Military Review

Tank battery - the most important factor in the combat capability of the unit

162

Photo: Konstantin Morozov/mil.ru


Dedicated to batteries...

Battery around the head


In the previous part stories was talking about operating features armored vehicles. The material would be incomplete without a story about one more technical aspect. Perhaps, any experienced tanker (whether a conscript, a conscript or a regular officer) who served in the army in the "era of developed socialism" remembers this famous brand - 6STEN-140m. The importance of batteries for the combat readiness of a military unit is so great that they deserve a separate article. In any case, within the framework of my memories.

Since I have not been connected with the army for almost three decades, I decided to ask on the Internet what kind of batteries (AB) are used in tanks now, and was surprised to find that little has changed over the years: all the same lead-acid! Almost complete analogues of those that were operated in my time, albeit slightly modernized. And this means that the problems associated with them remain. For example, on the T-90 tank - the very same good old 6STEN-140m.

Tank battery - the most important factor in the combat capability of the unit
Rechargeable battery 6STEN-140m: 1 - battery cover; 2 - hole for the guide pin; 3 - bolt; 4 - plastic protective box; 5 - guide pin; 6 - battery box; 7 - handle; 8 - plastic box mounting plate; 9 - mastic; 10 - output clamps; 11 - plug; 12 - inter-accumulator connection; 13 - battery cover guide; 14 - battery cover; 15 - battery tie; 16 - pole output; 17 - safety shield; 18 - lead bushings; 19 - lead bridge; 20 - negative plate; 21 - locking prism; 22 - separator; 23 - positive plate

Let me briefly, for a deeper dive into the topic, touch on the theory of the issue.

First, let's "decipher" the brand of the tank AB. The number 6 is the number of batteries in the battery. It is easy to determine the nominal voltage from it: since one lead-acid battery can produce 2 volts at its terminals, and in the battery they are connected in series, multiply by 6 and we get the output voltage of the battery, equal to 12 volts. Two letters ST mean that the battery is starter, i.e., designed to start the internal combustion engine using a starter.

Not every battery is capable of delivering large peak currents (more than 500 amperes), but lead-acid can. It is for this remarkable property, despite numerous shortcomings, that it is “tolerated”. The letter "E" denotes the material of the battery reservoir, which in this case is made of ebonite. The letter "N" stands for "new". The number 140 means the battery capacity in ampere-hours, which it gives when it is discharged by a load current equal to 0,1 capacity for 10 hours. And the small letter "m" means the material from which the separators are made, separating the positive and negative electrodes inside the batteries from each other: mipor or miplast.

The batteries are filled with a solution of sulfuric acid in distilled water (electrolyte). On the positive electrode, lead dioxide is applied as an active mass, on the negative - spongy lead. When connected to a load, an electrochemical process occurs in the battery and an electric current occurs. Theoretically, the process ends when lead sulphate is deposited on both electrodes, and water remains in the electrolyte. When such a battery is connected to the charger, the original state is restored. Reversibility is the most important property of any battery.

And now - about those same problems.

Let's start with the fact that sulfuric acid itself is an extremely corrosive liquid that requires very careful handling. It was supplied in glass bottles, with a capacity of approximately 30 liters, in special baskets, with shavings and other precautions. A distiller is needed to prepare distilled water. To prepare the electrolyte of the required density (1,25 g/cmXNUMX), a large number of instruments and fixtures were required, as well as tables for calculation.

Sufficient power chargers, special charging cabinets with exhaust ventilation are also required, since gases (a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen and sulfuric acid vapors) are released during battery charging. The room for charging and storing the battery in / part should have a sufficient number of special racks, the design of which would allow checking the density of the electrolyte and the voltage at the terminals. The temperature (optimal) should be close to zero, since under such conditions the self-discharge of the battery is minimal.

The battery charging process itself required constant monitoring and adjustment. It was necessary to monitor the magnitude of the charging voltage, the temperature of the electrolyte, control the process of increasing (or, more correctly, restoring) its density, setting the beginning of the last stage of charging in time, etc.

Starting difficulties


A lot more can be said about equipping the battery, but that's enough for now. And on the AB machine, they also require constant attention, control and care. Starting with the T-34 (they installed 6ST-128 ABs), all tanks are equipped with 4 ABs connected in parallel-series, so that the output is 24 volts, which corresponds to the voltage of the tank's on-board network, and the total capacity is thus 280 a/h. The main way to start a tank engine was declared by the manufacturer to be start-up with compressed air, and the AB was intended to be an auxiliary or backup tool.

In practice, everything often happened exactly the opposite. For the air inlet on the T-55 tank, there were two 5-liter high-pressure cylinders, air into which was pumped up to 150 atm by an onboard compressor. In the parking lot, the cylinders were closed with valves, when starting, the valves were unscrewed, the driver pressed the button, and if the pressure in the cylinders was sufficient (in summer - at least 45 atm, in winter - at least 80), the engine started safely, and the compressor, if in cylinders pressure dropped below 130 atm, recharged them.

But! The devil, as always, was in the details. The fact is that the weak point of the air cylinders was the membranes of the shut-off valves, which, as the number of openings and closings increased, quickly crumpled, and a gradual air leak occurred. And yes - you guessed it! - these membranes for replacement during the day with fire were not to be found.

And very often starting the engine with the help of a starter became the main and only possible one. They also used a combined start, while simultaneously pressing the air inlet and starter buttons. So in reality, ABs were in most cases the main means of starting the engine. True, I don’t want to mention the third army method - from a tugboat, because this “method” shortened the resource of more than one hundred tank engines.

AB was not allowed to discharge below 50% capacity in summer and below 25% in winter. These requirements were often violated, since it was troublesome to determine this degree without removing the AB from the tank, therefore, as long as it was possible to start the engine, they were not removed for charging. And with a deep discharge (as well as with a systematic undercharge), the so-called sulfation of the plates (electrodes) occurred, in which lead sulfate, which was hardly soluble in the electrolyte, was formed on them, which subsequently did not take part in the processes.

There was also a polarity reversal. The capacity of such an AB fell, the service life was reduced. A short circuit at the terminals led to their melting and warping of the plates inside the tanks, as a result of which the active mass also crumbled.


Charging the battery to 100% required a lot of time, up to 10 hours. In practice, they were often recharged rather than charged, which also shortened their service life. It was necessary to regularly check the electrolyte level in the tanks, which also could not be done without removing the battery from the tank. In the summer, in hot weather, water evaporated from the electrolyte first of all, and only water had to be added. I mentioned earlier how undesirable bumps and falls were for AB. At the same time, the active mass fell off the electrodes, not only did the capacity of such batteries fall, but this mass also ended up at the bottom of the tank, closing the opposite-pole electrodes (plates) together.

And, of course, ABs really disliked contamination of their surface. On such a surface, an increased self-discharge occurred (no more than 2% per day was allowed). Such a battery quickly discharged if not used for a long time on a running tank. It was possible to restore such outrages, but not completely and not always. This was only possible for a well-trained specialist who perfectly understands all the processes occurring in the battery.

And where was it to be taken? It was considered great happiness to have just a trained soldier, what kind of deep knowledge of internal processes is there. If there were any training units or units that trained accumulator workers, then they were unknown to me. At best, short training camps were organized on the basis of rembats. And then how lucky. If the soldiers were really trained at these training camps, it's one thing. If something was built or dug, it was different.

But a lot, if not all, depended on the normal operation of the battery and battery workers. Often I had to deal with the "growing" of accumulators on their own, relying on their knowledge and skills. And it was necessary that this soldier studied well at school at one time, but, as you might guess, those who studied well at school usually studied at universities, and did not serve in the army.

It often happened that glass hydrometers were in short supply, without which one could not determine the density. They were smashed rather quickly, and you won’t find new ones with fire during the day either. Distillers were even more in short supply. I will hint that their principle of operation is similar to that of a moonshine still.

The capacity given off by the battery decreased with a decrease in the temperature of the electrolyte (at minus 25 degrees, it approached zero). At minus 30, even in a charged battery, the electrolyte could freeze. In winter, its density was increased by 0,01–0,02 (1,29–1,31). Therefore, leaving AB on tanks in such conditions was not only useless, but also dangerous. I drank plenty of these winter problems when I served in the Amur Region, and I know them firsthand.

In general, strictly speaking, the professional suitability of technical officers could be judged only by the state of the battery economy.

I tried to the best of my ability in this article to show that for the successful and trouble-free use of tank ABs, a sufficiently high level of technical culture and knowledge of all personnel who in one way or another came into contact with them in their official activities was required. Since the late 60s and early 70s, this level has gradually but steadily declined.

To be continued ...
Author:
162 comments
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 19 February 2022 04: 43
    +6
    Mdya ... I didn’t serve, but I listened to lectures ... The colonel said that in the tank units there were special lines for charging AB in case of an order. And during??? hours (I don’t remember) the part was combat ready. AB were taken dry.
    1. Monar
      Monar 19 February 2022 05: 33
      +4
      Dry charged battery. Well, roughly speaking - they charged, the electrolyte was drained and stored. When necessary, the electrolyte was filled in and it was ready.
      The technology is all over the place. The shelf life is much longer. And there is no need to carry caustic electrolyte to the consumer.
      1. Tima62
        Tima62 19 February 2022 09: 48
        +1
        Quote: Monar
        there is no need to carry caustic electrolyte to the consumer.

        How so?
        Quote: Monar
        When necessary, the electrolyte was filled in and it was ready.

        Maybe you wanted to say - the charging station is not needed when putting new batteries into operation?
        1. Monar
          Monar 19 February 2022 10: 19
          0
          Dry charging is simply filled with fresh electrolyte. And that's it. The whole procedure takes about an hour.
          1. Aag
            Aag 19 February 2022 13: 15
            +9
            Quote: Monar
            Dry charging is simply filled with fresh electrolyte. And that's it. The whole procedure takes about an hour.

            Simple as that!))...
            You probably have no idea about this "process", the amount of GLASS containers needed, the rules for allowing l / s to work with YATZH - poisonous technical liquids, the procedure for its storage, a set of other measures taken when moving equipment ... And don't!
            It will be enough to load the battery with starting currents after filling the electrolyte, not allowing them to soak, saturate - some of them may have to be written off ...
            The commissioning of dry-charged batteries, even in a planned manner, stretches for several days ... (((
            1. Moore
              Moore 20 February 2022 16: 19
              +2
              Quote: AAG
              The commissioning of dry-charged batteries, even in a planned manner, stretches for several days ... (((

              What was reflected even in the plans for bringing into the VSBG - the critical time for commissioning equipment for long-term storage (NS) is the time to bring dry-charged batteries to their original state.
          2. Ady66
            Ady66 21 February 2022 07: 59
            +3
            Firstly, in the NC warehouses, the batteries are stored FILLED.
            Secondly, in order for a dry-charged battery to be brought to a working state without reducing its service life, it takes about 4-5 hours, since it takes 3 hours to impregnate platinum, and after that it is necessary to control the density of the electrolyte in each bank, charge and again density control.
            A dry-charged battery, unlike a flooded one, can be stored for no more than 2 years, since spongy lead oxidizes when it enters air cans and large and sparingly soluble crystals of lead sulfate (i.e. khana battery) are formed when filled.
            While I was a battery driver, batteries died on one of the ATP tractors, more precisely one (a couple of cans closed) The ATP commander, with the help of a carrier, pinned me a dry-charged 6ST190 whose expiration date expired 3 years ago and, to my doubts about its performance, stated with aplomb that it was NEW . I shrugged my shoulders and, since I was about waist-deep with them, filled in the electrolyte. If this one had not insisted, I would have filled it with a reduced density (1,21) and would have driven this battery for a day with a weak current. Not the fact that it would help, but there would be a chance. And so it turned out what happened. Predictably, one can was sulphated in the trash, one half. Battery voltage without load 13 V, under load 8,5. Since the equipment is not combatant, but working, this battery most likely did not last long. But I didn’t give a damn, I went to demobilization and recovered to my RTF.
      2. igor_sabadah
        igor_sabadah 19 February 2022 09: 59
        +4
        Well, I don’t know, I work in a bus depot, I haven’t seen dry charged for a very long time, everything is brought with electrolyte.
        1. Monar
          Monar 19 February 2022 10: 41
          +1
          I don’t know about buses, but in cars now the so-called. "helium" Akum. The electrolyte is thickened there.
          1. loki565
            loki565 19 February 2022 11: 06
            +2
            As an option, a helium battery is quite good, it is not afraid of frost, it tolerates deep discharge well, it can give out more charge / discharge cycles without loss of power, but the price will be two times more than the usual one, and the weight is also more, it will be difficult to rearrange by hand
            .
            1. Glory1974
              Glory1974 19 February 2022 11: 57
              +3
              helium battery is quite good,

              Helium silver-zinc batteries are now widely used in communications. Electrolyte care is not required, just charge on time. The price is certainly more than that of nickel-cadmium (NKP), but you have to pay for everything.
              1. Aag
                Aag 19 February 2022 13: 30
                +5
                Quote: glory1974
                helium battery is quite good,

                Helium silver-zinc batteries are now widely used in communications. Electrolyte care is not required, just charge on time. The price is certainly more than that of nickel-cadmium (NKP), but you have to pay for everything.

                Communication equipment uses NOT STARTER batteries! There, the priority is the capacity, and not the maximum starter current. When the normal current (charge, or discharge) is exceeded, they tend to explode, ignite (as at one time police stations, modern smartphones - if the protection systems do not work out properly).
                Yes, - out of hopelessness, they still didn’t collectively farm: in the park for launching armored personnel carriers, and other combat vehicles, there was "Mashka" - a battery of several dozen decommissioned NKGTS batteries (such as diesel locomotives) from the backup (emergency) power supply of the command post ... For years did not recharge.
                1. Glory1974
                  Glory1974 19 February 2022 13: 43
                  0
                  And I'm not talking about starters. I'm talking about gel.
          2. igor_sabadah
            igor_sabadah 20 February 2022 17: 29
            0
            Gel, letter I only
          3. Ady66
            Ady66 21 February 2022 08: 02
            0
            You are wrong, gel batteries are used for uninterruptible power supplies (mostly) and you will feel sick from their cost.
      3. Sancho_SP
        Sancho_SP 19 February 2022 10: 18
        +2
        Just don't put anything in it. As they were made at the factory from components corresponding to the charged state, they are stored dry.

        So, in theory, serviced batteries should be sold, in which the lids of the cans are removable.
        1. kytx
          kytx 20 February 2022 10: 44
          -1
          This has not happened for a long time, household ones, including automobile ones, are maintenance-free.
          But it's not military
          1. Ady66
            Ady66 21 February 2022 08: 06
            +1
            ALL car batteries are serviceable. Those that are "maintenance free" have calcium in the composition of the plates, which DECREASES the effect of electrolyte boiling and, accordingly, the evaporation of water. But this does not mean that it is not necessary to look into the jars for the presence of electrolyte and control its density. "Unattended" is a marketing ploy.
            1. kytx
              kytx 21 February 2022 08: 10
              -2
              Trick or not. We have what we have.
      4. km-21
        km-21 19 February 2022 10: 48
        +16
        Quote: Monar
        Dry charged battery. Well, roughly speaking - they charged, the electrolyte was drained and stored. When necessary, the electrolyte was filled in and it was ready.

        Not at all. A dry-charged battery is manufactured at the factory from lead plates (grids) coated with the same layers of substances that are formed during the natural charging of a “wet-charged” battery. That is, while a dry-charged battery is not filled with electrolyte, it is inoperative and can be stored in a warehouse for a long time without loss of performance characteristics. But if you fill it with electrolyte, then it will become an ordinary battery, and it will be impossible to return it to a dry state. Foolishly, of course, you can drain the electrolyte from any battery, but such a "dry-charged" battery will be hopelessly damaged in a matter of hours.
    2. Alekseev
      Alekseev 19 February 2022 07: 27
      +8
      The colonel tells everything correctly, but modern tanks mainly use 24 volt batteries.12st-85R, for example. Yes, and 12 volts have more capacity than the old 6st-140, such as 6st-190.
      1. Fedorov Fedor
        Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 08: 45
        +1
        Yes, that is right. But what did it fundamentally change?
      2. Ady66
        Ady66 21 February 2022 08: 10
        0
        The difference between 6ST140 and 6ST190 is that on the first one the separators are mipore, and on the second - miplast. The service life of 6ST140 is twice that of 6ST190. The capacity and starting current of the 140th, yes, is less, due to the fact that the plate area of ​​the 190th is larger.
  2. Coward
    Coward 19 February 2022 05: 07
    +6
    “I really don’t want to mention the third army method - from a tow”
    I read on the Internet that in Africa, our adviser used the method of starting the engine, though self-propelled guns, by firing with reverse gear without brakes.
    A bike or not?
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 19 February 2022 09: 12
      +6
      Bike. This is akin to launching a helicopter from a tugboat.
      1. kytx
        kytx 20 February 2022 10: 47
        -2
        I saw how they tried to start the tank from a tow - it didn’t work bully
    2. Sancho_SP
      Sancho_SP 19 February 2022 10: 21
      0
      Purely technically, for the same ISU-152, this is possible, but too many factors must coincide, what would actually happen.
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 19 February 2022 20: 17
        +1
        We, on the T-62, were told the same thing. And in order to start the engine, it is enough to move the tank one and a half tracks (in reverse gear).
        I have not seen this in practice.
    3. Hagen
      Hagen 19 February 2022 10: 34
      +9
      Quote: Coward
      “I really don’t want to mention the third army method - from a tow”

      In my company (there were no tanks, there were MTL-BVs, but the essence is about the same) out of 12 vehicles, 2 were for the training group and 10 for the combatant. The machines of the combatant group always stood without a battery. Moreover, the cars of the back row are connected by cables to the cars of the first row. On alarm, they rushed the training one, put the MV in the drill and in tow started the drill without a battery. They tried to launch two at once, but it's risky. Therefore, basically pulled one at a time. In 20 minutes the whole company was wound up. In the meantime, the infantry brought batteries on a sledge (in winter) or manually, filled in the electrolyte, loaded into the landing force, and 2-3 hours for impregnation. In the meantime, the cars could have already left in the direction of the concentration area without connecting the battery. This happened in the reality of our regiment once, when the regiment was deployed to a full state with the adoption of mobilization replenishment.
      1. Coward
        Coward 19 February 2022 11: 59
        0
        Well, the author of the article wrote about starting the engine by towing, which is why I put it in quotation marks.
        1. Hagen
          Hagen 19 February 2022 12: 02
          +1
          Quote: Coward
          Well, the author of the article wrote about starting the engine by towing, which is why I put it in quotation marks.

          I don't refute you wink I just somehow remembered the service in the Arctic ...
      2. Tima62
        Tima62 19 February 2022 13: 08
        +2
        Quote: Hagen
        In the meantime, the infantry brought batteries on a sleigh (in winter) or manually, poured electrolyte,

        To ram 4 batteries is a simple task. But to deliver the electrolyte to the tanks (10 - 11 liters per battery, 40 - 45 liters per tank) and carefully pour it into the batteries on the spot? A task!
      3. Fedorov Fedor
        Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 08: 50
        +1
        It is not clear where the electrolyte was poured?
        1. Hagen
          Hagen 20 February 2022 10: 16
          +2
          Quote: Fedorov Fedor
          It is not clear where the electrolyte was poured?

          This was over thirty years ago. I myself was engaged in the launch of machines and the construction of the column. It is possible, and even most likely, that the batteries were filled in the battery. I don’t remember anyone getting in the way with canisters. I clearly remember that the batteries were carried into cars when they were already standing in front of the boxes in a column with running engines. Unfortunately, time sometimes erases some events, names from memory ... Diaries were not in fashion ... request
    4. Olgerd Gediminovich
      Olgerd Gediminovich 21 February 2022 18: 48
      +1
      I read the article - everything is correct. Normally, there are three types of start - starter, air and combined.
      Served in a tank regiment 35 years ago. But everyone knew about the possibility of launching with a shot - from the driver's rookie to the inspector generals. And many argued whether there was enough rollback for 2 and a half tracks to start. Naturally, it was strictly forbidden to try, under pain of almost a penal battalion, so as not to overwhelm the engine.
      So, probably, I would also think that this is such a legend.
      If during the exercises I myself had not seen how the tank crew wound up with a shot. Combat. The exercises were always with live firing and there were no blanks in the pack. Why / why I don’t know for sure, but it seems out of desperation - the battery sat down overnight, and the cylinder was empty. Hardly out of hooliganism.
      Then he let the crew of the regimental commander go to waste. And more than once at the formations of the regimental he recalled the "good" word "villains".
      He was also a witness in the service of what happens when a tank gun is fired when the barrel is clogged with mud. I still have a photo of the result.
      Well, a lot of other interesting things happened to see on urgent.
      The tanks, by the way, were T-72s.
      1. Coward
        Coward 22 February 2022 01: 24
        0
        Well, I will know about the real possibility of starting from a shot.
      2. uwzek
        uwzek 18 March 2022 03: 23
        0
        The biggest return when fired with OFS. Where did he go after that?
        But the feature of launching a tank diesel engine is that before this launch, the diesel itself must be warmed up. The systems for supplying oil to the diesel and transmission should also be warmed up (and if, at the last plug of the engine, the driver “forgot” to pump out the oil from the boxes and the guitar, then in general a separate song occurs). So, if your forty-odd tons of iron have stood for several days in the winter somewhere in Buryatia at minus about fifty, you need to light the heater and not more than five minutes. To ignite the heater, a good battery is already needed, although there is no need to deliver 500 amperes to the load. You can generally be silent about the situation when the fuel line also froze (there was some water in the diesel fuel) ...
        Installing the battery is really not easy. Here are the batteries that, in the photo in the article, the fighters at the UDS are dragging (the training stand is most likely the T-90, judging by the fresh factory paint) in the tank there are two pieces, they are 24 volts each, i.e. twelve-jar (by the way, the standard voltage of the acid cell is not 2 volts, as the author of the article wrote, but not 2,2 volts as in one of the comments, but exactly in the middle - 2,1 volts, from where the ratings are 6,3 volts of the battery (three-jar), 12,6 volts in most cars today and 25,2 volts in those batteries that are called twenty-four volts). What these fighters with this battery are trying to do next is difficult to understand, because you can’t put a battery in a real tank like that: the gun and the real tower itself will stupidly interfere. One of the soldiers must climb into the control compartment and catch this battery on his belly, the second must drop it there. The process is extremely tedious, complicated by the fact that the battery just can’t crawl into the driver’s hatch, the battery should be tipped over, which leads to flooding of the lower fighter with electrolyte even with cracked cell plugs. That is why a 24v battery is rarely used in a tank. Basically, twelve-volt ones are everywhere, they have about half the height, but there are four batteries on the car. They are connected in series-parallel during the operation of the tank and in series when the starter is powered at the time of launch. That is, at the time of starting the diesel engine, the voltage at the starter is not 24 volts, but 48 volts. Why can't you light up a diesel tank from an external 24 volt source or from a neighboring car with serviceable batteries (without special tricks). At the same time, it is also necessary that two electric oil pumps and one fuel pump work before launch, for which again an internal power supply is needed.
        I just described to you the launch of tank diesel engines of the V-2 type (tanks from T-34 to T-90). Therefore, without a battery, these diesel engines cannot be started even from a pusher, all the more just by firing from a cannon (it also needs to be charged, which is also not easy to do without light).
        I myself did not serve in the army, but I read a lot about it. Joke...
        1. Olgerd Gediminovich
          Olgerd Gediminovich 18 March 2022 10: 22
          0
          In theory, that's probably how it should be.
          I'm just what was described in practice. It was summer. The tanks drove to the landfill under their own power. Planted after spending the night in the morning.
  3. mmaxx
    mmaxx 19 February 2022 05: 19
    +15
    Everything as usual. Plane the tanks, but there are no lousy membranes and hydrometers. Now at least this hydrometer can be bought. Well, and to occupy the soldiers with preparation, and not with digging fences - this is our everything.
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 19 February 2022 07: 44
      +4
      Why is this hydrometer needed? this is for the weak. He stuck his finger into the electrolyte, and on the tongue. if after 5 minutes the finger fell off, then the normal density. And I really know such a case. As they say, the motherland needs heroes, and women give birth to eccentrics.
      1. Ady66
        Ady66 21 February 2022 08: 17
        0
        A finger in the electrolyte is strong. I had a "demobilization chord" (one of them) - to mix 2 tons of electrolyte for NZ warehouses. So, despite all my caution due to the lack of gloves and the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid, the palms were characteristically brown. There was both soda and ammonia solution - they did not help.
    2. Eug
      Eug 19 February 2022 08: 53
      +5
      For tanks - orders and awards to several development teams, but what about membranes?
    3. Sancho_SP
      Sancho_SP 19 February 2022 10: 23
      +7
      The problem is that the tank needs not only membranes for valves, but thousands of such “little things” in the nomenclature.

      The work of the supplier is such, yes.
    4. Glory1974
      Glory1974 19 February 2022 12: 10
      +1
      Plane the tanks, but there are no lousy membranes and hydrometers.

      We had BMD. There was a problem with the batteries, but not with the air. Maybe there were other cylinders on the tanks?
      In general, the technique has a triple launch backup system: from the battery, air and "lighting up", not counting "from the pusher". There were never any problems to start a battalion and leave. At least one way worked.
      I heard that the T-34 also had a manual launch flywheel. You turn the handle, the flywheel starts spinning, you put it in clutch with the engine, the diesel engine spins and starts. Therefore, our tanks started up in the cold, but the German ones did not.
      1. Tima62
        Tima62 19 February 2022 13: 26
        +9
        Quote: glory1974
        I heard that the T-34 also had a manual launch flywheel. You turn the handle, the flywheel starts spinning, you put it in clutch with the engine, the diesel engine spins and starts. Therefore, our tanks started up in the cold, but the German ones did not.

        No. The inertial starter was just at the Germans (tiger, panther).
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SlydWwa6AcU
        1. Jager
          Jager 19 February 2022 16: 32
          0
          In general, I read in the "Diary of a self-propelled gunner" that the ISU-152 was sometimes also wound up "from the handle."
          And there is a video on the net of how the British launched the Tiger in Bovington just from the inertial starter.
        2. Bad_gr
          Bad_gr 19 February 2022 20: 39
          0
          Quote: Tima62
          The inertial starter was just at the Germans (tiger, panther)

          And on airplanes, the same (for example, on the Me-109)
      2. vadivm59
        vadivm59 19 February 2022 19: 51
        +3
        i served as a BMD-1 driver. I don’t remember any problems with the battery. I got into the car, pressed the button on the instrument panel, checked the charge level. in place. it’s all about business. here’s the installation in place, this is that song, the mechanic’s cry is called. and I don’t remember any problems with a high-pressure air cylinder either. air leaks. and start in winter and summer only combined, air + starter.
      3. Fedorov Fedor
        Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 08: 55
        +1
        At that time, which I remember, there were no BMDs at all. And there were no flywheels on the T-34. I fully admit that the design of air cylinders has been improved.
  4. andrewkor
    andrewkor 19 February 2022 05: 20
    +19
    A sketch from the life of the Uzbek army. Military service for one year. Formation after taking the oath. "Who knows Russian well?" - asks the officer. My friend, a Tatar, by the way, responds: "I am." the soldier treated with all diligence, mastered, to the best of his ability, turned out to be literate and not a slob.
  5. Aag
    Aag 19 February 2022 05: 44
    +11
    At the PGRK (RVSN), the battery saga was further complicated by the fact that the batteries were heavier (6ST-190), and they needed to be raised higher, and the number of batteries in the household sometimes exceeded the number of l / composition ...
    ... And so the problem is common. hi
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 19 February 2022 06: 30
      +6
      I can assure you. 190 ab is much lighter than 140 in a wooden box. The head would be torn off by whoever invented them.
      1. Aag
        Aag 19 February 2022 07: 31
        +1
        Quote: Free Wind
        I can assure you. 190 ab is much lighter than 140 in a wooden box. The head would be torn off by whoever invented them.

        I don't think that a wooden box weighs 12-16 kg...
      2. Hagen
        Hagen 19 February 2022 10: 21
        +4
        Quote: Free Wind
        I can assure you. 190 ab is much lighter than 140 in a wooden box

        190 - 71-72 kg, 140 - 62 kg. This is due to the fact that the battery capacity for electrolyte and other intestines is greater for 190. In 190 - 12 liters of electrolyte, in 140 - 8. Accordingly, the plates are heavier. Miracles don't happen. Large capacity is achieved by large plate sizes...
    2. Tomcat_Tomcat
      Tomcat_Tomcat 19 February 2022 09: 23
      +6
      12ST-85 are even heavier. A "battery" weighing under 70 kilos is something. Compared to them, the 190s seem like toys.
  6. saygon66
    saygon66 19 February 2022 06: 54
    +11
    - At least don’t go into the battery room ... your face starts to itch.
  7. Free wind
    Free wind 19 February 2022 07: 20
    +20
    You do not need to remove the battery to check the charge. Turned on mass. I pressed the button on the ammeter and that's it. The normal voltage is 25-26 volts, not 24. Each bank produces 2,2 volts. not 2. You can also turn off the headlights. if the batteries are dead the voltage will drop below 20 volts. Now they put the Armed Forces of Ukraine on tanks, not Ukrainians. auxiliary power unit. When it is started, the batteries quickly reach the desired condition. when installing the battery, it is necessary to lubricate the terminals with grease. lithol. otherwise the bolts will rust and you will break the terminals when unscrewing the terminals. It is necessary to monitor the onboard voltage. On the tank 26, 4 volts, no more, otherwise the batteries will boil away, and the plates will warp from overcharging. Watch cable insulation. otherwise you'll burn out. If connected incorrectly, an explosion can occur, you can remain ugly or blind forever. You only need to add water to the battery, raise the density only with a charge, and even now ABs are produced maintenance-free, they are sealed.
    1. Ady66
      Ady66 21 February 2022 08: 26
      +1
      It is not water that is added to the cans, but either water or an electrolyte, because the contents of the cans not only evaporate, but also splash, therefore, before pouring anything, the density on a CHARGED battery is checked. I wrote above, EVERYTHING, except for gel batteries, SERVICED. And I strongly recommend that car owners on "maintenance-free", at least once every 2 years, check the level and density of the electrolyte.
  8. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 19 February 2022 07: 52
    +10
    From my memory, I can point out another trouble - the lack of caps on the batteries. Where when they were lost - one hell knows! But for verification, they constantly twisted from "dead" to "live" rearranged!)))
  9. your vsr 66-67
    your vsr 66-67 19 February 2022 07: 56
    -3
    * At minus 30, even in a charged battery, the electrolyte could freeze. *


    Well, I directly disagree with the author! Driving experience more than 40 years, though not a professional. Lived in the North for over 20 years. Frosts -40-45 is common, there have been up to -56. And what about leisure in the North? Hunting and fishing. You go fishing, -40, you can’t get to the place, you leave the car in the taiga and on foot. It costs three days, and sometimes a week. You come back, slightly warmed up the pan, turned on the high beam for 20 seconds, and on the starter! Grumbled...

    So, for 40 years, I have never removed the battery from the car in winter to keep it warm! The car is on the street, or in a cold garage, and the battery is on it. But! A cycle is required every fall! I discharge the battery with 10% current to 10,5 volts, and then charge it with 10% current for 10 hours. Everything! The battery lasts 8-10 years.
    1. Pechkin
      Pechkin 19 February 2022 09: 01
      +9
      But! A cycle is required every fall! I discharge the battery with 10% current to 10,5 volts, and then charge it with 10% current for 10 hours. Everything! The battery lasts 8-10 years.
      Oh those stories! Oh those storytellers. In the north, in daily use, 8-10 years wassat
      1. your vsr 66-67
        your vsr 66-67 19 February 2022 10: 01
        0
        Imagine this! And I never put an unattended AB on the car. And where did I say daily? I said I'm not a professional! Never worked as a driver! And from this does it follow that I exploited a personal car daily?
    2. Eugene
      Eugene 19 February 2022 10: 31
      +2
      Well, such a discharge-charge process is called CTC (control-training cycle), even according to the instruction manual for the 140s and 190s, it is supposed to be carried out once a year, and this really extends their service life normally, but about freezing of the electrolyte, this however, if the density is missed in frosts and left in the cold, then the caput of the battery will also freeze
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 19 February 2022 11: 05
        0
        In most cases, a failed bank freezes, there is actually not an electrolyte, but water. a little sour.
    3. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 19 February 2022 11: 56
      +1
      Normal battery life in Russian climate is 4-5 years. Rarely more, even with good care.
      With a more favorable climate (south, or Europe, where there are not such frosts), it can last 2-3 years longer.
      And this is on a car that undergoes an annual service.
      1. Aag
        Aag 19 February 2022 13: 51
        +3
        Quote: smith 55
        Normal battery life in Russian climate is 4-5 years. Rarely more, even with good care.
        With a more favorable climate (south, or Europe, where there are not such frosts), it can last 2-3 years longer.
        And this is on a car that undergoes an annual service.

        ... Well, if "service", then of course ...))
        According to experience in a / service - most of the battery (however, as well as starters, generators) dies from improper operation and maintenance. Often, simply due to unserved oxidized terminals, contacts along the entire chain ...
        1. Blacksmith 55
          Blacksmith 55 19 February 2022 14: 09
          +2
          Car batteries are mostly maintenance-free or low-maintenance batteries.
          She worked her time and for delivery, instead of a new one.
          The battery lasted 7 years on my last car, and this is in Germany, where frosts (for us) are rarely below -10.
          In Russia, he worked on a bus for a long time, frosts down to -40. Batteries were changed on average every 4 years.
          1. Aag
            Aag 19 February 2022 15: 14
            0
            Quote: smith 55
            Car batteries are mostly maintenance-free or low-maintenance batteries.
            She worked her time and for delivery, instead of a new one.
            The battery lasted 7 years on my last car, and this is in Germany, where frosts (for us) are rarely below -10.
            In Russia, he worked on a bus for a long time, frosts down to -40. Batteries were changed on average every 4 years.

            I do not dispute what you wrote. But I also admit what was stated by the commentator (your VSR 66-67) ... 10 years, of course, is very "magical", but 8 is fully confirmed by experience ... hi
    4. VladGTN
      VladGTN 19 February 2022 19: 17
      +2
      With a successful scenario, it can reach up to 25 years. Are you transferring from car to car?
      1. Ady66
        Ady66 21 February 2022 08: 52
        0
        In vain you are being ironic, in stationary conditions (without shaking) such a service life is.
    5. Ady66
      Ady66 21 February 2022 08: 34
      0
      All according to science))) You are a plus from the former accumulator man! )))
  10. bistrov.
    bistrov. 19 February 2022 08: 14
    +5
    Accumulator workers are also in short supply in civilian life, where there are electric forklifts or stackers, I worked at a factory, so the accumulator man was a big slob, he liked to drink, but he was not fired, but, simply, they coddled with him, because they simply could not find another ...
    1. Sancho_SP
      Sancho_SP 19 February 2022 10: 28
      -1
      Maintenance-free batteries solve many problems)
    2. Free wind
      Free wind 19 February 2022 11: 21
      +2
      There is nothing terrible or difficult there. Plugs opened. I looked at the level, connected the wires, turned on the ventilation, turned on the charger and that's it. There are more hemorrhoids with miners' alkaline ones, and there are much more of them for charging. Battery workers are paid little, they are on a salary for the most part. They could really earn a preferential seniority at 55 for retirement. Although now they have been removed from the beneficiaries. There should be ventilation and work in a gas mask, there should be continuous clean air around. By the way, it’s also fun with welders. If you work on the street or with an exhaust hood in the workplace, then fuck you and not harm.
      1. Aag
        Aag 19 February 2022 14: 34
        +1
        "... There is nothing terrible and difficult there. I unscrewed the plugs. I looked at the level, connected the wires, turned on the ventilation, turned on the charger and that's it ..."
        I don’t know about tankers, but we have the listed operations on the unit prohibited!
        That is, not counting the preparation of documentation, briefings, the extraction of replacement batteries, all this economy must be removed. And the chargers weren't automatic at all...
        Even as a major, I had a chance to cut the jumpers between the banks with a hacksaw in order to assemble from several batteries, weld at least a couple of serviceable ones ...
        And yes, - you also "forgot" to rinse the plugs - it used to get clogged ... hi
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 19 February 2022 15: 14
          +1
          Why was there a terrible shortage of AB, I can’t understand where they have gone? request Moreover, their production is not at all difficult. I thought that they went to the army, but figs to you, and they were not in the army. Collective farms did their best, I even saw a launcher at KRAZ. So were they released or not? Or maybe they shot from the Tigers7 Well, there really were no batteries.
          1. Aag
            Aag 19 February 2022 15: 24
            +2
            Quote: Free Wind
            Why was there a terrible shortage of AB, I can’t understand where they have gone? request Moreover, their production is not at all difficult. I thought that they went to the army, but figs to you, and they were not in the army. Collective farms did their best, I even saw a launcher at KRAZ. So were they released or not? Or maybe they shot from the Tigers7 Well, there really were no batteries.

            I’ll tell you more (I already wrote in other threads): one of the main tasks, among other things, when receiving a young replenishment, it was considered to get a fighter whose parents worked at the Svir battery plant. Not far from us ... If dad was powerful, and batteries were supplied to the regiment (I don’t know by what scheme), my son was on a business trip for a long time - he lived at home ...
            1. mmaxx
              mmaxx 19 February 2022 17: 09
              0
              Yep, topic. I know these options. Not to the point, but still...
  11. Eug
    Eug 19 February 2022 08: 59
    +5
    In aviation, battery workers are also in a special position, especially for 15STsS-45B (silver-zinc). But the air in the battery - God forbid!
  12. Tima62
    Tima62 19 February 2022 09: 24
    +6
    Article plus, I read with interest. Only hearing cuts AB, I got used to the designation of a battery in my life. Or is it different in tank troops?
    And about the capacity - The number 140 means the battery capacity in ampere-hours, which it gives when it is discharged by a load current equal to 0,1 capacity for 10 hours.
    That's right - 0,05 for 20 hours.
    Rated capacity is the capacity that a new, fully charged battery should deliver under the normal discharge conditions specified in the battery standard. In this case, the voltage should not fall below a certain value.
    Since the capacity depends on the discharge current and the final discharge voltage, the battery symbol indicates the capacity corresponding to a certain discharge mode. For starter batteries, the nominal capacity is taken at 20-hour discharge, stationary at 10-hour, traction at 5-hour discharge modes.
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 05
      +1
      Both you and I are right: both 10 and 20-hour discharge modes are allowed. And I got used to AB at the end of my service, when I switched to teaching. At the same time, I got used to "starting", and not to "starting" the engine.
      1. zampolit
        zampolit April 8 2022 17: 23
        0
        According to GOST for starters - precisely at 20 hours. But in principle, the difference is small.
  13. Ingvar K
    Ingvar K 19 February 2022 09: 49
    +4
    Interesting article. We had a regiment covering the border and there were constant alarms with the condition: either start the engine or drive 4 meters out of the box. The batteries were regularly handed over for recharging into the battery. It's still that hemorrhagic. There are 4 of them in the tank, each weighs 62 kg. The mechanic pulls them out of their regular place, puts them on their eggs and then feeds them up through the hatch and so on four times. And then they are carried in single file or driven in a wheelbarrow for recharging.
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 08
      +1
      Did you serve in the GSVG? I have unforgettable memories associated with this regiment. Is it true that they had companies of 15 tanks each?
      1. Ingvar K
        Ingvar K 25 February 2022 23: 52
        -1
        You are right, only there were 16 tanks, 5 in platoons and one in the company.
  14. NAIL77DM
    NAIL77DM 19 February 2022 09: 52
    +2
    we practiced a push in the ass on the BMP, then the problem is broken door handles
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 19 February 2022 11: 32
      +2
      The BMP has fuel tanks in the doors. pulling the rope is much easier. Although right now, as drivers, it’s probably easier to push and you’re going to hell.
      1. Aag
        Aag 19 February 2022 13: 59
        +1
        Quote: Free Wind
        The BMP has fuel tanks in the doors. pulling the rope is much easier. Although right now, as drivers, it’s probably easier to push and you’re going to hell.

        So it’s also unwinding, clinging to the cable ... Plus an additional source of injury ... We had a third of armored personnel carriers with torn out towing eyes. With "meat" - a piece of armor ...
  15. igor_sabadah
    igor_sabadah 19 February 2022 10: 07
    -4
    And what does the author suggest? What will we change to? If the equipment is in storage and serviceable is disabled by removing the terminals, then standing for a year is not a problem for them, but they are in warehouses in trade. And then discharge charge with a training cycle. You can also remove the "old" ones for driving equipment, and put fresh ones in their place.
    1. Aag
      Aag 19 February 2022 14: 22
      +2
      Quote: igor_sabadah
      And what does the author suggest? What will we change to? If the equipment is in storage and serviceable is disabled by removing the terminals, then standing for a year is not a problem for them, but they are in warehouses in trade. And then discharge charge with a training cycle. You can also remove the "old" ones for driving equipment, and put fresh ones in their place.

      The author does not offer, - describes how it was (I suspect - there are many places).
      What if it's not in storage? And in constant combat readiness? And even in heated battery niches (self-discharge currents are higher)?
      CTC is carried out according to the schedules of the regulations, or by urgent need (which is associated with an unplanned decrease in the BG, and "cradles" for engineers and persons responsible for operation). Any removal of the battery from the unit, transportation, is a prerequisite for l / s injuries, damage to the batteries themselves. ... As it is.
      Replacing old ones (sometimes in better condition) with new ones, from unit to unit, and so on, is not always possible - the numbers are entered in the forms ...
      1. igor_sabadah
        igor_sabadah 20 February 2022 17: 38
        0
        Well, while car dealers who sell used cars have regular charging, or even a constant connection to the network to maintain a charged state of the battery, if properly designed, this will not be a problem no more than one set of batteries per car, or even cheaper.
        1. Aag
          Aag 20 February 2022 18: 50
          0
          Quote: igor_sabadah
          Well, while car dealers who sell used cars have regular charging, or even a constant connection to the network to maintain a charged state of the battery, if properly designed, this will not be a problem no more than one set of batteries per car, or even cheaper.

          What kind of car junk is this? ...
          I understood correctly: you propose to organize a constant recharging of the battery directly to the equipment?
          winked I'm afraid I'll have to rewrite the Author's article and some of the comments to it in order to explain why this has not been done already, and is unlikely to be expected in the aircraft ... If it's quite simple, - in the instructions for any memory (charger) it says "... do not leave turned on without supervision!";
          - for safety reasons, on most (if not all) units, the "ground" contactor should be disconnected;
          - for NC equipment, batteries are stored dry-charged to increase the shelf life (budget savings);
          - a number of batteries for VT (military equipment), to be charged ONLY at the manufacturer's factory ... belay
          hi
          1. igor_sabadah
            igor_sabadah 23 February 2022 15: 23
            0
            The fact that a huge number of instructions are written to cover the ass is well known to most operators. For example, in our park, if frosts are more than 15 degrees at night, cars don’t turn off at all, and they don’t give a damn that according to the instructions, when leaving the car, you should also turn off the engine, and they thresh all night and there is no one to really look after them, well, how can 2 haulers keep track of a hundred cars?
    2. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 15
      +2
      I'm not suggesting anything. My note is only reminiscing about a time long past. And AB for tanks located on the DH were really usually stored in a dry-loaded form. Nearby there was the necessary supply of electrolyte for their filling. It must be borne in mind that up to 10 days are given to mobilize a compound of a reduced composition. So, in theory, there should be enough time for everything.
      1. Aag
        Aag 23 February 2022 16: 39
        0
        Quote: Fedorov Fedor
        I'm not suggesting anything. My note is only reminiscing about a time long past. And AB for tanks located on the DH were really usually stored in a dry-loaded form. Nearby there was the necessary supply of electrolyte for their filling. It must be borne in mind that up to 10 days are given to mobilize a compound of a reduced composition. So, in theory, there should be enough time for everything.

        Dear F.F. I perfectly understand how ... it is unpleasant for you (the older generation) to hear this crap ...
  16. alex967
    alex967 19 February 2022 10: 22
    +3
    We had 2-4 batteries in the dryer in Arvay. On alarm, the mechanics carried them to the park. They fired up a couple of BMPs and the rest were already lighting up from them.

    In Saishand, at 102 TS, in the boxes above the tanks, wires were laid with 24 volts. Put on your fishing rods and wind up.
    1. mmaxx
      mmaxx 19 February 2022 17: 11
      0
      Did you serve in Sayshand?
      1. alex967
        alex967 20 February 2022 17: 06
        0
        Yes a little.
    2. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 24
      +2
      I think you are mistaken when talking about wires over tanks. Most likely, these were the wires of the microcurrent charging system, which was intended to compensate for the self-discharge of the battery. It is difficult for me to imagine such a picture when thick starter wires are stretched through the entire box, and even hanging over each tank. Also in each box there had to be a powerful source of direct current. I have never seen such a fairy tale in my 32 years of service.
  17. km-21
    km-21 19 February 2022 10: 58
    0
    I don’t know what the author is going to write about in the continuation of the article, but I would venture to suggest that we will talk about the APU (auxiliary power unit). An additional low-power ICE generator (up to 10 kW) is installed on a modern tank, which is able to recharge the battery and help (together with the battery) start the main engine if the battery cannot cope alone. And besides this, the APU provides energy to the tank system when the main engine is not running. This saves fuel and the resource of the GSU.
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 31
      +2
      I'm definitely not going to write about the APU! Moreover, I am skeptical about this idea. As a rule, there is no place for the APU inside the tank, and its placement outside - before the first or second battle. And this unit is not suitable for starting, but only for recharging.
      1. km-21
        km-21 20 February 2022 10: 14
        -1
        Quote: Fedorov Fedor
        As a rule, there is no place for the APU inside the tank ...

        It is also not inside the aircraft.
        However, they find (if they really want to) ...
        Quote: Fedorov Fedor
        And this unit is not suitable for starting, but only for recharging.

        First, recharging is also good. Especially when the batteries are not new and they themselves cannot cope with a cold start. But if just before the start they are slightly “driven”, then it’s a completely different matter.
        Secondly, 10 kW of electric power is quite a lot. The starter consumes 20 kW to the maximum, and if the APU is harnessed in parallel with the battery, then its help will greatly facilitate the life of the battery and (which is also important) extend its life.
        Thirdly, if you combine the cooling system of the APU and HPU, you will get not only recharging, but also preheating. Therefore, the traditional heater can be thrown away, and the APU can be installed (or at least try to squeeze in) in the vacated space.
      2. km-21
        km-21 20 February 2022 10: 45
        -1
        Quote: Fedorov Fedor
        As a rule, there is no place for the APU inside the tank

        Not on the plane either.
        However, they find, if they really want ...
        Quote: Fedorov Fedor
        And this unit is not suitable for starting, but only for recharging.

        First, recharging is also good. Especially in a situation where the batteries are not new and cannot cope with a cold start on their own. But if you “drive” them a bit before launching, then it’s a completely different matter.
        Secondly, 10 kW of electrical power is at least half of the required starter power. And if the APU is harnessed in parallel with the battery, then this will not only facilitate starting, but also extend the life of the battery.
        Thirdly, if we combine the cooling systems of the HSU and the APU, we will get not only pre-start recharging, but also pre-heating. Therefore, the traditional heater can be reduced, and at the same time, half the capacity (volume, weight, cost) of the battery can be reduced. Thus, the very place that was not enough to accommodate the APU is freed up.
        Fourthly, battery maintenance in the field is a breeze. And the presence of an onboard APU can significantly reduce this problem, for which special thanks from the MTO service.
        1. Fedorov Fedor
          Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 12: 28
          +2
          The idea of ​​the APU is not new. But the tank is still not a plane. The person who got inside it for the first time wonders how it is possible to do something in such close quarters. And the farther from the T-34, the tighter the internal volume became. Our senior military leadership has adhered to the concept of a low silhouette for many years, hence the corresponding design decisions, as always, compromise. And, if a solution was found that suited everyone, the Armed Forces of Ukraine would definitely have a foothold on the tank.
          1. km-21
            km-21 20 February 2022 13: 42
            -1
            Modern tanks, self-propelled guns and other armored vehicles are dependent on the power supply of the on-board network and pressure in the hydraulic system. Therefore, the APU is used on some tanks to generate electricity during stops without significant fuel consumption and unmasking thermal radiation associated with the operation of the main engine. An example is the M1 Abrams tank. Of the Soviet / Russian tanks, the T-80 tanks, a number of T-90 modifications, BMP-3 infantry fighting vehicles and all vehicles on the Armata platform are equipped with an auxiliary power unit. The APU was first used on the M4 Sherman tank during World War II.

            This is a quote from Wikipedia, which in this case does not make sense to dispute. Let's agree that the APU on the tank, with all the costs, still has the right to exist and is used in reality (although not always). Therefore, if you and I are trying to figure out how to start a tank engine, the topic of the APU must certainly be mentioned. And to dismiss it, in my opinion, would be wrong. That is why I suggested that in the continuation of your article the topic of the Armed Forces of Ukraine will definitely sound. But for some reason you decided to disappoint me ...
          2. Bad_gr
            Bad_gr 20 February 2022 21: 10
            0
            Quote: Fedorov Fedor
            The APU would definitely have a foothold on the tank.

            They put it. But not on all tanks.
            On the T-80U, the generator is turned by a gas turbine unit

            on T-90M piston ICE
            1. uwzek
              uwzek 18 March 2022 03: 37
              0
              I'll correct you a little. In our country, these devices are called not APU, but DGU. That is, the T-90M has a standard diesel generator.
              By the way, in addition to the DGU machines you mentioned, all command vehicles were equipped. They are mainly for powering HF radio stations for communication with headquarters.
              More on Terminators...
  18. bk0010
    bk0010 19 February 2022 11: 01
    +4
    And yes - you guessed it! - these membranes for replacement during the day with fire were not to be found.
    Some ass! Did 41 years teach you nothing? How can there be a shortage of spare parts for tanks after this? Especially relatively simple and essential (the membrane is not a thermal imager, is it really so problematic to stamp with a threefold margin?).
    1. Jager
      Jager 19 February 2022 16: 50
      +4
      I will say more, there has always been a shortage of "little things" in all areas in our production. Order a machine for 30 million? Easily! Buying gloves, a tool or a roll of electrical tape is an adventure...
      1. Usher
        Usher 20 February 2022 00: 30
        +1
        I work in connection. We have supplies of equipment from China, consumables, at least chew on the back seat. Familiar electricians in the subway, brought packs. They have a deficit
    2. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 35
      +1
      41 years old, I think, and I’m even sure, they taught me something. And I am writing about the time of a general total deficit for almost everything! It is, of course, difficult for those who did not live at that time to understand me.
      1. bk0010
        bk0010 20 February 2022 11: 41
        0
        Quote: Fedorov Fedor
        And I am writing about the time of a general total deficit for almost everything!
        I also remember that time. But sausage is one thing, and means of ensuring combat readiness are another. After all, they did everything for this!
        1. Fedorov Fedor
          Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 12: 32
          +2
          They did, but not everything, but only what the budget allowed.
  19. svp67
    svp67 19 February 2022 11: 21
    0
    All right. Therefore, I was looking forward to the appearance of capacitor banks in our country. As a cadet, I saw these on the run-in in our training tank battalion. So I haven’t waited yet, but it’s a pity, the topic is interesting
    1. uwzek
      uwzek 18 March 2022 03: 54
      0
      You were deceived there. 24 kilowatts of power for roughly 10 seconds. There are no capacitor banks...
      1. svp67
        svp67 18 March 2022 04: 20
        0
        Quote: uwzek
        for roughly 10 seconds.

        Even the battery, according to the Operation Manual, is forbidden to use so much
        Quote: uwzek
        There are no capacitor banks...

        Yes, yes ... they are not. They were then, but not now. Now only heavy trucks "Ural" and "Kamaz" are installing something similar
        1. uwzek
          uwzek 18 March 2022 08: 23
          0
          You please run through the entire comment thread. The mass of metal that needs to be moved when starting a tank diesel engine and a diesel engine, let's say heavy trucks, is incommensurable even with similar horsepower. Yes, and the piston stroke in tank diesel engines is longer. That is, it is necessary to turn the entire transmission before starting a little longer; here I’m not talking about ten seconds of starting time, but about a much larger torque that the starter of a diesel tank should give out to start the engine. Requirements for the promotion of a V-92 diesel engine with a starter-generator SG-19: winding voltage 48 V current 500A (source power 24000 W). After all, a capacitor connected in parallel with a starting battery is able to give only energy to the system, determined by its capacity and the difference between the voltage on its plates and the battery voltage. It can be seen that with such severe requirements for the launch energy, one of the parameters of the capacitor assistant becomes technically or economically unprofitable for use in real life ...
        2. igor_sabadah
          igor_sabadah 20 March 2022 14: 48
          0
          it’s easier to put a preheater and it’s more sense
          1. svp67
            svp67 20 March 2022 17: 37
            0
            Quote: igor_sabadah
            it’s easier to put a preheater and it’s useless

            Where else should it be placed?
  20. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 19 February 2022 11: 27
    +4
    Reading a specialist is a real joy, thanks to the author.
  21. KSVK
    KSVK 19 February 2022 11: 41
    +6
    Quote: Monar
    Dry charged battery. Well, roughly speaking - they charged, the electrolyte was drained and stored. When necessary, the electrolyte was filled in and it was ready.
    The technology is all over the place. The shelf life is much longer. And there is no need to carry caustic electrolyte to the consumer.

    The production technology of dry-charged batteries is fundamentally different from the production of "wet" ones. In dry-charged ones, the plate blocks are first charged (formed), and then, after drying, they are assembled in the case. In the production of "wet" batteries, first assembly, then charging (forming). And yes, the shelf life of dry-charged batteries is usually three or more times longer than that of “wet” ones.
    Quote: Monar
    I don’t know about buses, but in cars now the so-called. "helium" Akum. The electrolyte is thickened there.

    You are wrong. In our climatic zone, batteries with a thickened electrolyte are not used. He dies. There were precedents. And not "helium", but gel, from the word gel.
    Quote: Hagen
    Quote: Free Wind
    I can assure you. 190 ab is much lighter than 140 in a wooden box

    190 - 71-72 kg, 140 - 62 kg. This is due to the fact that the battery capacity for electrolyte and other intestines is greater for 190. In 190 - 12 liters of electrolyte, in 140 - 8. Accordingly, the plates are heavier. Miracles don't happen. Large capacity is achieved by large plate sizes...

    Larger capacity batteries are now lighter than before. It's all about the design of the plates. Previously, the plates were alloyed with antimony and the plate itself was made by casting. Now calcium is used for alloying and the plate is stamped from a sheet. The plate is thinner, stronger and with less internal resistance. Therefore, a "calcium" battery with an equal capacity usually has a higher current and less mass than an "antimony" one. The only significant drawback of "calcium" batteries is the irreversibility of sulfation.
  22. KSVK
    KSVK 19 February 2022 11: 52
    +8
    Quote: Free Wind
    and now ABs are produced maintenance-free, they are sealed.

    There are no sealed batteries. If you make a sealed battery, then under certain conditions it will simply explode. Now for lead-acid batteries, the VRLA system (valve regulation) is used.
    To prepare the electrolyte of the required density (1,25 g/cmXNUMX), a large number of instruments and fixtures were required, as well as tables for calculation.

    In our middle band, the density of the electrolyte is 1,27. In Europe 1,25, in the regions of the north 1,31.
    Here is the freezing temperature of the electrolyte of different densities:
    Electrolyte density, g/cm3 Freezing point, С
    1,28 ________________________________- 65
    1,2 ________________________________- 28
    1,1 ________________________________- 7
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 40
      +3
      Thank you dear KSVK for competent support! You have spared me additional clarifications.
    2. igor_sabadah
      igor_sabadah 2 March 2022 19: 01
      0
      The whole trouble is that the battery is not always fully charged and if it is well planted, then the density will easily drop so that the electrolyte will freeze
  23. Sergey Aleksandrovich
    Sergey Aleksandrovich 19 February 2022 11: 56
    0
    In our times, when a car is in almost every family, it is somehow hard to believe that the problem with driver-mechanics and battery workers is just as acute.
    1. Aag
      Aag 19 February 2022 14: 51
      +3
      Quote: Sergey Alexandrovich
      In our times, when a car is in almost every family, it is somehow hard to believe that the problem with driver-mechanics and battery workers is just as acute.

      I dare to assure you - not an argument at all. Not every car owner knows how many batteries are in his car, and where they are located))) - well, this is an extreme case.
      And if in general terms - an increase in the number of PCs, smartphones, etc. per capita - does not in the least increase the number of those who know how to apply Ohm's law.)))
      1. mmaxx
        mmaxx 19 February 2022 17: 14
        +2
        The more batteries in the household, the more the desire to know at least something about them disappears. I just want everything to work.
      2. Fedorov Fedor
        Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 42
        +1
        Rather, it reduces. After all, now there is a car service on every corner.
        1. Aag
          Aag 20 February 2022 09: 56
          +1
          Quote: Fedorov Fedor
          Rather, it reduces. After all, now there is a car service on every corner.

          Moreover, with an increase in the number of a / services, the level of knowledge of "servicemen" does not grow noticeably.)))
          ... Now the "process" of starting the internal combustion engine of a l / car has become boring - I pressed the button on the key fob (attached an electronic key ...) But there were also "crooked starters"!))) ... It will be boring - ask young people for what "hole" in the bumper ...)))
          hi
          1. ycuce234-san
            ycuce234-san 20 February 2022 17: 00
            +1
            Quote: AAG
            It will be boring - ask the youth what the "hole" in the bumper is for ...)))


            Now a car thermal imager is placed in the "hole" in front. In the near future, it will be thrown out and an autolidar, which is still experimental, will be installed.
            1. Aag
              Aag 20 February 2022 17: 07
              0
              Quote: ycuce234-san
              Quote: AAG
              It will be boring - ask the youth what the "hole" in the bumper is for ...)))


              Now a car thermal imager is placed in the "hole" in front. In the near future, it will be thrown out and an autolidar, which is still experimental, will be installed.

              Yeah ... Now there are holes for cameras, parking sensors ... Garlands of sensors under the hood and along the "body" ... And these sensors are sometimes more expensive than batteries ... Unless it's a "battery" from the Prius, or some another hybrid. hi
              1. ycuce234-san
                ycuce234-san 20 February 2022 17: 26
                0
                Quote: AAG
                And these sensors are sometimes more expensive than batteries ...

                They are, in general, cheap, since even new budget cars from 1-1,5 million and a little better or hybrids - from 5 million. Therefore, typical 100 (at a discount) -500 thousand for such a car safety device is normal - this not named car radio.
                It's bad that they are not yet strictly obligatory for the pros and their vehicles: a bus driver carries dozens of people on a night road, a trucker carries goods worth at least several million or dangerous goods, like the same acids. Almost everyone still looks at the night or rainy road with their eyes, without thermal imaging, which is depressing.
    2. Jager
      Jager 19 February 2022 16: 48
      +4
      Just the opposite. Previously, there were only serviced batteries and a few motorists knew all the maintenance technology. And now I bought a "battery", put it on the car and after 4-6 years I just bought a new one.
  24. KSVK
    KSVK 19 February 2022 12: 00
    +4
    Yes, and one more thing.
    In Russia, there is NO organization for the development and certification of batteries. Previously, it was called NIISTA (Scientific Research Institute of Starter Batteries). It was located in the city of Podolsk, opposite the Podolsk battery plant. Now the institution has sunk into oblivion. Together with the plant. So it is IMPOSSIBLE to prove that you were sold a low-quality battery in Russia. So it goes. Are you talking about batteries? sad
    1. Jager
      Jager 19 February 2022 16: 45
      0
      Podolsky plant bent ?? But what about their batteries for sale?
  25. iouris
    iouris 19 February 2022 12: 29
    +2
    Violation of battery maintenance technology is the norm. And they say that there is order in the tank troops.
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 43
      +3
      They don't talk, they sing.
  26. Free wind
    Free wind 19 February 2022 16: 09
    +1
    A cool fact is that the Americans do not produce high-capacity and mass batteries for their equipment. On Fred-Liners and other cars you can see 4 small batteries. Why? And so that the Negro would not tear his back while carrying batteries.
    1. Fedorov Fedor
      Fedorov Fedor 20 February 2022 09: 44
      +1
      Are they the same on the Abrams?
  27. KSVK
    KSVK 19 February 2022 18: 24
    +2
    Quote: Jager
    Podolsky plant bent ?? But what about their batteries for sale?

    PAZ was "torn apart" somewhere in 2005. Then the NIIST ceased to exist. At the time of liquidation, the plant belonged to the Russian Accumulators Management Company, which also included Kursk AZ and Saratov AZ. What was produced under the brand name "Podilsky accumulator" was physically made mainly in Saratov. Although it seems that they were collecting something in Kursk on the Istok. But this has nothing to do with PAZ. Now part of the territory of the plant belongs to NLMK, and part to someone else. By the way, along with the PAZ, they torn apart the nearby cable plant, which produced unique cables. Like this. sad
  28. Dilettante grandfather
    Dilettante grandfather 19 February 2022 19: 12
    +2
    Hmm. Full order in the tank troops, it turns out! During my service, the batteries on the machines were changed strictly once a month. And God forbid, at least one will let you down! True, I served in the Strategic Missile Forces of the USSR ...
  29. RoTTor
    RoTTor 19 February 2022 19: 13
    +2
    True professionalism and technical literacy do not disappear or evaporate.
    Thank you!
  30. garri-lin
    garri-lin 19 February 2022 23: 21
    0
    I've always been interested. Why carry batteries halfway every time? Is it really impossible to install the necessary equipment in the place where the equipment is stored? Is it really impossible to provide a special connector on the equipment for connecting the charging cable?
    1. Ua3qhp
      Ua3qhp 20 February 2022 08: 11
      +2
      Is it really impossible to provide a special connector on the equipment for connecting the charging cable?

      When the battery is charged, hydrogen is released. Therefore, if you charge the battery without removing it from the equipment in the absence of adequate ventilation, a big boom is very possible. Therefore, charging only separately.
      1. garri-lin
        garri-lin 20 February 2022 21: 52
        0
        A simple example. Batteries on tanks are sometimes planted almost to zero during operation. And they are charged after that from the generator on the engine. And how he heard about the boom.
    2. uwzek
      uwzek 18 March 2022 04: 13
      0
      First, he is. In the photo in the article with two fighters and a battery on the roof of the UDS T-90, two GTS flashlights are visible under the feet of the left fighter. Here on the body of the front of them is just this connector and is located. Secondly, the battery is removed for maintenance. In the tank, they are stacked four (or two) above each other. And it is physically impossible to check their condition without removing them from the car - they are so from the floor and under the ceiling of the compartment. On some newer machines, the batteries are located on the fenders, but even there, to access the batteries, it is necessary to dismantle some of the hinged protection screens and still need to be removed one by one to check the condition.
  31. Drugov
    Drugov 20 February 2022 00: 57
    +2
    And how many millions of uniforms were destroyed by electrolyte due to the fact that these coffins were mostly carried by hand.
  32. Boris Borisovich Skrynnik
    Boris Borisovich Skrynnik 20 February 2022 06: 12
    +1
    Wow!!! About how many “wonderful” discoveries are preparing a new indurnet for us !!! Shine !!! Chic!!! The mind is boiling!!! Burlit!!! What are you about ! Dry charged - leaked - flooded! Gel is twice as heavy! The article is 100% of such "docents" - class! There are mistakes - but no need for a chicken coop, gentlemen! Back in 1984, at the BAT in SSPTU-2 in Providence, I encountered a pneumatic start! still that gimor. About leaked-filled. Just nonsense. Dry charged DAY! soaked! Then comes the CTC, also more DAYS! I live on a wonderful planet where it is winter for 8 months, the rest of the summer, Kolyma. Since 1979, he has been engaged in distributing sulfuric acid with distillate - 1,28 for 40C, only 1,30 for minus 60C. It’s just that we are fools and in the winter on IZHs we were thrown at any shoulders. I have been using gels for eight years now. One respect for such batteries !!! I plowed on a motorcycle for 5 years (4 strokes 250 cubic meters electric starter), it ended like this - voltage 12,35 and starter I can’t do it anyway! Now for the second year on my Japanese-trakhturil I also use gel 75ku. Bez promblem genatsvale! Bez!!! The weight is not much more - but the price Yes ! in our 20th volume 75ka the usual one cost 8 rubles, and my battery 13. Read books for 1960-80, not Wikipedia ...
    1. Kushka
      Kushka 20 February 2022 21: 52
      0
      These books say:
      If you will not recharge the battery during winter storage, DRAIN the electrolyte,
      Pour a weak solution of boric acid into the battery and STORE!
      To put the battery into operation, drain this solution, fill in fresh
      electrolyte and GO!
      Drained - during repairs (replacing a can, a crack in the case, etc.)
      You just need to remember - when charging, metallic lead passes
      into the electrolyte in the form of lead sulfate (density increases).
      When discharging, on the contrary, this "liquid" lead precipitates in crystals
      onto the plates back (the density decreases accordingly).
      Therefore - if it is necessary to drain the electrolyte - NEVER drain
      with a CHARGED battery - "pour out" the plates.
  33. Normal ok
    Normal ok 20 February 2022 12: 05
    +1
    When I was a SOB-ohm, I started the beshka with compressed air (a tap to the left of the driver's seat). The batteries were not reliable.
  34. tank64rus
    tank64rus 20 February 2022 12: 55
    0
    What was was. I remember they made carts with batteries that rolled up if the engine did not start. called the "buffer group." Who got out how. Terrible dream of a deputy commander and a commander.
  35. Grossvater
    Grossvater 23 February 2022 13: 02
    0
    And what is the fundamental difference between a tank battery and a car battery? Apart from the size of course. In a modern Bibika, you put a new battery and you don’t remember about it for five years. The factory battery generally lasts seven, eight years.
    Scale effect?
    laughing Speaking of scale.
    They say 12 volts don't kill! Here, on the ensign from the rack, a tank battery blurted out. To death!
    1. uwzek
      uwzek 18 March 2022 04: 32
      0
      The fundamental difference is in the mass of metal that needs to be moved at the time of launch. For a tank, these are guitar gears, a piston group, a drive shaft, two drive gears of onboard gearboxes. The mass is more than a ton, there are several buckets of one oil that has not yet been heated. And all this must be turned with a relatively small starter-generator ...
  36. max702
    max702 23 February 2022 14: 56
    0
    According to the mind, the APU is needed for all tracked vehicles and for all heavy wheeled vehicles, the cost in comparison with a piece of equipment is a penny, and one increased resource of the main power unit will pay for the installation of the APU ...
    1. uwzek
      uwzek 18 March 2022 05: 08
      0
      The main purpose of the APU (auxiliary power unit) or DGU (diesel generator set) is to reduce noise when the equipment of the machine is not in motion. If the built-in equipment has enough power and capacity of standard batteries, then no APU is required. Fuel economy is a secondary task.
      So different radars, powerful radio stations, etc. external power supplies were always included. Commander tanks with long-range radios, which worked in parking lots on mast antennas, also had additional energy sources for a long time. On the T-72 and T-90, DGUs were located in the control compartment on the right behind the mechanic, exhaust through an additional hatch in the bottom, the price of the issue is to reduce the ammunition load by a few shots.
      DGUs were not installed on line tanks. Looks like the work of a tank as a stationary firing point did not look like a priority for us ...
      1. max702
        max702 18 March 2022 11: 10
        0
        DGUs went to the T-80u (GTA-18A) on a regular basis, the rest was in the form of an experiment., and it's not about fuel economy, but about the resource of the main engine, it is it that is the most expensive, well, thermal and acoustic visibility .. We traditionally saved on matches because not your own. but the state .. Check out this article in simple language, it is explained why the Armed Forces of Ukraine are needed http://alternathistory.com/vspomogatelnyj-generator-dlya-chego-vtoroe-serdtse-tanku/
  37. Maxim Shalak
    Maxim Shalak 23 February 2022 18: 15
    -1
    He also served in the Amur Region as a tank driver. I dragged the batteries through the tower hatches ...
  38. Aleksandr Ivanov
    Aleksandr Ivanov 24 February 2022 00: 35
    0
    The service life of the battery is 600 hours or 2 years for automotive equipment. But we have the Ministry of Defense, which, by its order, can make the battery eternal. Not sure about battery life at the moment. In 1992 they increased the service life to 6 years, "Karl, to six years". Therefore, it makes no sense to talk about how to maintain the battery, they said to serve the batteries, so let them serve.
    Batteries in parts are a headache for techies. There are no deliveries. They write applications. In response, puff.
    What is 600 hours - less than 2 hours a day.
    Dry charged? So many "woodpeckers" looked in there to see if there is an electrolyte or not. They opened at least one jar, the battery is considered put into operation, it stands quietly on the rack and crumbles with plates, because the electrolyte was not poured in, but the chemical reaction was launched. How many such ruined batteries are in NZ.
    Yes, a sore spot has been affected, due to the uneducated contingent of the Ministry of Defense, the country's defense is in danger because of a piece of shaped lead in a plastic box filled with acid. Mdya ...
  39. Grossvater
    Grossvater 24 February 2022 10: 01
    0
    Let me repeat my question. I'm really interested. How is a tank 12V, 140 Ah fundamentally different from my car 110 Ah, 12V?
    1. Aleksandr Ivanov
      Aleksandr Ivanov 24 February 2022 22: 51
      -1
      Only that the battery ST-128 (M) and ST-140 (M) consists of 6 batteries in one box, wooden or plastic. So that in the event of a failure of a separate battery, it can be replaced or shunted without taking the battery out of service. And so it's a simple lead-acid battery. Which does not like lowering the voltage in a separate battery below 1,78 V, since after that strong sulfation of the plates occurs. Additives that increase battery life are not yet used. Therefore, only electrolyte 1,23 / 1,31, depending on the climatic zone, and distilled water produced in a glass or aluminum distiller, have a very negative attitude towards iron ions.
      1. Grossvater
        Grossvater 28 February 2022 19: 13
        0
        Thank you!
        Then why does my battery last from 5 to 8 years, while I don’t remember about it at all?
        1. Aleksandr Ivanov
          Aleksandr Ivanov 1 March 2022 23: 52
          0
          Technology . 128s, 140s are made according to the technology of shaggy years. Fast, cheap, and so it will do. Does the capacity match? Yes . good . The battery is charged, the electrolyte is drained, the plugs are twisted. Five years of storage. A flooded battery for no more than six months is self-discharge.
          And in our time, the manufacturer works on the turnover and the purchase of his goods. Therefore, it monitors the quality of plate formation, adds additives that increase battery life. Therefore, it is not uncommon for a battery to have a three-year warranty period, and with proper maintenance, performance lasts up to 10 years or 6-12 thousand hours.
          Here in the Ministry of Defense they think the same way. Since it has been working in my car for 5 years, why not increase the battery life of the tank? Forgetting that they are made using different technologies. And for different conditions.