Military Review

Urgently write out a "Polish" prescription

Urgently write out a "Polish" prescription

Ask Walesa

The notorious Lech Walesa recently urged not to "stand on ceremony" with Russia if it, they say, invades Ukraine. Poland itself "should do everything, including the recruitment of volunteers, in the event of a Russian attack on Ukraine." He admitted that he used to support Vladimir Putin, but now he advocates a blow to Russia during its aggression against Ukraine.

However, in December 1981 and later, Pan Walesa - the leader of the equally notorious Solidarity, the trade union boss, who had grown to the position of president of the country - was much more accurate in his statements. Probably because he was seriously afraid of harsher repressions under the martial law introduced at that time in Poland.


But, one might say, the half-hearted reaction of the pro-Soviet socialist countries to those events also played into the hands of Walesa. Therefore, he was only interned, and on November 14, 1982 he was released ...

And the introduction of martial law in Poland in December 1981 caused a literally half-neutral reaction in the Warsaw Pact countries. They preferred to refrain from any joint actions to stop it. Reasonably fearing the spread to their countries of what preceded the introduction of martial law in Poland.

Better Stasik Kanya than Vanya on the tank

Therefore, the meeting of the pro-Soviet socialist countries on the development of the situation in Poland, proposed by the Central Committee of the CPSU on February 12, 1982, did not receive a clear consent from them. In the figurative expression of Janos Kadar, "our support for martial law in Poland need not be aggravated by the intervention of the Warsaw Pact."

Long before a serious aggravation in socialist Poland, on December 5, 1980, a meeting of leading figures of the countries participating in the Warsaw Pact was held in Moscow. The Polish question was discussed. The leaders of the socialist countries, in fact, even then spoke in favor of his "prompt decision", but ...

The main communists of Czechoslovakia and Hungary, Gustav Husak and Janos Kadar, limited themselves to noting the positive experience of military cooperation with the USSR in resolving similar crises in their countries. Almost the same after a pause repeated the Bulgarian Todor Zhivkov. A similar, rather streamlined opinion was expressed by the leader of the GDR, Erich Honecker.

And none of them expressed unequivocal support for the possible entry of VD troops into Poland - “operational” does not mean “cardinal”. Conductor Nicolae Ceausescu - almost the dictator of Romania - immediately spoke in favor of "strengthening the sovereignty of friendly Poland" and unequivocally against "friendly, but still foreign interference" in Polish events.

In his opinion, this will demonstrate "the incompetence of the leadership of the PPR, will show its dependence on external military support." A position similar to the Romanian one was expressed by the then head of the PZPR, Stanislav Kanya, although he noted the "relevance of the assistance of the Warsaw Pact in case of development of resistance" to the Polish leadership.

According to the now forgotten leader of the Polish communists, the intervention of the Warsaw Pact would have been possible before martial law in Poland, but “after this decision of Jaruzelski, the impression will be that the omnipotence of the Polish army is strengthened by the occupation of the country.”

At the same time, Kanya, in unison with the position of the Romanian conductor, quoted a Russian proverb that was then popular in Poland: “Better Stasik Kanya than tank Vania".

Need advice

Ceausescu and Kanya offered to consult with the former head of the PZPR (in 1956-1970) Vladislav Gomulka on the solution of the internal situation in Poland, but the Soviet side rejected this idea. Apparently, fearing the return of Khrushchev's protégé from disgrace.

Although it was Gomulka in 1956, when Hungary was also “burning”, who was able to resolve a similar Polish crisis. Then Gomulka managed to achieve the unthinkable - the withdrawal of additional Soviet troops from Poland in a matter of days after their entry into Poland.

In the meantime, by decision of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU of November 27, 1980, the USSR almost doubled in 1981-1982. total deliveries of oil and oil products to Poland, moreover, up to a third - actually free of charge, and the rest - by barter. This was done by reducing the same deliveries to the GDR, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria by 15-20%. At the same time, Romania also increased oil supplies to Poland by a third.

In October 1981, the soft Stanisław Kanya was replaced by the hard General Wojciech Jaruzelski. And the USSR and the pro-Soviet socialist countries in 1980 and later did not officially speak about the possibility of joint military support for Polish socialism. Most likely, the Soviet military participation since the end of 1979 in Afghanistan also had an effect, to which it was literally not easy to “add” Poland.

It is also characteristic that, according to researcher E. V. Kamenskaya (“The introduction of martial law in Poland: through the pages of the press”, 2015), the position of the socialist states was rarely shown in the Soviet press. Only Czechoslovakia stood out, which throughout the entire period of the conflict followed Soviet policy and actively supported the introduction of martial law in Poland.

Soviet newspapers “regularly quoted Rude Pravo” and Gustav Husak. "Izvestia" in December 1981 - the first decade of January 1982 posted seven responses from Czechoslovakia to the Polish events. Vietnam, Bulgaria and the GDR were noted in the Soviet media with only three responses.

Romanians were not asked

On the other hand, the Romanian Ceausescu seriously intended to provide "separate" assistance to the Polish authorities... strengthening the socialist foundations in the economy, the social environment, in the spheres of culture and the media.

At the same time, it was supposed to isolate anti-socialist elements and severe restrictions on the entry of tourists from capitalist countries. Ceausescu also offered to send Romanian advisers to the PPR to assist in solving such problems. In Warsaw, they did not respond to these proposals - most likely, on advice from Moscow.

Nevertheless, at negotiations with K. Chernenko in Moscow already in 1984, Ceausescu proposed to the Warsaw Pact countries to work out comprehensive long-term measures to strengthen socialism in Poland, but without the introduction of troops of the Interior Ministry there. The Soviet side did not respond to this initiative.

In the same year, at a meeting with the leaders of the pro-Soviet and "Stalin-pro-Albanian" communist parties in Germany (see. German communists against Gorbachev) in Bucharest, the conductor said that Moscow was "going on about" the development of the domestic situation in Poland and was not inclined to deal closely with the Polish issue. Which is fraught with its "export" to other socialist countries.

Korea is concerned, but China is silent

The leadership of the DPRK expressed its concern about the situation in Poland during the visit of Kim Il Sung to Warsaw in the same 1984. It was stated that in Poland they were late in isolating the anti-communist opposition and committed “pro-Western” internal political mistakes by the beginning of the 80s. Therefore, it is urgently required to strengthen the viability of the socialist government. Including in the field of culture and propaganda.

But it seemed to be too late...

Chinese policy towards the "pro-Soviet revisionist countries" (as they were called since 1960 in Beijing) has changed dramatically since 1982: Beijing almost stopped criticizing "pro-Soviet revisionism", initiating the rapid development of interstate relations with these countries, from the mid-80s - and from USSR (and with Yugoslavia - since 1977!).

At the same time, Beijing abandoned its attempts to “replace” the USSR in the same region. Therefore, almost all events and trends in those countries were commented in the PRC only for information. Beijing did not comment on the situation in the PPR in any way, even during W. Jaruzelski's visit to Beijing in 1986.

On the other hand, the head of the PPR himself criticized the already established Chinese-American alliance at the same time. Jaruzelski is known to have asked Deng Xiaoping:

“How can you understand this: the Americans have, in fact, taken Taiwan away from you, part of your own territory, and you do not consider this an obstacle to political relations with them, are you developing economic and even military relations with the United States? But the situation in Kampuchea, which is a thousand kilometers away from China and to which the Soviet Union has no direct relation, is portrayed by you as an obstacle to political relations with the USSR and the CPSU?

Cuba is with us, but Albania is irreconcilable

But the leadership of Cuba expressed official support for martial law in Poland. This position was due to the "paramilitary" situation in Cuba itself under the long-term, since 1960, US blockade.

In 1981, the Vietnamese leadership limited itself to a few publications in its central media about understanding the reasons for the introduction of martial law in Poland. The media of socialist Laos only reported on the introduction of martial law.

Unbridled criticism of Jaruzelski's policy and the role of the USSR in the internal Polish situation was spread by the leadership of Albania. Tirana officially announced that the introduction of martial law in Poland was a deliberate step by Warsaw and Moscow to stimulate the pro-Western opposition for the subsequent liquidation of the PPR and PUWP. The policy of "growing Polish borrowings from the West with deliberate connivance on the part of Soviet revisionists and Beijing double-dealers" was also criticized.

Similar assessments were made by Kazimierz Miyal (see, head of the illegal Stalinist-Maoist Communist Party of Poland (existed in 1965-1996 , restored in 2002). He advocated the creation of armed communist brigades from workers - members of the PZPR, in order to suppress or at least block the centers of Solidarity and its adherents together with the Polish troops and special services.

Subsequently, K. Miyal complained that since 1956 - since the death of the head of the PUWP B. Bierut - this "more and more Khrushchevite party abandoned ideological work among the working class", so his proposal for such brigades did not find a response in the country.

The pro-Soviet socialist countries were in no way able and, most likely, did not want to influence the development of the situation in the PPR after the introduction of martial law there. They were simply afraid of the “export” of the Polish events of 1980-1981, which, in fact, happened just seven years later ...

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  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 21 February 2022 18: 19
    Urgently write out a "Polish" prescription
    the Germans psheks quickly admonished ... apparently the memory is short. where ours was "impossible", the Germans simply shot at any curtains that swung.
    1. Baron pardus
      Baron pardus 21 February 2022 20: 15
      As far as I read, when any contra in Czechoslovakia raised its head, the Teutons did not stand on ceremony with them at all. And those dirty tricks, even the smallest (and not so) that our troops forgave, the Germans generally did not allow themselves in relation to themselves. And the Czechs very, very quickly remembered that they were nobody, there was no way to call them, and if you need them to bark, then the German sergeant major will tell them when. Unfortunately, the Soviet troops, wherever they went, because of the idiotic doctrine of "internationalism", behaved too restrained, which, of course, was taken as weakness and gave rise to contempt and arrogance. By the way, how did internationalism manifest itself in the post-Soviet space? In Chechnya, in other "small but proud republics", on Banderlog, especially in Odessa? In Moldavia? How is it with internationalism?
    2. Fitter65
      Fitter65 22 February 2022 08: 52
      Quote: Aerodrome
      the Germans psheks quickly admonished ... apparently the memory is short. where ours was "impossible", the Germans simply shot at any curtains that swung.

      And what year was it? Or did you confuse "psheks" - "pans" with the Czechs, so it's consonant, but completely different nations, although they treat us the same way.
    3. ABC-schutze
      ABC-schutze 23 February 2022 12: 13
      "... the leader of the equally notorious Solidarity, the trade union boss, who has grown to be the president of the country..."
      In short, Bolek is the highest paid electrician in the world...
  2. Amateur
    Amateur 21 February 2022 18: 40
    Referring to advice from the Ceausescu, who ended his life at the wall with his wife, is at least fresh, unusual.
    And most of all, complete nonsense.
    1. ABC-schutze
      ABC-schutze 23 February 2022 13: 20
      Well, that's how to say...

      If we do not take into account the circumstance that initially, to the aforementioned "wall", Ceausescu, in general, was brought by the betrayal by the traitor Gorbachev of HIS OWN country - the Soviet Union ...

      Indeed, in 1989, it was already absolutely clear that the USSR "under Gorbachev" and Shevardnadze, nor socialism as such (including in all its so-called Eastern European "opportunistic" forms) nor the USSR, in in particular, the aforementioned traitors do not intend to protect or preserve ...

      And having felt "uncertainty" at the top, the security constitutions also began to try not to show "unnecessary" initiative, lost confidence in the political support of their actions from above and began to prefer "not to take responsibility" ...

      Accordingly, sensing potential impunity, both the former "persecuted oppositionists" and the philistine crowd became impudent ...

      In short, if at that time in the USSR, the same Brezhnev, Ceausescu in Romania, with all the "originality" of Soviet-Romanian relations, no one would have laid a finger.

      In the "worst" case, they would have been sent to a "deserved rest", and only ...
  3. antivirus
    antivirus 21 February 2022 18: 53
    I would like sources - do you have links?
    as always anonymous opinions about 50 years of history. there is not even a title "articles in the newspaper"
    REVIEW OF THE LATE MEANS? who is he?
    cross-references to the XXXX site and other articles without sources -- the style of "talkers"
    "English woman shits"
    1. podymych
      22 February 2022 06: 26
      Dear sir, it is possible that we are wrong in many conclusions, but Lyosha Chichkin has so many sources - it won’t seem enough, but Podymov, that is, I, as an editor, “meanly” delete everything so as not to overload the reader. This, excuse me, be generous, is not scientific work, but journalistic
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 22 February 2022 08: 31
        Basically, the conclusions are satisfactory.
        And the Svanidze was broadcasting without sources for 30 years, and milky.
  4. knn54
    knn54 21 February 2022 18: 53
    Plus authors for analytics.
    Aerodromny, troops were not brought into Poland. The events you describe took place in Czechoslovakia.
    In 1968, the grandson of a neighbor told a lot about the events in Prague. And the Germans really did not stand on ceremony.
    Ceausescu, along with his wife, received "gratitude" from the West in the form of execution. And the policy of Tito and his followers generally led to the collapse of Yugoslavia.
    Unfortunately, the USSR, because of Afghanistan, could not pay due attention to Poland.
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 22 February 2022 08: 55
      Quote: knn54
      Aerodrome, troops were not introduced into the NDP

      They stood there, I mean ours. Moreover, since 1949. I served there for 5 years, I know ...
    2. Avior
      Avior 22 February 2022 09: 20
      In 1968, the grandson of a neighbor told a lot about the events in Prague. And the Germans really did not stand on ceremony.

      The troops of the GDR were not introduced into Czechoslovakia, their entry was stopped at the last moment.
      1. Sergej1972
        Sergej1972 22 February 2022 12: 36
        It seems that there were several dozen officers of the GDR in joint commandant's offices.
      2. ABC-schutze
        ABC-schutze 23 February 2022 13: 35
        They were introduced ... But they were "very quickly" withdrawn. It is precisely because of the German-style "decisive" behavior of the NPA personnel, which instilled fear and "bad memories" in the Czechs.

        I will not enter into discussions, but, being small, at the aforementioned table, the aforementioned "Germans" had the opportunity to see and hear with my own eyes ...
        1. Avior
          Avior 23 February 2022 13: 48
          They were introduced ... But they were "very quickly" withdrawn.

          No, they were not introduced, they were stopped at the border.
          There was a single group of several dozen people, perhaps you could see one of them. But they weren’t in any commandant’s offices, they didn’t crush anyone with any tanks and couldn’t crush anyone, these are common tales.
          GDR - motorized rifle and tank divisions, up to 15 people in total (according to publications in the press [000], it was decided to refuse to send GDR units to Czechoslovakia at the last moment, they played the role of a reserve on the border, and in Czechoslovakia there was an operational group of the NNA of the GDR from several dozen military personnel);

          4. The participation of the GDR troops in the operation was canceled at the last moment
          Less than a day before the invasion, Brezhnev ordered to cancel the direct participation in it of about 15 military personnel from the GDR (including motorized rifle and tank divisions). According to the book by the Slovak historian Mark Stolarik, Prague Spring and the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968: 40 years later, high-ranking Czechoslovak opponents of Dubček warned against participating in the German military operation, the leadership of the USSR, who secretly supported the Soviet invasion. They conveyed to Moscow fears that the presence of German tanks and soldiers on the streets of Czech cities would infuriate the population, remembering the Munich Pact - the division of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in 1938.

          As a result, on the day of the invasion of Czechoslovakia, the GDR troops remained on the border as a reserve, and in Czechoslovakia there was only a small task force of several dozen servicemen of the National People's Army of the GDR.

          1. ABC-schutze
            ABC-schutze 23 February 2022 14: 13
            "There was a single group of several dozen people, perhaps you could see some of them. But they were not in any commandant's offices, ..."
            ************************************************** *******
            I didn't write anything about commandant's offices and tanks. AND HIMSELF, PERSONALLY, DID NOT SEE ANYTHING. It was still small...

            But PEOPLE who interacted with the NNA contingent (I don’t talk about its size) saw and heard. Both "ours" and "Germans" ...

            Alas, at such moments, in real life (and for various reasons), events and "things" often occur, which, due to the "current order" or "decisions made", simply "in principle, cannot be" ...

            Alas, they do happen...

            Whether they are documented or not, and if so, how, by whom and for how long these documents are stored, I don’t know ...

            According to the same "First Chechen" or Tajikistan, in terms of those sent there on a business trip (with paternal parting words from the higher leadership in the capitals), with the actual performance of combat missions, ACTIVE FSB officers (or the former KGB of the USSR), who did not live in Russia ", a lot of things "documented? ..

            No, sir ... Moreover, in the countries of their residence they didn’t even know about it in spirit ... For there could be such a "couldn't be, sir" ...

            I do not mean "agents" and not "illegal residents" ...

            And people, a year later, after returning home, again went to Russia to receive "small" awards ...
            1. Avior
              Avior 23 February 2022 14: 18
              there is nothing hidden that will not be revealed in the end.
              During the introduction of hundreds of thousands of troops into the country for 15 million people, a few Germans would simply be lost against the backdrop of scale.
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 21 February 2022 20: 41
    “Mr. Williams from Tracy & Williams is waiting for you, sir. He came to pay for X, Y, Z. He got caught with them, sir, if you remember.” “Yes, I remember. And what is their rate today?
    “One eighty-five, sir.”
    “Well, pay it off at that price.”
    “Sorry, sir,” Peabody said nervously, “I was talking to Williams. He's an old friend of yours, Mr. Dodson, and you bought up all the X's, Y's, Z's. I think you could, I mean... Maybe you don't remember that he sold them to you at ninety-eight. If he settled at the current price, he would have to forfeit all his capital and sell his house. Dodson's face instantly changed: now it expressed cold cruelty and implacable greed. The soul of this man peeped for a moment, as the face of a villain sometimes looks out of the window of a respectable bourgeois house.
    - Let him pay one eighty-five,
    "Bolivar can't take two," Dodson said. "(from).
    The following happened with the NDP, they took loans from Western Europe, and when it was time to pay off, it happened almost the same as in the story of O. Henry .. And then Solidarity, etc.
  6. Mikhail Sidorov
    Mikhail Sidorov 21 February 2022 20: 59
    Good article, I liked it. All clear without water.
    Ceausescu also offered to send Romanian advisers to the PPR to assist in solving such problems.

    Yes, Ceausescu believed that he was the smartest ... as they would call it now - multi-vector ...
    1. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 22 February 2022 12: 41
      But, objectively speaking, from the point of view of a supporter of socialism, he offered quite reasonable things. We somehow got used to presenting him as a limited person, obsessed with national sovereignty. After all, there were riots in Romania in the 70s, and in the early 80s. And Ceausescu really communicated with the protesters, there were no particularly harsh repressions. Some leaders of the protesting workers, on the contrary, were sent to trade union and social work. Ceausescu always urged not to create an extra mass of "sufferers from the regime." But in the late 80s. everything went wrong, according to a different scenario.
      And he did not speak against the mutual assistance of the countries of socialism, but was a supporter of more flexible methods.
  7. iouris
    iouris 21 February 2022 21: 22
    What "export"? In Russia, the state has always collapsed on its own. Too big country (was). The reason is the degradation of the "elites" and betrayal of the oath. And once treason was considered the most terrible sin and crime. Now other times. Therefore, be vigilant!
  8. Fitter65
    Fitter65 22 February 2022 02: 39
    Only Czechoslovakia stood out, which during the entire period of the conflict followed Soviet policy and actively supported the introduction of martial law in Poland.
    The Czechs remember the Polish Army on their territory in 1968, they really wanted to pay a return visit. I personally probably slept for a month with a "machine gun under my pillow", in December 1983 almost everything returned to normal, we calmly went outside the garrison aisles, although sometimes troubles happened. The breeder led the shift to the post-parking lot of the squadron, and from behind the bushes the pan jumped out at them with a club, filled up the breeder, and the trigger of the pan with a machine gun on the back, then we already had AKS-1983s, so we went to the post without unfastening the stock, tied it up, delivered, there it was 74 meters to the guardhouse. To the boys for the next military and home leave, then it really was like a reward ... At 300, I remember a drunk tractor driver drove to the taxiing. Oddly enough, but inside the Soviet garrison, it’s not true everywhere, but the Poles cultivated the fields, well, during the harrowing, one “sober” tractor driver on Ursus went to “harrow” the taxiway ... And if suddenly there was no need to introduce the Soviet Troops into Poland, our garrisons have officially been there since 84 as part of the SGV ...
  9. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 22 February 2022 12: 43
    By the way, it is interesting that Gustav Husak did not consider the introduction of troops into Czechoslovakia in 1968 the best option for resolving the crisis. Although in the end he approved this decision, but openly said that it was not the most optimal, there were also negative consequences of this action.
  10. Artashes
    Artashes 23 February 2022 01: 55
    What happened in Poland during that period is evidence of the general crisis of all pro-Soviet socialist countries and the USSR. "Little" Albanians and K. Miyal were completely right. And Ceausescu was removed both for his activity and for the increasingly political. weight among the socialist forces in the socialist countries. ,
  11. Chief Officer Lom
    Chief Officer Lom 23 February 2022 18: 36
    Ceausescu fell for the same bait of Western loans as the Poles. Only, if they don’t lie, then the USSR then paid all the debts for Poland (well, we don’t feel sorry for them, they will tolerate their own), and Ceausescu paid everything himself, introducing austerity. Just after the full payment of loans, which were supposed to "softly" give Romania under the control of the United States, he was overthrown with an immediate execution, so as not to say too much. Now in Romania it seems like they recognized his murder as illegal and even seemed to be going to try his killers, but something is not heard of the continuation of this story.