out and anti-aircraft systems were selected, for which fire on them was the most effective. At the same time, anti-aircraft missile systems could be involved in the destruction of aviation ballistic missiles, which were in aerodynamic targets mode, but with 9М82 combat-ready missiles.
When working on active jamming aircraft, patrolling at a distance of up to 100 kilometers, the command center of the system issued an indication of the route to the missile guidance station, which was formed from information from a radar station of a program review or from a circular review station. The route of the goal could also be formed from the combined information. In addition, instructions could have been obtained from the KP system according to data from an anti-aircraft missile brigade who had come from a higher command-point command. The multi-channel station of guidance was taken by the production director for automatic tracking by the angular coordinates, after which she reported to the command center of the system. In turn, the KP organized the issuance of information on the range to the jammer on this station. For this purpose, data were used on the range to the target followed by the command post, which is the closest in bearing to the production aircraft. At the missile guidance station, the extrapolation of the command post data determined the distance to the accompanied director. In the future, the work of the system was carried out in the same way as for aerodynamic purposes. The 9А82 launcher was given the commands needed to fire the 9М82 rocket, and the team had a sign of interference to the missile guidance station, which was broadcast in the task of the anti-aircraft guided missile and changed the solution of the pre-launch guidance task. Guidance was carried out relative to the current position of the target, and not the pre-empt point. On board a guided missile, this command altered the algorithm for the operation of the rocket computing device, ensuring the missile’s homing on the target with a large distance between them. The rest of the control system was the same as for aerodynamic purposes.
In the centralized control mode, the C-300В anti-aircraft missile system operated by command, target designation and target distribution from the command post (Polyana-D4 automated control system) by the anti-aircraft missile brigade. In the brigade, they organized organizationally ZRK (anti-aircraft missile battalions), armed with C-300В. The brigade had a command and control station (automated command post) from the specified automated control system with a radar station (included radar stations: 9С15М - all-round view, 9С19М2 - program review, 1Л13 - standby mode, and also POR -PX -PX -PX -X -XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXW radar information processing), three or four missile battalions.
The structure of each of them is: the command and control center; 9A457 starting and charging installations.
The C-300В front-line anti-aircraft missile brigades were intended to replace the Krug army-front-line anti-aircraft missile brigades.
The high mobility and combat capabilities of the C-300 ZRS systems were confirmed many times during special exercises and combat training exercises. For example, during the defense-92 exercises, the C-300В provided the first missile to defeat the aircraft, and the ballistic missiles were destroyed by a maximum of two missiles.
The creation of the C-300В anti-aircraft missile system is a significant domestic scientific and technical achievement that was ahead of foreign designs.
Largely due to volitional qualities, high organizational skills, technical and military knowledge of the chairman of state commissions for joint testing of C-300B and C-300В1 systems Andersen Yu.A. succeeded in successfully testing the systems, objectively assessing the capabilities of the systems and recommending them to be adopted by the SA (air defense forces of the Ground Forces).
It is difficult to overestimate the contribution of many military specialists and teams of defense industries to the development of C-300В. Their work by the state was adequately noted.
The winners of the Lenin Prize were Shebeko V.N., Prokofiev D.I., Smirnov V.A., Chekin G.I., Epifanov V.N. Efremov V.P., Vinokurova V.A., Sprintis E.K., Zotova Y.Ya., Gelda L.P., Kuznetsova Yu.A., Zgodu V.I., Sorenkova E.I. ., Efremova E.P., Golubeva I.F., Golovina A.G., Koval S.M., Iova N.F., Kozhukhova Yu.A., Bisyarina I.A., Izvekova A.I., Barsukov S.A., Nechaeva V.P., Volkova I.D., Duel M.B., Andersen Yu.A. and etc.
Production of the command post, multichannel guidance station and radar station of the C-300В programmatic review were mastered at the Mari Machine-Building Plant Scientific and Production Association of the Ministry of Radio Industry. Missiles, launchers and launch-charging installations manufactured the production association "Sverdlovsk Machine-Building Plant named after MI Kalinin" of the Ministry of Radio Industry. The production of the radar station of the circular review was carried out by the Murom plant of radio measuring devices of the Ministry of the radio industry. Tracked self-propelled guns for C-300В combat equipment were supplied by the Kirovsky Zavod production association. The collectives of these enterprises have invested a great deal of creative work in mastering the production of this complex system, which has made the C-300В off-the-shelf technology easy and the production samples competitive in world markets.