Military Review

Fighting sea giants. From "Emperor" to Queen

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Cycle continuation. Start in articles “Fight of sea giants. First in its class" и “Fight of sea giants. Successes and failures ».


With regard to technology and organization, the first trip of the Imperator turned out to be successful and fast, the power and operation of the engines were impressive, the passengers were quite satisfied. However, despite this, there was a problem with stability. When rocked in the rough waters of the North Atlantic in heavy swell, it tended to "hang", holding the angle of lean for too long before leveling out. This caused a feeling of unease among passengers and crew members, and was sometimes noticeable even on calm water when turning.

At the end of the voyage, Commodore Ruser took a souvenir photo with a group of his chief assistants.

Fighting sea giants. From "Emperor" to Queen

The glory of the first arrival of the "Emperor" in New York was overshadowed by a small fire in the passenger compartment at the stern. Firefighters arrived quickly and began to put out the flames through open hatches and portholes. Tons of water were thoughtlessly poured onto the Imperator, which made a lot of noise, since the heavy ship the last thing it needed was filling the starboard compartments with water.

After the flames were extinguished and water was pumped out of the compartments, local contractors repaired the affected premises and put them in proper order in just seven days. Despite the apparent seriousness of the situation, the ship managed to get back on time.

The return flight to Hamburg departed on 25 June 1913 with 704 first class passengers, 553 second class passengers and 1 third class passengers.

Upon arrival, on 1 July, the Imperator embarked on a short overnight cruise with Kaiser Wilhelm II and his family (originally scheduled for a trip immediately after sea trials in May, but was delayed due to urgent repairs to the turbines).

In August 1913, the Imperator sailed from Hamburg to New York on her third voyage under the command of Commodore Hans Ruser with 3 passengers on board. It was a record. No shipping company has ever carried such a number of passengers in one flight!

During the fourth voyage at Hoboken Dock on Thursday, August 28, 1913, flames flared up again on board.

The fire started in the cold store, near the deck, where 1 passengers slept in cabins. Responding to the alarms, the captain's officer on duty called the fire department and sent help to the scene. By that time, stewards and crew members had already begun to quickly and efficiently evacuate passengers from the danger zone. The second group of crew worked to contain the fire, blocking its path from the cold store to the surrounding cabins. During the extinguishing of the fire, the second officer, Captain Gobrecht, died from smoke poisoning.

New York firefighters and harbor fire crews battled the blaze. At the same time, firefighters poured about 15 tons of water onto the ship. It took almost five hours to eliminate the threat. The "Emperor" took on so much water that its roll was as much as ten degrees.

After the fire was extinguished, extensive areas of sooty and soaked second-class premises were revealed, this in addition to a number of burnt areas. In the inventory of damaged stocks, 25 kg of spoiled food was found and 400 liters of wine were de-labeled. True, later, this wine was successfully sold at auction.

The Imperator's scheduled return flight to Hamburg on 28 August was delayed and contractors arrived to restore and repaint the damaged areas.

By August 30, enough repairs had been completed to make the ship ready for her return voyage, but she left without second-class passengers, with a small team of repairmen who continued to work on the ship during the six-day journey home.

Despite all this, the Americans liked the Emperor. In general, they are terribly fond of everything huge and grandiose and immediately begin to compare and look for what they have that is also so hefty and just as beautiful.

It turned out that quite recently in New York City in Manhattan a skyscraper was built for the headquarters of the retail chain FW Woolworth Company, at 233 Broadway Street (between Park Place and Barclay Street), called the Woolworth Building.


See the silhouette of the building in the background towards the bow of the ship?

It looks like a Gothic cathedral - its tower is even decorated with gargoyles. This is a rare neo-Gothic style for office buildings. The skyscraper has 57 floors and a height of 241,4 m.


Comparison of The Emperor with the Woolworth Building in an issue of the New York Times Sunday Supplement

Construction began on November 4, 1910. The Americans built quickly. Already on April 24, 1913, its official opening took place.


Skyscraper owner Frank Woolworth was a real embodiment of the American dream. He built this building with his own funds without a single loan, loan or mortgage.
The son of a farmer, who began working as a salesman in a dry goods store for three and a half dollars a week, in 1878 borrowed three hundred dollars from friends and opened his first Great Five Cent Store, where all goods were sold at a price of 5 cents, then another. For 10 years, the network has grown to 7 stores, and 15 years later there were already 59. They became known as Five-and-Dime (“5 and 10 cents”).

In 1912, Woolworth already owned six hundred stores. Then he decided to build a skyscraper. To do this, he commissioned the architect Cass Gilbert to design a building in the Gothic style - the tallest in the world. Indeed, until 1930, only the Eiffel Tower was taller than the Woolworth Building, and to this day the building is in the top 50 tallest buildings in the United States and the twenty tallest buildings in New York.


In fact, a book could be written about this skyscraper. I have a lot of material about it, and besides, a certain “Russian trace” can be traced in its construction, which I must definitely tell somewhere, at least briefly.

October 22 "Imperator" was sent to the shipyards Vulcan Shipyards to solve the problem with the stability. According to the recommendations of specialists, whose opinion was enlisted by the HAPAG administration, a number of modifications were carried out: the pipes of the Imperator were lowered by three meters, the thick stone floor was dismantled in a number of rooms, all heavy oak chairs with their plush tapestry seats and backs were replaced with light wicker ones. A dedicated Center has been set up to monitor and manage the new fire alarm and sprinkler systems that have been installed throughout the ship in all classes. In addition, a team of professional firefighters entered the full-time brigade, who carried out shift patrols day and night.

In first-class public spaces, large amounts of rich, expensive marble and heavy paneling were replaced with lighter but equally decorative materials. The marble bathrooms with massive bathtubs have also been refurbished. In the corridors and stairwells, instead of marble, beautiful light panels made of gypsum and asbestos were installed (at that time they did not yet know that asbestos was a harmful thing to health). In the winter garden, huge luxurious oak chairs and tables have also been replaced with lighter wicker chairs and tables. In the common room, even the bust of the Kaiser was removed (as if this somehow affected the stability of a ship of this size). Finally, 2 tons of concrete were poured into the bowels of the ship. The measures were successful. The ship's center of gravity was lowered.

The total cost of alterations and improvements was over 4 Marks (£000), all paid for by Vulcan Shipyards under their five-year warranty. The amount was prohibitive for those times. In 000, the average monthly wage of German workers in industry was 200 marks, in Great Britain - 000 pounds sterling. Building the Imperator was financially difficult for Vulcan from the start, but this additional work, combined with legal payments to Hamburg America Line, left the company in debt. The losses incurred were so great that the shareholders of the company received no dividends for 1913.

During the refitting of the Imperator in 1914, Commodore Ruser handed over command of the ship to Captain Theo Cyrus and left to take command of the large new flagship, the Vaterland, which was nearing completion.


Repair and reconstruction continued until early March 1914, and on March 11, the Imperator left Cuxhaven for New York with 371 first-class passengers, 334 second-class passengers and 1 third-class passengers.

Upon arriving five days later in New York on March 19, Cyrus reported that the ship's stability had improved significantly. It was during this voyage that an Atlantic storm swept away four lifeboats and broke off the wings of a huge bronze eagle at the bow of the Imperator.


March 21, 1914 "Emperor" went east with 2 passengers. Upon arrival on March 980, the remains of the eagle were removed and replaced with a decorative grille, but the length of the ship was not altered. Nevertheless, he remained the second largest ship in the world after his relative, the Vaterland liner.


The Vaterland joined the Imperator on scheduled transatlantic flights, and their cousin, the Bismarck, was launched on 20 June.


In the first week of April 1914, the Imperator made its second voyage of that year with 3 passengers.

On the return flight, he left on Wednesday, April 15 at 9 am with 2 passengers on board. Of these, 150 are first class passengers, 604 are second class passengers and 215 are third class passengers.

The third flight from Hamburg on May 2, 1914 with 3 passengers, arriving in New York on May 285 and returning on May 9 with 16 passengers, as well as the fourth from Hamburg on May 3 with 563 passengers and back on June 27 with 2 passengers, passed smoothly , without accidents.

Harry Houdini and his wife, Beatrice, traveled first class on the Imperator on their fifth westbound voyage on June 17 to celebrate their twentieth wedding anniversary.


They will live in love and harmony for 32 years, until the death of Harry Houdini from peritonitis caused by a traumatic rupture of the appendix in 1926.

On June 22, Harry gave a short performance for fellow travelers. Mr. and Mrs. Houdini then dined alone with first-class passenger Theodore Roosevelt and took pictures.


In general, when you write such articles, just some incredible amount of interesting factual material accumulates. All information is interesting and informative. It is a pity to put aside some curious curiosity or pass by some interesting personality. So it was with Theodore Roosevelt.

Today, few readers know at least something about him. But he was both the 33rd Governor of New York and the 25th Vice President of the United States, and from 1901 to 1909 he served two terms as the 26th President of the United States. Roosevelt was the first president to invite an African-American representative to the White House, the first American to receive the Nobel Peace Prize in 1906 (for mediating the Russo-Japanese Peace of Portsmouth). He will send her monetary expression in 1917 to help the victims of the First World War.


He sent 16 battleships on a voyage around the world, which lasted from December 16, 1907 to February 22, 1909.

The hulls of the ships were painted in the usual peacetime color - white, for which they later became known as the "Great White Fleet".

This demonstrated Japan, which received the status of a major maritime power after the defeat of the Russian fleet in the Battle of Tsushima in 1905, that the American fleet, despite being based in the Atlantic Ocean, could be deployed anywhere in the world and could protect American interests in the Philippines and the Pacific.

On October 14, 1912, Roosevelt was on the campaign trail to give a speech to an assembled crowd in Milwaukee. Someone John Shrenk shot him with a revolver. The bullet hit the chest, first piercing the case from the glasses and lying in the inside pocket of a thick 50-page manuscript with a speech that Roosevelt intended to give. He, refusing help, delivered the intended speech while the blood was spreading on his shirt, and spoke for 90 minutes.

Roosevelt began by saying:

“Ladies and gentlemen, I don't know if you understand that I just got shot at; but you can't kill an elk that easily."

(The elk is the symbol of Roosevelt's Progressive Party). As it turned out later, the bullet entered the chest, but did not penetrate the pleura, and it would be more dangerous to remove it than to leave it as it is. Roosevelt carried this bullet in his chest for the rest of his life.

In 1916, another assassination attempt was made on him. But the throwing knife thrown at him flew a few inches below the desired trajectory...

This is his sculptural portrait carved in Rushmore, a mountain in the Black Hills massif, southwest of the city of Keyston in South Dakota (USA), along with portraits of three more US presidents: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and Abraham Lincoln.


On the way back to Hamburg on Saturday, June 27, the liner left New York at 12 noon with 486 second class passengers and 837 first class passengers.

Then it was time to show the deck map of the Imperator. There are a number of layout drawings available online. These are huge sheets in which it is very difficult to navigate. But the same enthusiast Cameron, who gave us the opportunity to admire the color photographs of the interiors of the liner, kindly provided such a map for everyone to see.


It is also huge, and I deliberately cut it into three parts so that you can see everything. The rooms of the first class are clearly visible on it: they are painted green, the second - yellowish-yellow and the third class - pink. Rooms for emigrants are marked in blue. This is a kind of "third class minus."






Second class on the Imperator extends from Deck C (2nd Class Pleasure Deck) to Deck H and is served by a second class only lift. The suites are located on decks E, G and H, as well as several suites on deck C next to the elevator. The capacity of the second class is 606 passengers.

Our standard second class cabins use two hardwood bunk beds with a sofa bed against the other wall. Against the wall between them is a sink with running water and a cosmetic mirror.
We are proud to say that our Second Class public spaces are far superior in size and equipment to most other First Class spaces on the smaller Atlantic ships. On deck D there is a smoking room, lounge-library and second class gym measuring 16 x 4 meters. On deck E there is a hairdresser's and women's salon, and on deck F there is a spacious dining room with 365 seats. For the personal entertainment of passengers, there is a Steinway grand piano with a selection of songs.

Third class is aft, extending from deck C to deck J. Third class cabins are on decks F, G and H and can accommodate 962 passengers. Cabins are equipped for 2, 3, 4 or 6 passengers using wooden built-in berths and folding beds. Premium third class cabins have a washbasin, a large mirror and a set of towels.

Our third class dining room seats 475 passengers and is located on deck E. The height of the dining room is impressive considering the class rating and equal to the height of most first class dining rooms on other Atlantic ships. It has beautifully painted walls with decorative elements and thin Doric-style columns along its entire length.
Long tables in the dining room are decorated with thin linen tablecloths and lined up in equal rows with separate chairs for visitors. The food is served on fine china, special for the third class.
At the back of the waterfront D deck, our third class passengers will find their own library and a spacious banquet hall. There is enough space in the public hall for playing cards or other activities. And since the lounge is on D deck, plenty of windows provide plenty of natural light and can be opened when the weather is fine. There's even a large open-air ceiling in the middle of the room that lets in natural light from a small domed skylight on the Second Class Quay on C Deck. As with First and Second Class, all Third Class passengers can use a Steinway grand piano.

Places for emigrants (third class minus) are located in the very bow of the "Emperor". It stretches from deck D to deck J and has a capacity of 1 passengers. Third class rooms are designed for 772, 2 and 4 passengers. Cabins are located on decks G, H and J.

Third class passengers have their own walking area on deck D, a large lounge area on deck E and a hospital on deck F. Adjacent to the lounge on deck E is a large bathing area and tub for washing clothes.
The dining room is located on deck F below the third class cabin. Passengers sit on communal benches in front of rows of long tables.
While the environment may not be first or second class, we are nonetheless proud to say that the variety of food on offer is superior to what has been served on other ships.

From an advertising brochure.

Special offer for expats.

Are you going to America aboard the Imperator?
If so, let us provide for you in the days or weeks leading up to your trip.
For our guests, Hamburg Amerika Line will provide generous accommodation, food and medical care for as little as $10. This fee also includes transportation from the railway to our accommodation and transportation to the port on the day of departure. And on the last night of your stay, we even throw a party as a special thank you for making Hamburg-America Line the preferred carrier for expats.
Please call our office in Hamburg or an agent in your area.

Very few images of the interiors of the second and third class premises have been preserved. Well, as they say, how rich:












1914 seemed like a happy year for the Hamburg America Line. In the late spring/early summer issue of Popular Mechanics, they ran an eye-catching full-page advertisement for selections of upcoming flights. The bold and bright image of the Imperator advertised travel, both on the Imperator and on the Vaterland, until the end of August. There was also information in the press about a special cruise "Around the World" in 1915. Prices started at $900 for a 135-day voyage that was scheduled to end in San Francisco in time for the opening of the Panama-Pacific Exposition.

War


The "Emperor" had already been operated on transatlantic lines for 14 months and would have continued to surf the seas-oceans to the convenience of sea travelers of all stripes and shades, to the delight of its owners, but then on June 28, a half-educated at the gymnasium, but a patriotic and nationalist-minded representative very proud and freedom-loving Serbian people, a member of the extremist group "Mlada Bosna" - Gavrilo Princip.


With a cheap, used FN Model 1910 self-loading pistol, designed by John Browning and manufactured by the Fabrique Nationale de Herstal, he shot Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Duchess Sophie Hohenberg in the city of Sarajevo.




The wheels of the First World War set in motion for the first time...

On July 6, Germany announced its full support for Austria-Hungary in the event of war...

Wheels pick up speed...

On Wednesday, July 8, 1914, the Imperator left Hamburg for the last time as a German merchant ship. On his last trip to New York as SS Imperator, he carried 702 first class passengers and 500 second class passengers. The journey was ordinary, and on the last evening, first-class passengers were treated to a traditional farewell dinner. The menu consisted of Parnaja Caviar on Ice caviar, green turtle soup and chicken cream a la Carmen for starter, followed by a choice of Sole a la Russe, imperial beef tenderloin with champagne sherbet, asparagus with melted butter, fried chicken on toast, endive salad and dessert…

The Imperator moored in New York on Thursday, July 16, received passengers, and two days later, on Saturday, July 18, at 12 noon, sailed for Hamburg.

On July 22, the Vaterland, with Commodore Hans Ruser at the helm, left Hamburg on her last voyage as a German merchant ship.

It was during the six-day voyage of the Vaterland that the wheels of war picked up the greatest speed.

July 23 "Vaterland" and "Emperor" parted ways in the Atlantic.

This was the day on which the Austro-Hungarian government presented its fifteen demands to the Serbian government. At the top of the list was the demand to arrest the terrorist leaders and send them to Vienna, where they would have to stand trial. The demands, in fact, were an ultimatum ...

Upon receiving this news, Commodore Theo Cyrus did not risk the safety of the "Emperor" and, although he was only one day's march from Hamburg, immediately ordered full speed. During her passage to her homeland, the Imperator developed a remarkable speed of 23,6 knots and broke her own speed record. It docked safely in Hamburg on July 24, the same day that Serbia turned to its ally, Russia, for military assistance if Austria-Hungary began hostilities.

Then, on July 25, Serbia announced its refusal to comply with the requirements of Austria-Hungary, since "the fulfillment of such requirements is a violation of the Constitution of Serbia and a criminal offense."

Less than 24 hours later, on July 26, Russia reaffirms its readiness to defend Serbia in the event of an attack...

On July 28, when the Vaterland was only two days from New York, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. All transatlantic flights of the Imperator and all HAPAG ships were immediately cancelled.

The Vaterland has docked in New York and has already stayed there...

The First World War began with frightening speed. From 5 to 12 August, declarations of war came from all sides. On August 1, Germany declared war on neighboring Russia, and on August 3, Germany declared war on France.

On August 4, Germany invaded Belgium, bringing Britain into conflict with the declaration of war on Germany.

On August 5, Austria-Hungary sided with Germany and declared war on Russia.

Then both France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary on 10 and 12 August respectively...

Until the end of the war, the Imperator remained at the docks near Hamburg on the picturesque Elbe River, dressed in primitive camouflage. All this time it has hardly been properly maintained, and its appearance has certainly suffered. The only real defense of the huge ship was a handful of anti-aircraft guns scattered around the dock, which, fortunately, never saw combat...

When the war ended four years and nine months later, Germany under the Treaty of Versailles would have to surrender every merchant ship built or under construction over 16 tons. This included the still unfinished SS Bismarck, which was to be the completion of Ballin's trio of ships. The second of the trio, Vaterland, has long been the property of the United States and was used to transport American soldiers.

Albert Ballin was really sick. The collapse of everything he had created and the realization that the pre-war empire as he knew it had collapsed forced him to make a tragic decision. After all, Ballin never wanted war, and actually entered the political circles of the country in 1914 in an attempt to prevent it. Now he was receiving threats from the socialists and the communist underground. A revolution was brewing in Germany. He will not know that all three of his giant ships will be handed over to Great Britain and the United States. Imperator will be given away to Cunard Line and renamed to Berengaria, making it the flagship of the company. Vaterland will go to the American shipping company United States Line and will be renamed Leviathan, also receiving the flagship rank. The unfinished Bismarck, as a replacement for the sunken Britannic, will be given to the White Star Line.

On the night of November 8, 1918, Albert Ballin ended his life by taking an overdose of sleeping pills ...

A day later, Wilhelm II will abdicate the throne. He will spend the rest of his life in Holland.

After the armistice on November 11, 1918, the Imperator was transferred for temporary use as a military transport of the US Navy.

She was named USS Imperator (ID-4080) in early May 1919, and US Navy Captain John C. Robinson was ordered to be her first commanding officer. The crew consisted of US Navy personnel who led a small team of German sailors, including a commodore, two captains, and numerous officers. Notably, the Imperator will be converted to military service in just 10 days and will be able to carry 9 troops and 000 first-class passengers.


On May 15, USS Imperator sailed from French Brest with 1 army officers, 500 enlisted men, 300 French wives of American soldiers, and 841 nurses on board.


Landing of American soldiers on the USS Imperator

She arrived in New York on 22 May and moored alongside her sister, the Vaterland, now renamed the Leviathan.


On May 23, 1919, the Imperator was assigned a new commander, Casey B. Morgan, a captain in the US Navy, and R. A. White was his senior officer.

"Emperor" remained in New York until June 3, after which she sailed on a return voyage to Brest. During his stay in New York, he took tons of fresh provisions and supplies with him, and his interior underwent a major overhaul. Thousands of bunk beds were installed, new wireless communication equipment was placed on board, as well as a complete and modern printing shop.

As a result, the capacity of the "Emperor" was 1 officers, 000 non-commissioned officers and 966 privates. The total composition of the team is 7 officers and privates of the regular fleet.


Officers and sailors from the USS Imperator crew. 1919

On the way to New York on June 17, the Imperator assisted the French cruiser Jeanne d'Arc, which had some kind of serious malfunction in the Atlantic Ocean.


Brazilian President Epitasio Lindolfo da Silva Pessoa was on board this cruiser.


Pessoa led the Brazilian delegation to the international conference on the post-war peace settlement in Paris. It was there that he was notified that he was nominated as a presidential candidate in an early presidential election, and then that he won and became president of Brazil. The "Emperor" took him and a group of persons accompanying him for transportation to the United States, arriving there a few days later.

During the service, which lasted from May 15 to August 10, 1919, the "Emperor" ferried home a total of 28 soldiers, 030 wounded and 147 passengers back to Europe. On one voyage, on July 161, 13, he broke his own record with 1919 passengers. While anchored in Hoboken on August 12, 000, official news came that the Imperator had completed military service, and on that day the US Navy handed her over to the US Shipping Board.

The US handed over the Imperator to the British Shipping Inspectorate on 20 September, where it was decided that it would be operated by Cunard Line. The official handover took place on 24 November. Then the "Emperor" was transferred to pier number 54 "Cunard Line".

The next stage in the life of the "Emperor" began on August 29, 1919, when the Allied Naval Commission handed over the "Emperor" to the controller of shipping of Great Britain.

On November 24, on the north side of Pier 54 of the Cunard Line, Franklin D. Roosevelt certified the final decommissioning of the liner.


Yes, this is the same Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who in 14 years will become the 32nd President of the United States. Though only 38 now, he has served seven years as Assistant Secretary of the Navy, the second-ranking official in the Navy Department.

It was an event teeming with bustle of activity and maritime formalities, beginning with the lowering of the Stars and Stripes and culminating in the traditional bugle call. At that time, Captain Millar, Naval Superintendent of the Cunard Line, and Captain Palfrey, Assistant Superintendent, were watching the ceremony from the deck. They were joined by the new captain of the Emperor, Commander Charles Appleton Smith.

How difficult it is to wade through this hodgepodge of British naval ranks and positions! Maybe I messed up something here? The source says: “Already on board at the time and watching from her deck was Cap't. Millar, Cunard Marine Superintendent, and Cap't. Palfrey, the assistant superintendent. Joining them was the Imperator's new commander, Cap't. Charles Appleton Smith.

Imperator officially became a British merchant ship on 11 December 1919 when she was renamed RMS Imperator and sailed from New York with approximately 2 people on board. Of course, some things had to be changed. Anything suggesting it was a German ship had to be removed and replaced with British decals. The yellow HAPAG pipes have been repainted in the usual Cunard Line red color with black tops.

This flight was not entirely successful. The coal supplied from the US proved to be of very poor quality, and combined with poor engine and boiler maintenance, the fuel was used up faster than expected. As a result, stops at Plymouth and Cherbourg were cancelled, much of the alcohol had to be carefully rationed towards the end of the journey, and food supplies were dramatically depleted. We arrived in Liverpool on Sunday, December 21, at 10 am. The flight took 11 days - 4 days longer than expected.

The British did not waste time and immediately put the liner in dry dock for a thorough restoration and refitting. Most of the work was related to the engines. However, as the ship's appearance was severely damaged during its long stint on the Elbe and its post-war use as a military carrier, significant repairs were also required to its public quarters and cabins. The second and third grades suffered the most and required repainting and new furniture. In the cabin of the third class, the updates were also very significant. The dark wood panels have been carefully repaired and polished. To complement this rich interior, translucent curtains have been hung over the window and glass doorways, and as a comfortable alternative to the traditional wooden lounge chairs, the rooms have been provided with a range of luxurious chairs and sofas.

Small potted flowers were placed on some tables, and larger plants were placed on the floor at the base of the columns that ran down the center of the living room. Compared to third class, the paint and woodwork in first class public areas were in good condition and only needed cleaning. But because the liner was used as a warship, there was little furniture in the public rooms, and carpets were removed from the upper and lower dining rooms.

Cunard fixed the situation by borrowing furniture from Transylvania and Carmania to fill the first-class public rooms and the Ritz-Carlton restaurant. The original German decor, color schemes, accessories, and design elements of the Imperator were left in place, allowing much of the German identity and craftsmanship to be retained. However, on January 6, a Cunard Line inspection team in drydock found corrosion along the edges of the propellers and a lack of metal at the bottom of the rudder. As a result, the planned first flight on 10 January 1920 was cancelled.

The first voyage of the RMS Imperator from her new home in Liverpool took place on 21 February 1920, two months after her arrival.

After a short stop in New York, on March 2 he left for England. On the way, the ash ejector failed on the ship. As a result, due to the excess accumulation of slag, the Imperator rolled over, and the voyage took ten days. When it arrived in Liverpool, it was sent for ten days of repairs.

Passenger capacity was increased to 970 first class passengers, 830 second class passengers, 606 third class passengers and 515 tourist class passengers. For two days on March 21 and 22, the Imperator underwent major sea trials and inspections, and by June 6, her home port was changed from Liverpool to Southampton.

In the summer of 1920, the "Emperor" constantly appeared in the news. Most of the gossip arose from rumors that the Imperator was losing up to $50 per flight. After this information was leaked, there was wild speculation in the press about its future, especially since it was well known that the contract was concluded with Cunard Line for only seven round trips, after which the liner would be returned to the control of the British Ministry of Shipping. Gossip ranged from its decommissioning to one popular stories, which hinted that a large ship would be moored and converted into a floating hotel. Despite the gossip in the media, the "Emperor" continued to run all summer and right up to the fall.

In August 1920, a worker died after falling into a coal bunker. Around the time of this accident, coincidentally, the Ministry of Shipping came up with the idea of ​​installing an economical on-board plant to crush coal, which would then be fed into modified boilers. But due to the fact that in the foreseeable future the liner could be equipped with engines running on liquid fuel, this plan was abandoned.

Sir Arthur Rostron took command of the Imperator in July 1920.


He is well known as the former captain of the Carpathia, who arrived in time for the sinking of the ocean liner Titanic in 1912. The Carpathia managed to save 705 passengers and crew members of the Titanic. He was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal and, after World War I, the Order of the British Empire.

sex change


In February 1921, the liner changed gender - was renamed in honor of the English Queen Berengaria of Navarre, wife of Richard the Lionheart.


In the same year, urgent repair and overhaul work was carried out at the Armstrong Whitworth shipyard, which lasted six months. Residential and public premises were renovated, and boilers were switched from coal to fuel oil.

The modernized liner returned to service in May 1922. There he remained for the next 16 years and gained a good reputation for his reliability. The equipment worked quite satisfactorily and the ship became a valuable addition to the Cunard Line fleet.


For Captain Arthur Henry Rostron, the Berengaria was the last ship he was allowed to command. The famous captain mentioned her in his memoirs only in a subordinate clause as "the most comfortable ship on which he ever served."

After the merger of Cunard and White Star in 1935, only Aquitania and Berengaria remained for North Atlantic service.

In May 1936, the Queen Mary was commissioned, with Queen Elizabeth on the way.

Due to the constant danger of fire - there were several small fires on board - the Berengaria fell out of favor with the US authorities, and once she even had to go home to Europe without passengers. Refitting to reduce the risk of fire did not seem worthwhile to the owners, especially since the ship would have remained in service for only a few years anyway before the Queen Elizabeth could be commissioned.

The ship was sold to Sir John Jarvis. Using his own fortune, Jarvis had previously purchased the decommissioned Titanic's sister ship Olympic, for £100, and the ship was taken to Tyneside to provide employment for unemployed shipbuilders.

Now it was Berengaria's turn. Its interior furnishings and dismantled equipment were auctioned off, and the proceeds were used to purchase materials for the construction of playgrounds, sports facilities, and home renovations for those in need. The dismantling allowed for the employment of more than 1 skilled and semi-skilled workers at the new Jarrow shipbreaking company, based at the former Palmers shipyard, while the metal was to be used at Jarvis' new iron and steel works, which employed several hundred people. Thanks to Jarvis' efforts, several new businesses were created in the Jarrow area.

On her last journey to the place of cutting, the Berengaria set off under the command of Captain George Gibbons. In this video, which was saved and made available to us by British Pathé for free viewing, you will also see Sir Jarvis and his wife.


Due to the size of the ship and the beginning of the Second World War, the final dismantling was carried out only in 1946 in Rosyth (Scotland).

PS


The article was already ready when I discovered this video.


It turned out to be simple and easy to write that the liner will be sent for disassembly, but to see with your own eyes how it is cut into pieces...

Somehow, in three articles, I already got used to this giant and began to perceive it not as a complex heap of metal, but as clearly something more - the fruit of the highest degree of engineering creativity and huge expenditures of creative human labor. I did not expect that there would be a clear feeling of loss, that some nasty lump would get stuck in my throat ... I become sentimental. I must be getting old...

Sources:
Atlantic Liners: A Trio of Trios J. Kent Layton, 2005
The Hamburg-American Company's New 50,000-Ton Liner (International Marine Engineering)
Robert D. Ballard, Ken Marschall: Lost Liners - Von der Titanic zur Andrea Doria - Glanz und Untergang der großen Luxusliner. München, 1997
Arnold Kludas: Die deutschen Schnelldampfer. Die Imperatorklasse - Höhepunkt einer Epoche
Eberhard Mertens: Imperator-class Hapag giants
Wikipedia articles, etc.
All images in this article are taken from the Wikipedia media warehouse, the Flikr free images resource and the like, unless otherwise stated.
Author:
68 comments
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 17 February 2022 18: 18
    +14
    Never been on a ship.
    Yes, and I saw them only from afar, but in the cinema. Well, like the Titanic... 3500 passengers, plus the crew, plus the attendants...
    A whole town on the sea surface)
    Thanks, Author!
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 17 February 2022 18: 41
      +9
      A whole town on the sea surface
      The British compare modern cruise ships with ... social housing quarters wassat
      Thanks, Author!
      I join. Excellently written, Mr. Privalov!
  2. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 17 February 2022 18: 56
    +10
    The caption under the picture of Roosevelt is strange - 1822-1945). Did he live 123 years?
    1. A. Privalov
      17 February 2022 19: 08
      +12
      Quote: Aviator_
      The caption under the picture of Roosevelt is strange - 1822-1945). Did he live 123 years?

      Well, of course, it's 1882. hi
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 17 February 2022 19: 47
        +8
        Alexander. Didn't Rostron take command of the Berengaria in 1928?

        He and Molly Brown / * Unsinkable Molly * /.
        1. A. Privalov
          17 February 2022 19: 56
          +10
          Arthur Rostron replaced James Charles as Berengaria's captain in 1928. It's good that you noticed, but I can't fix it anymore. Let's add it to the list of tortured ochepyatok. hi
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 17 February 2022 19: 58
            +8
            It's okay. Especially since the "finest hour" of this glorious sailor was still in April 1912. hi
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 February 2022 20: 54
        +2
        I can't help but express my personal thanks for such an interesting cycle! Thanks!
        hi
        1. A. Privalov
          18 February 2022 21: 08
          +2
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          I can't help but express my personal thanks for such an interesting cycle! Thanks!
          hi

          You're welcome! hi
          Another small article in the form of an afterword to the cycle is in the works. Check it out at your leisure. hi
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 February 2022 22: 01
            +2
            Thanks for the invitation!
            It's bad that you are published in the opinion section, not history. Today, too, "to visit you" accidentally came across the kind words of Sergey (Phil) and Uncle Kostya (Sea Cat) about your work, on another branch. Here I looked. And in my opinion very well.
            Thanks again and good luck!
            1. bubalik
              bubalik 18 February 2022 22: 04
              +2
              Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Today, 23: 01

              We could have introduced a rubric: the work of our readers.
              1. A. Privalov
                18 February 2022 23: 21
                +2
                Quote: bubalik
                We could have introduced a rubric: the work of our readers.

                Wow! How will the people start, how will they start! Then you have to keep a full-time editor. belay
            2. A. Privalov
              18 February 2022 23: 17
              +1
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              It's bad that you are published in the opinion section, not history.

              Unfortunately, Vladislav, I don’t know what the editors are guided by when placing articles on the pages of VO. Previously, all my articles were published in the "Opinion" section. The first two articles of the cycle, in the "Fleet" section. Third, again in "Opinions"... request
  3. Phil77
    Phil77 17 February 2022 19: 09
    +11
    Alexander! Thank you very much for this cycle! However? After all, there are two more ships that you can write about? I mean "Europe" and "Bremen".
    Now directly about the article. In my opinion, it is magnificent, it has everything and about everything. By the way, I didn’t know that there was a “subsection” of the third class for transporting immigrants. Or was it only on the ships of German companies? And of course, personnel " "kills" of the ship! It's very sad to look at this. Thanks again for the wonderful cycle! hi
    I’ll add! The photo preceding the article looks ... great!
    1. A. Privalov
      17 February 2022 19: 51
      +10
      Quote: Phil77
      Alexander! Thank you very much for this cycle! However? After all, there are two more ships that you can write about? I mean "Europe" and "Bremen".
      Now directly about the article. In my opinion, it is magnificent, it has everything and about everything. By the way, I didn’t know that there was a “subsection” of the third class for transporting immigrants. Or was it only on the ships of German companies? And of course, personnel " "kills" of the ship! It's very sad to look at this. Thanks again for the wonderful cycle! hi
      I’ll add! The photo preceding the article looks ... great!

      Glad you enjoyed the article. You can talk about various liners for a long time and a lot. There are a number of wonderful ships.
      How the Americans transported emigrants in those days, I don't know yet. The fact is that the bulk of those leaving the Old World were transported by the Germans.
      I liked the splash screen at the beginning of the article. laughing I didn't even expect it to be so cool. wassat
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 17 February 2022 19: 56
        +7
        The "English" had a simple: third class, general. Although there was also a difference in the cost of the ticket / number of seats in the cabin /.
        1. Bolt cutter
          Bolt cutter 17 February 2022 20: 30
          +5
          Edward Steiner described the realities of living on the steerage of SS Kaiser Wilhelm 2nd (1906), where hundreds of people of both sexes slept side by side on straw mattresses in the hold, and food of disgusting quality was brought in tanks and poured into bowls by ladles in crowds and fighting in line immigrants. Notes that the British did not have this.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 17 February 2022 20: 53
            +8
            Hi Alex!
            In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, it was not uncommon for transatlantic ships to announce to passengers in first and second classes with a request not to throw leftover food and small coins to passengers in their third class, in order to avoid ... riots.
            1. Bolt cutter
              Bolt cutter 17 February 2022 20: 59
              +4
              Good evening! It is believed that the English shipowners got rid of the "fourth class" and limited themselves to the cabins of the third precisely because of the blatant rampant violence among the passengers - after all, not the best people traveled this way, and fights with stabbing for food and women (they lived in the same hold) were common . And it was not possible to establish discipline on board in the holds.
            2. Motorist
              Motorist 17 February 2022 22: 02
              +4
              Quote: Phil77
              there were announcements to the passengers of the first and second classes with a request not to throw leftover food and small coins to the passengers of their third class

              Thank you, I laughed and remembered the old sea anecdote about "I'll crumble bread." It turns out that the anecdote has a "proto"-history... hi
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 17 February 2022 21: 24
        +8
        Thank you, Alexander! smile
        I read it with interest and pleasure, a kind of excursion into history and not only ship history. good
        Having learned about the fires on the "Emperor", he remembered the "Normandie", the German was lucky, he survived two major fires and remained in service, the Frenchman had enough of one and in the same New York. request
        1. A. Privalov
          17 February 2022 22: 15
          +6
          Thanks for the kind words.

          Fires on ships are not uncommon today. The thing is terrible, because there is nowhere to run, people are cut off in compartments ...
          In the army, I had to install fire alarms on several ships and even on one submarine. In the early 70s, this was taken very seriously.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 18 February 2022 07: 39
            +5
            The thing is terrible, because there is nowhere to run, people are cut off in compartments ...

            If I'm not mistaken, I read in Skryagin's "In the wake of sea disasters" about the fire on the French liner "Georges Philippar" in the ocean, a terrible story, there our sailors also took part in saving people.
            1. A. Privalov
              18 February 2022 13: 31
              +3
              Here you go. They just remembered the Devil, and he was already right there.
              The cargo ship Felicity Ace, sailing under the flag of Panama from Europe to the United States with a cargo of 3965 cars of the German concern Volkswagen, caught fire in the Atlantic Ocean near the Azores.

              Portuguese Navy patrols evacuated all 22 crew members from the ship, leaving the burning vessel to drift.

              High-end models, including 1100 Porsche vehicles, as well as Audi and Lamborghini vehicles, were reportedly a significant part of the cargo.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 18 February 2022 13: 37
                +4
                I, for sure, am an evil and envious person, that's not a gram, but not a single piece of iron is not a pity. Well done Portuguese - they saved people, and let the rest burn with a green flame. laughing
                1. A. Privalov
                  18 February 2022 18: 39
                  +3
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  I, for sure, am an evil and envious person, that's not a gram, but not a single piece of iron is not a pity. Well done Portuguese - they saved people, and let the rest burn with a green flame. laughing

                  Why pity him? People were saved, and the rest is up to the insurance companies. That's why they exist.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 18 February 2022 18: 46
                    +2
                    ... and the rest is up to the insurance companies

                    Yes, that's really "who in Russia live well." laughing
                    1. A. Privalov
                      18 February 2022 19: 06
                      +3
                      Quote: Sea Cat

                      Yes, that's really "who in Russia live well." laughing

                      You see, Konstantin, insurance companies all over the world are not living in poverty. However, with the correct formulation of the question, they fulfill their purpose by 100%. I have been using their services for over 30 years. I got into the situation of insured events and for an accident with a car, and for health, and for mortgage insurance, and the devil knows what else. He repaired at their expense and was treated and repaired the apartment after a leak ... The flight was normal.
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 18 February 2022 19: 09
                        +2
                        This side of life is completely unfamiliar to me, because we live in different countries. request Although I don’t feel like a foreigner in you in any way, it’s interesting, isn’t it? drinks
                      2. A. Privalov
                        18 February 2022 19: 14
                        +2
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        This side of life is completely unfamiliar to me, because we live in different countries. request Although I don’t feel like a foreigner in you in any way, it’s interesting, isn’t it? drinks

                        I also do not know the insurance system in your area. So here we are equal. hi
            2. A. Privalov
              19 February 2022 01: 03
              +2
              Today is a good day for fires...
              The incident is reported by Agence France-Presse, referring to the port authorities:
              An Italian cruise ship with 50 crew members and 237 passengers is on fire in the Ionian Sea off the coast of Greece.

              As noted, the ship Euroferry Olympia made a flight between the Italian Brindisi and the Greek Igoumenitsa.

              Three Coast Guard tugs and three patrol boats have already headed for the emergency vessel.

              1. Catfish
                Catfish 19 February 2022 11: 48
                +2
                "-- Mommy, why is it so bright this night?" Asked little Edison.
                “It's the neighbor's farm burning, son.
                - Mom, I want it to always be so light!
                “I don’t have any more matches, son.

                And Edison invented the electric light bulb." smile
                1. A. Privalov
                  19 February 2022 12: 39
                  +3
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  And Edison invented the electric light bulb."


                  For it is said: On moonless nights and in bad weather it was dark in the houses of people; people lived in
                  fear and ignorance; and it grieved the Lord.
                  And the Lord saw that he was living among people Thomas Alva Edison - a wise man and
                  righteous.
                  And the Lord said to him: "Get up and go!"; and Edison got up and went, and
                  went to the lab and invented the electric light bulb and set up
                  production of electric light bulbs, and organized their sale; and shone
                  light in the houses of the people, and the Lord saw that it was good.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 19 February 2022 13: 52
                    +1
                    "Let there be light!" (c)
                    1. A. Privalov
                      19 February 2022 13: 59
                      +3
                      Quote: Sea Cat
                      "Let there be light!" (c)

                      Amen! hi
  4. Alien From
    Alien From 17 February 2022 19: 27
    +9
    Great article, hats off drinks hi
  5. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 17 February 2022 20: 27
    +8
    Excellent work Alexander. I’ll re-read it thoroughly later. It’s kind of sad that such an era is gone. Each transatlantic had its own unique history. And now they are somehow impersonal, put on stream. By the way, in Russia, someone bought for a penny, $ 35 million, a cruise ship of good displacement. The port of Haifa is on its cruise voyage around the Mediterranean, this year, in the summer.
    1. A. Privalov
      17 February 2022 20: 51
      +5
      Quote: tralflot1832
      Excellent work Alexander. I’ll re-read it thoroughly later. It’s kind of sad that such an era is gone. Each transatlantic had its own unique history. And now they are somehow impersonal, put on stream. By the way, in Russia, someone bought for a penny, $ 35 million, a cruise ship of good displacement. The port of Haifa is on its cruise voyage around the Mediterranean, this year, in the summer.

      In Haifa in April last year, such a handsome man came:
      1. tralflot1832
        tralflot1832 17 February 2022 21: 28
        +4
        I specially went to the Russian site for the Odyssey, the prices are very, very attractive, with two bonuses. You have to somehow drag the client on board. The client is tired of covid. they pay money for this. They take our youth, three of us have been working in such "holes" of the planet since 2014. But they don't want to get married yet.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 17 February 2022 21: 32
        +9
        It somehow reminds me of an apartment building, there are no noble marine articles, and therefore there is no romance of appearance - a floating box.
        1. tralflot1832
          tralflot1832 17 February 2022 21: 47
          +5
          Over time, he will quietly go to the "needles" and no one will remember him. Like the previous generation.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 18 February 2022 09: 03
            +5
            "no one will remember."
            Yes, this is the fate of the ships. Another confirmation of this is the Olympic-class ships, the two dead went down in history. minimum article. From a respected author. Option? hi
  6. Korax71
    Korax71 17 February 2022 20: 43
    +5
    As always, Alexander, pleases with a gorgeous article good good luck to you, in your necessary and not easy business.
  7. depressant
    depressant 17 February 2022 23: 18
    +4
    I've been reading for an hour...
    Yes, this is not an article - a historical novel!
    Congratulations to the Author!
    Privalov, you are a genius! good drinks love
    1. A. Privalov
      18 February 2022 06: 12
      +4
      Quote: depressant
      I've been reading for an hour...
      Yes, this is not an article - a historical novel!
      Congratulations to the Author!
      Privalov, you are a genius! good drinks love

      I did my best. yes love
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 18 February 2022 09: 12
      +5
      "Privalov, you are a genius!"
      Oopsss! Here it is with all the directness of a soldier!

      Just kidding laughing
      But now, no.
      The article is really great hi
      1. depressant
        depressant 18 February 2022 09: 36
        +2
        Yes, powerful links between technology and portraits of political leaders. And such a sweet idyll looms, which, of course, was not there, but I really want it to be. Sometimes people need a bedtime story. And a skillfully presented story about terrible times turns into such. It is human nature to forget the bad, otherwise you will not survive. And now the splendid Emperor, glowing in the night with all its decks, is already floating on the historical stage! And now it will sail and sail across the Atlantic and enter ports until the end of my days! wassat )))
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 18 February 2022 09: 44
          +2
          Everything is absolutely correct.
          How right it is that we see an external colorful picture of that time. And if you find yourself in the place of a dirty, sweaty stoker on the same luxurious liner? And if you find yourself a third-class passenger on the sinking Titanic? The picture of that life will not be so .. .romantic.
          1. depressant
            depressant 18 February 2022 09: 52
            +3
            Yes it is. But, you see, what's the matter ... For some reason it seems to me that the stoker was glad that he had a job. Moreover, in comparison with other jobs on the coast - well paid. After all, it was the time of the global economic crisis!
            By the way, do you know why else I compared Alexander's article with the novel? But because he brought elements of a detective into it! Reading about another ship, I thought: "It will sink!" - that's how it is written, there are all sorts of breakdowns, and there was an expectation of misfortune)))
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 18 February 2022 10: 19
              +5
              "well-paid"
              Conditionally. At that time / 1912 / the salary of a stoker was around 6 pounds per month. Working conditions? You can imagine it. By the way, about a third of the entire "black team" was saved during the Titanic disaster.
              1. depressant
                depressant 18 February 2022 11: 19
                +3
                Majestic monument! People remember...
                It is surprising that anyone from the "black team" escaped at all. It means that someone from the ship's management took care of these people. Because I appreciated it. Probably, this is not an easy skill - to be able to feed the energy of the ship.
                1. Bolt cutter
                  Bolt cutter 18 February 2022 12: 06
                  +2
                  someone from the management of the ship took care of these people.
                  They had knowledge of the structure of the ship and experience at sea on their side - those who took their legs in their hands managed to slip out of the holds without getting lost in a panic.
                  1. depressant
                    depressant 18 February 2022 13: 23
                    +2
                    Maybe you are right. But all the unskilled workers knew the structure of the ship. Isn't that right, Alex?
                    1. Bolt cutter
                      Bolt cutter 18 February 2022 13: 26
                      +2
                      Not all - the shipowners did not have the obligation to train the evacuation team then, and many laborers did not know what was behind the neighboring bulkhead. Yes, and the fireman then is a worker of average qualification.
                      1. depressant
                        depressant 18 February 2022 13: 48
                        +1
                        And then I thought. Well, even if one of the knowledgeable stokers led all the unskilled workers (more correctly, perhaps, handymen?), Then where would they lead? To the boats? And there, officers with weapons save only elite passengers. They can shoot.
                        It's strange to me otherwise. After all, could there have been some light watercraft on ships in the form of hollow hermetic objects useful in ship life, and on occasion easily converted into a means of salvation? Rather, it wasn't. They made beautiful furniture, but it never occurred to anyone to make it floating. It's not dry land, after all. Everything on the ship must float. Or at least most of the items.
                      2. Bolt cutter
                        Bolt cutter 18 February 2022 13: 56
                        +3
                        Everything on the ship must float
                        And in case of partial flooding (even a submarine does not go into the water instantly) it will block the way along the corridors and internal ladders, blocking the way out.
                        They can shoot.
                        Everyone will not be shot, and when the situation smells of Vaseline, it will not be up to it.
                        hollow sealed items
                        But this goodness is always in abundance during a shipwreck. There were similarities of cork life jackets on ships then.
                      3. Phil77
                        Phil77 18 February 2022 20: 17
                        +1
                        Yes, there were such items. Chaise lounges along the promenade deck. A rather funny episode is associated with them. The surviving chef baker Juffin / whiskey, whiskey, whiskey !!! laughing / remembered that he threw them overboard for people who were in the water. Well, of course, life jackets, there were plenty of them.
                      4. Phil77
                        Phil77 18 February 2022 20: 19
                        +2
                        Boat drills were supposed to be held, but "Mess, sir!" laughing
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 18 February 2022 20: 12
                      +3
                      I’ll answer. They didn’t know. The stokers lived on deck "D", it was there that their cockpits were located, from there they got into the boiler rooms along two spiral staircases. In general, everything was done so that passengers could not collide with anyone from the * black team * Only the officers knew the structure of the ship thoroughly, and then, according to Lightoller's recollections, two weeks passed before he began to navigate the ship well.
            2. A. Privalov
              18 February 2022 19: 40
              +3
              There's nothing to be done here, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, any "wrong side" is always and everywhere an unsightly and even disgusting thing. It doesn't matter what it is about - about medicine, nutrition, housing, recreation, art, etc., etc. ...
              So, about the stokers and those who are next to them on the example of the Titanic:
              https://titanicanatomy.wordpress.com/tag/%D0%BA%D0%BE%D1%87%D0%B5%D0%B3%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%8B/
              1. depressant
                depressant 18 February 2022 20: 27
                +4
                Alexander, thanks for the link!
                I read that article. About the Titanic, about its bunkering, but there is not only about that. The working conditions of the stokers are monstrous, the impression is heavy. But even among these workers there is a division into castes. It's good that we got rid of coal. What is it like to breathe coal dust at +40! Yes, there was a lot of violence. I remember that in some novel it was described how in England children of preschool age mined coal in mines. This is how the prosperity of the capitalist world was built. Elegant upper decks, and below - hell. Literally. But who remembers? Memory rejects hell, leaving only the beauty of an elitist life, and gives rise to romantic ideas about the initial era of capitalist industrialization. However, the brutality of Western capitalism did not produce a counter-violence from the working class in the form of revolutions. Everything was skillfully extinguished by wars.
                1. Liam
                  Liam 18 February 2022 20: 34
                  +1
                  Quote: depressant
                  This is how the well-being of the capitalist world was built



                  1988, Kirghiz SSR. Students of secondary school No. 9 in the city of Jalal-Abad while working in a cotton field. Photo by M. Ashirbaev/TASS newsreel

                  hi
  8. Flooding
    Flooding 18 February 2022 02: 18
    +5
    Indeed, until 1930, only the Eiffel Tower was taller than the Woolworth Building.


    In 1930 The Chrysler Building, a 77-storey skyscraper with a height of 319 meters, was built by order of the owner of the eponymous automobile concern, Walter Chrysler.

    And until the 50s, for more than 20 years, all this hulk was occupied by the Chrysler headquarters.

    Like the Woolworth Building, the Chrysler Building is on the US National Register of Historic Landmarks.

    Like the Woolworth Building, the Chrysler Building is decorated with gargoyles. But stylized in a completely different way: in the form of wings (similar to the wings on the radiator cap of a 1929 model car), eagle heads and other curiosities.

    A cursory acquaintance with New York skyscrapers gives an understanding of what inspired the creators of Gotham City.
  9. CHEREDA73
    CHEREDA73 18 February 2022 03: 16
    +4
    The article is so ... fundamental!
    Thanks to the author. You can’t read quickly, your eyes constantly cling to information and numbers. good
    In the common room, even the bust of the Kaiser was removed (as if this somehow affected the stability of a ship of this size)

    This struggle for stability reminded me of the struggle for range during the preparation of the record flight ANT-25 by the crew of Mikhail Gromov. They left all the reserves on the ground in case of an accident and, it seems, even bit the "unnecessarily" long bodies of the bolts.
  10. Castro Ruiz
    Castro Ruiz 18 February 2022 21: 39
    +2
    Chic article.
    The author is a big plus.
  11. bubalik
    bubalik 18 February 2022 21: 46
    +1
    Alexander, I really liked the article. Thanks good
    I understand you, when you write about one thing, many facts come up about another. wink .
    1. A. Privalov
      18 February 2022 23: 10
      +1
      Quote: bubalik
      Alexander, I really liked the article. Thanks good
      I understand you, when you write about one thing, many facts come up about another. wink .

      Very glad. Enjoy. hi
      "A lot" is putting it mildly! Sometimes, you just drown in an incredible amount of material. Enough not for an article, but for a weighty monograph. fellow
  12. aries2200
    aries2200 22 February 2022 12: 59
    0
    Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, not 1822! there is an error in the photo...