Military Review

Missile hovercraft "Samum"

Hovercraft "Samum" and "Bora", included in the 41st crew of missile boats of the Black Sea fleet Russia, are considered one of the most extreme and to some extent unique warships.
These are ships of the skeg type (air cushion), in fact - catamarans with two narrow hulls and a very wide deck. They have unique shipbuilding qualities - this is the hydrodynamic platform’s transformability and multi-variant - 36 use cases for propulsion systems.
On the one hand, the ship is a catamaran with a speed range up to 20 knots, on the other hand, a high-speed hovercraft with a maximum speed of up to 55 knots, which allows the ship not to get into the seizure of homing missiles, and also to move faster than the fired torpedo.

Thanks to the Mosquito anti-ship missile system made of 8 missiles, these ships are the best strike ships for non-freezing closed sea theaters of action.
Today we will visit one of these unusual warships - "Samum", tail number 616.

3. The hovercraft (RKVP, project 1239) was created as a development of the small rocket ships 1234 and 12341 already existing in the fleets of the Soviet Union. The experience of using these ships in combat services in the Mediterranean has shown that ships of this dimension and classical formations are limited in location weapons. The catamaran of the project 1239 has a large deck, which allows to solve this problem, more comfortable conditions for the use of weapons and crew accommodation. In addition, it has a high seaworthiness. When creating the RVCP, the experience of the TsMKB Almaz and the shipbuilding industry, acquired during the construction of airborne assault ships such as Jayran, Zubr, etc., was also widely used.

Missile hovercraft "Samum"

4. The first missile hovercraft of this project was RKVP "Bora", laid in 1984 on the stocks of the shipyard "Red Metalist" in Zelenodolsk near Kazan. In September, 1991 was laid the second ship of this series - "Samum". It was launched on 12.10.1992.
NATO-all classification of ships of this type - "BORA CLASS"

5. After construction, Samum was transferred by inland waterways to the Black Sea, arriving in November 1992 in Kerch, and in March 1993 in Sevastopol. Then the ship was again sent to the construction plant, in October 1993 arrived in Zelenodolsk. In September, 1994 passed through the inland waterways to the Baltic Sea, and since December 1996 has passed state tests in Baltiysk. 26.02.2000 was officially put into operation. It was part of the Baltic Fleet's 36 Brigade. In 2002, this RVCP was relocated from the Baltic to the Black Sea Fleet, becoming part of the 41-th Separate Brigade of Black Sea Fleet missile boats.

6. The ship consists of two narrow hulls, covered with a platform 64 m length and 18 m width. Elastic screen in front

7. Two quadruple launchers of the Mosquito anti-ship missile system (8 3М80 missiles), the Osa-M anti-aircraft missile system (20 missiles), one 76-mm AK-176 gun set, two 30-mm gun units are used as weapons on the ship. AK-630

8. The AK-176 caliber 76,2-mm artillery gun mounted on the tank (bow) of the ship is a powerful and at the same time light universal automatic gun mount for arming small ships and boats. Its main purpose - the fight with low-flying cruise missiles such as "Harpoon" and "Tomahawk."

9. On the sides of the “Samum” there are two quadruple installations of the Mosquito anti-ship missile system.
This complex uses cruise missiles 3М-80, which are designed to defeat surface ships and transports from the composition of the shipboard strike groups, amphibious units, convoys and single ships. The 4 ton rocket has a length of almost 10 meters and a range of up to 90 km.
After launch, the rocket makes a “slide”, and then decreases to a mid-flight flight height of about 20 meters, when approaching the target, it drops to 7 meters (above the wave crest). The rocket can perform intensive anti-aircraft maneuvers with overloads exceeding 10 units. Due to the huge kinetic energy and its semi-armored warhead, the Mosquito pierces the hull of any ship and explodes inside.

10. The 6 artillery 30-mm artillery gun AK-630 mm is a vehicle self-defense weapon and can be used to hit air targets at a slant range to 4000 m and light enemy surface forces at distances to 5000 m.
This gun mount has a very high rate of fire (up to 5000 rounds per minute) and a projectile range of up to 8 km.

11. Samum is equipped with two X-NUMX-mm PK-82 shipborne interference systems. They are intended for setting radar and optical-electronic diverting false targets to counter guided weapons with radar and optical-electronic guidance systems.

12. Mine of the Osa-MA anti-aircraft missile system. The complex is designed to protect against air targets, as well as for firing at surface targets.

13. Two gas turbine units with a capacity of 36 thousand horsepower each provide an air cushion stroke.
Having said that, having two separate propulsion and full propulsion systems capable of operating separately and jointly, the ship can move in three main modes (catamaran, air cushion boat-1 and -2), which provides almost one hundred percent guarantee of progress any situation.

14. If it is necessary to move on an air cushion, in the aft part of the ship two columns are lowered with tandem screws mounted on them.
The engines of the ship allow speeding up to 55 nodes, even at wave heights of 2 m, and with 5 points (3,5 wave m) - more than 40 nodes

15. Radar system


17. View of the stern of the rocket ship with raised screw columns and the OSA-MA mine

18. The bridge. From here, the ship is controlled during the cruise.

19. Periscope

20. A look at the opposite shore. Houses in Appolonovka

21.Machine telegraph

22. Get down into the depths of "Samum". Here are narrow corridors and cable harnesses

23. "Post Office" ship.

24. Kubrick, where the ship crew lives

25. Drinking water tank in a residential cockpit

26. Dining team. Preparing for dinner

27. Engine room

28. The general propulsion system of the ship consists of two gas-turbine installations МХNUMX-10 according to 1 hp. (on tandem screws, in lowered columns) ...

29. ... two M-511A diesel engines for 20000 hp (on 2 propellers) ...

30. ... and two diesel engines M-504 6600 hp (for blower fans)

31. The total engine power exceeds 120 thousand hp.

32. Automatic deck fire extinguishing system during the shooting of cruise missiles

33. Life threatening ....

34. Infinite maze of valves and supply tubes

35. Wedges for emergency repair in the event of a ship getting holes during the battle

36. Post energy and vitality. From here, the power plant of the ship is controlled, the speed is adjusted, etc.

37. All surveillance cameras installed on the ship are also displayed here.

38. Rocket ship "Samum" on a parade during the celebration of the Navy Day in 2012

This report was prepared with the assistance of the Black Sea Fleet Command of the Russian Federation.

Subscribe to our Telegram channel, regularly additional information about the special operation in Ukraine, a large amount of information, videos, something that does not fall on the site:

Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must sign in.
  1. Sakhalininsk
    Sakhalininsk 24 September 2012 08: 08
    Wonderful ships in their characteristics. Almost ideal for puddles such as the Black, Baltic, Caspian Seas.
    As they say, the Soviet military-industrial complex was a real supplier of weapons ahead of time.
  2. Tirpitz
    Tirpitz 24 September 2012 09: 35
    Thanks to the author for the article. A very interesting excursion, especially to such an unusual ship.
  3. Ross
    Ross 24 September 2012 09: 50
    Eh. More to them.
    1. Armata
      Armata 24 September 2012 15: 33
      Quote: Ross

      Eh. More to them
      What for? For the seas, the ekranoplan is more terrible and effective. Just answer one question. Why did we close the project of ekranoplanes (from which everything was compressed to 0) and began to develop these. Yes, they will also apply. Imagine the situation when the ekranoplanes approached, cleared the shore, and then the BDK entered and the landing party only needed to gain a foothold on the shore.
      And one more question. Do we even have a lot of these left?
      1. DIMS
        DIMS 24 September 2012 15: 40
        What ekranoplanes will cleanse the shore from?
      2. Simon bolivar
        Simon bolivar 24 September 2012 16: 35
        It can be seen that shoulder straps here give rare imbitsilah, this ship has become a logical development of the program of hovercraft. It has nothing to do with ekranoplanes.
        We had only 2 of them, at all times at the time of the collapse of the Union "Bora" was the most advanced ship of the world Navy.
        And by the way, how would the ekranoplans clean the shore? With your own building?
        1. spender
          spender 24 September 2012 16: 38
          Quote: SimonBolivar
          Seen shoulder straps here give rare imbitsilami

          So here they give epaulettes shoulder straps, which are rude not knowing the opponent and his place of work laughing
          1. Simon bolivar
            Simon bolivar 24 September 2012 16: 51
            Such nonsense will not be carried out by competent people.
            1. spender
              spender 24 September 2012 16: 53
              Quote: SimonBolivar
              Such nonsense will not be carried out by competent people.

              Well, yes, literate people like you swear and are rude winked
              After all, only a truly competent person can post this

              Simon bolivar Today, 16: 47 ↑
              -1 What is not a word that crap, with your head the last time you thought?
              This boat picks up speed of almost 90km \ h. Avoid getting a rocket at this speed much higher.
              Yeah, it’s all sawed in half by some kind of rocket cutter or seriously cut through
        2. Alexander Romanov
          Alexander Romanov 24 September 2012 16: 47
          Quote: SimonBolivar

          Seen shoulder straps here give rare imbitsilami,

          Hello oh stranger wink
          Quote: SimonBolivar
          By the way, what would the ekranoplans clean the shore for? Own hull?

          And what, was there no weapon on them? If so smart, can you enlighten on the construction of ekranoplanes wink
          1. Simon bolivar
            Simon bolivar 24 September 2012 16: 51
            The same anti-ship moskites.
            1. Simon bolivar
              Simon bolivar 24 September 2012 16: 54
              The frantic minus the facts.
              It is better to be gray, it is at least slightly different from the tribe imbitsilov.
              1. spender
                spender 24 September 2012 16: 58
                Quote: SimonBolivar
                It is better to be gray, it is at least slightly different from the tribe imbitsilov.

                I can introduce one in two nicknames "skull-like" .. This is something laughing
                1. Oleg0705
                  Oleg0705 24 September 2012 18: 39
                  Quote: spender
                  I can introduce one in two nicknames "skull-like" .. This is something

                  You better know him with Arollo. Atatürk he is familiar, it’s definitely something. laughing I was bombarded with threats, I can not go out lol And he needs my scalp number right now. If there is a doctor you know, advise him, he is your friend. lol
            2. Alexander Romanov
              Alexander Romanov 24 September 2012 17: 05
              Quote: SimonBolivar
              The same anti-ship mosquitoes

              Not only, various types were planned, including to support the landing. Do you even understand the insight of the word imbitsil or heard from someone and liked the word lol
              1. DIMS
                DIMS 24 September 2012 17: 08
                And how can the landing craft support ekranoplans?
                1. Alexander Romanov
                  Alexander Romanov 24 September 2012 17: 14
                  Quote: DIMS

                  And how landing can support ekranoplans

                  Now there’s no way, we simply don’t have them, but before we planned various types of fire support, dig into the star, there is a lot on this topic.
                2. spender
                  spender 24 September 2012 17: 17
                  Quote: DIMS
                  And how can the landing craft support ekranoplans?

                  Dmitry, the ekranoplanes program was curtailed in the early stages, and therefore there was no equipment of various types of weapons, nor was there a concept for using ekranoplanes in various databases. Recall the First World War and how pilots of biplanes threw bombs into their hands and shot at each other almost from revolvers and watch WWII (all types of aviation worked) and more ... Therefore, it’s difficult to reason now, but you can imagine their armament and scope , but the fact that they would not be superfluous is 100% hi
                  1. DIMS
                    DIMS 24 September 2012 17: 27
                    What for? Commercial application, maybe. Carry passengers. But the rest?

                    But on ships like "Sanum" with its dual-mode were going to be rather actively developed.
                    Next in line was an anti-submarine ship for guarding the near sea zone with a helicopter hangar, then a landing ship, a minesweeper, then a large anti-submarine one for the distant sea and ocean.

                    1. Konrad
                      Konrad 25 September 2012 20: 24
                      Quote: DIMS

                      What for? Commercial application - may be

                      Ekranoplan "Lun" - attack missile carrier, 6 missiles "Moskit", speed 500 km / h. Stands, rusts in Kaspiysk. Landing craft "Eaglet" - The device is capable of taking on board up to 200 marines with full weapons or two armored vehicles (tank, armored personnel carrier, BMP). Thanks to its structural design, the ekranoplan can freely overcome mine and network protective barriers by simply flying over them. To carry passengers ???
          2. DIMS
            DIMS 24 September 2012 17: 05
            And where does the ekranoplanes in general? And even more so, it is not clear how they can be contrasted with pretty promising skeg ships.
            1. bazilio
              bazilio 24 September 2012 20: 20
              As it often happens, there is an article about Samum, in comments about imbicycles and ekranoplans)) Ekranoplans for stripping the coast and, moreover, for supporting the landing, in my opinion are of little use.

              Simon Bolivar It is better to be gray, it is at least slightly different from the tribe imbitsilov.
              Unreasonable mud pouring of opponents is an extremely constructive way of conducting discussions, in an adult way! And reasonably express their point of view, and even without insults, this is so, for children of preschool age)))
              1. REPA1963
                REPA1963 24 September 2012 22: 10
                The ekranoplanes in the USSR were conceived as a means of delivery and support for an amphibious assault, all the same 700km per hour .... these are somewhat different vessels with a catamaran, as I understand it ......
                1. bazilio
                  bazilio 28 September 2012 08: 08
                  yes, you did. What kind of weapon can the ekranoplan be used to support the landing troops? All the advantage of the ekranoplan is speed. And the support of the assault force during the landing and seizure of the coastal strip is not so mobile, therefore the support means must drift near the coast, and for this speed is not so important, the availability of support means is important - artillery, missile weapons, air defense ... now answer like an ekranoplan will support the landing? cut into circles in the landing area? or just float in place? if you swim, where to place the weapons and how much can you place on the ekranoplan? And according to this, the ekranoplan is ideal for delivering troops / cargo or as a "ship fighter"
            2. Konrad
              Konrad 25 September 2012 20: 29
  4. Leisure
    Leisure 24 September 2012 10: 02
    Lovely photo story, really liked it.
    It can be seen that the device is quite ancient. What are the prospects for the development of this class of ships, that's what is interesting.
    1. saturn.mmm
      saturn.mmm 24 September 2012 11: 06
      Quote: Lazer
      It can be seen that the device is quite ancient.

      A ship of middle age, almost since 1993. For the Black Sea, the amphibian is the best suited, if anything can hide on the shore behind the mountain.
      1. Old skeptic
        Old skeptic 24 September 2012 13: 51
        Quote: saturn.mmm
        amphibian, if that can hide on the shore behind the mountain.

        Must disappoint you.
        This ship is not amphibious, it cannot go ashore, because the hull is not suitable for ground travel (the skirt is not around the entire perimeter), and there are no air marching engines.

        It moves on an air cushion, dropping guilt into the water (the very speakers with tandem screws), this is a very interesting constructive solution (power plant efficiency is higher).
  5. Rus_87
    Rus_87 24 September 2012 10: 45
    Nice ship! The inscription on the gun mount "Do not walk when rotating" smiled from lenolium along the way =)))
  6. keylogger
    keylogger 24 September 2012 11: 42
    Ah, what a little one :)))
    It is necessary moreeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeest !!!!!!
  7. viruskvartirus
    viruskvartirus 24 September 2012 12: 08
    The car is very beautiful, I’ve seen more than once .... and with very severe weapons (Mosquito after all! Inertial navigation system, radio altimeter and active passive radar seeker, speed 2,8 M, explosive mass: 150 kg. Designed to destroy surface ships with a displacement of up to 20 tons). Under the article "what allows the ship not to get caught in the homing missiles", this is doubtful and the purpose of the AK-000 is not only in firing at missiles).
    1. Simon bolivar
      Simon bolivar 24 September 2012 16: 47
  8. Optimist
    Optimist 24 September 2012 12: 42
    In a word, a chic project !!!!!!!! And who knows if modernization is planned in the future?
  9. Victor
    Victor 24 September 2012 13: 02
    In 2004 he had the good fortune to be invited to visit by the commander of "Samum", captain-ranked Vladimir Matyukhin. Thanks to Vladimir, he gave the opportunity to get acquainted with the ship and go to sea. The best impressions. The vehicle is simply unique in terms of its armament and running characteristics. True, there is practically no armor, some duralumin alloys, but he has other tasks. Jumped, rocket strike and at full speed tick back. According to the armament specialists, it is planned to equip the "mosquitoes" with a special warhead for a possible strike on the fortifications of two well-known Black Sea straits, which is on the balance sheet of a NATO member.
    It is a pity that the project was limited to two ships.
  10. Very smart
    Very smart 24 September 2012 14: 02
    I read the article. The impression is twofold. Beautiful interesting photos, considered performance characteristics, decent rockets ... BUT: the author somehow did not notice that this ship is not a hovercraft !!! This ship has a skeg structure with partial dynamic support. Exactly!!! Unlike a hovercraft, this ship is displacement and uses propellers as a propulsion device. The propellers are not simple - supercavitating with folding blades, BUT propellers. Hovercraft on the move fly over the water, practically not touching its "skirt" and use propellers as a propeller. In ships of this type, air is blown between the skegs, which makes it possible to significantly reduce the submerged part of the hull, reduce the water resistance and thereby increase the speed.
    The Zubr and others mentioned in the article are really hovercraft and, unlike the Samum, go ashore along a gentle slope and "park" there! They are based on the shore!
    The last of the experimental models of this spacecraft "Ikar" was tested on "Almaz" until the 80s. She walked well, and we showed 45 knots on it.
    1. Rjn
      Rjn 24 September 2012 15: 13
      A very correct amendment. I wanted to write it myself, but I am not a specialist to describe it that way. Once on the Dnieper, skeg "buses" went.
  11. biglow
    biglow 24 September 2012 14: 06
    I hope everyone understands what a special warhead is. Despite the nuclear-free status of Maloros, they say that such ammunition is stored in the Sevast, the Black Sea Fleet naturally
  12. tan0472
    tan0472 24 September 2012 15: 53
    Two questions.
    1) How much the ship can go without refueling.
    2) Why a box for used envelopes.
  13. sergant89
    sergant89 24 September 2012 18: 58
    All my youth I lived in the Caspian Sea more than a dozen times I had to see ekranoplanes going over the sea (someone talk about the Caspian as a puddle, even if they look at this puddle alive they are no different from the Black Sea, only the environment is ten times better), it was the beauty of the roar of turbines, the rainbow in the rays of the spray and the frantic speed, and there were options with missiles, but even these catamarans are not even bad, but I wonder how many we have
  14. Andrei
    Andrei 24 September 2012 20: 10
    Thanks to the author for the article and especially thanks for the photos!
    1. REPA1963
      REPA1963 24 September 2012 22: 12
      For such photos in our time, prison or disbat .....
      1. biglow
        biglow 25 September 2012 09: 49
        not everyone is allowed on ships now, the author of the photo is a well-known Sevastopol blogger, with good connections at the headquarters of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation
      2. mitya
        mitya 25 September 2012 10: 02
        For such photos in our time, prison or disbat .....

        And for what prison?
        They didn’t post anything secret.
  15. Megatron
    Megatron 19 October 2012 18: 07
    from Lenolium along the way cut out =)))

    Yes, and linoleum in the cabin, very homely! drinks
  16. sumcream56
    sumcream56 10 September 2013 11: 18
    At present, the Lun ekranoplan-rocket carrier is being mothballed with the prospect of turning into a monument at best, and at worst it will simply be cut into scrap metal. At the same time, ships in the air cavity of the Sivuch type (Bora and Samum) are in service. Let us compare the combat qualities of these two products.
    1. The main caliber: it is the same for both ships — it is the ZM-80 Mosquito anti-ship missiles. “Bora” carries 8 (eight missiles), “Lun” -6 (six). But the maximum speed of the Bora is 55 knots (102 km / h), and the Lun has 450 to 500 km / h (according to various sources) .. That is, having a high speed of 4,4 times, Lun for the same period time can deliver (given the time to the base and back and the loading of weapons) in 1,5 (one and a half times) a larger number of missiles.
    2. Additional armament: the Lun has 2 double-barreled 23 mm cannons, the Bora has 2 × 4 launchers of the Moskit anti-ship missile (8 3M80 missiles)
    1 × 2 launcher SAM "Osa-M" (20 missiles), one - 76-mm gun mount AK-176. 2 × 6 30-mm gun mounts AK-630. It seems to be "Bora" here more efficient. However, nothing prevented from strengthening the Lun’s armament with an anti-aircraft missile system. The combat mass of the complex with missiles (20 pieces) is about 10 tons, that is, with a Lun loading capacity of 138 tons, its placement was not a big problem.
    3. Labor: crew "Lunya" -11 people, "Burs" - 68 people.
    4. Range: Lun has -2000 km, Bora has 45 knots -800 miles (1482 km), 12 knots -2500 miles (4650 km). But under the high-speed regime, “Lun beats” Bora by 1,4 times, especially since there is nowhere to go for 4,5 thousand km on the Black Sea or the Baltic Sea.
    5. Energy (fuel) efficiency. Consider the energy costs in kW / h for the delivery of 1 single Mosquito missile over a distance of 1000 km. At "Bora" engine power -2 GTU M10−1 36000 hp (for tandem screws, in lowering columns) 2 diesel engines of economical travel M-511A 20000 hp (for 2 screws); 2 diesel engines M-504 at 6600 hp (for discharge fans), that is, at full speed, the engine power is 78600 hp or 57,8 thousand kW, that is, the delivery of 1 rocket at a speed of 55 knots per 1000 km will require an energy cost of 69,5 thousand kW-hours. Lun has an engine power of -8 turbojet engines of 13000 kg of thrust; this is equivalent (According to the Letter of the State Civil Aviation Service of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation dated April 3, 2003 N KR28 / 150GA) 57,6 thousand kW, that is, the delivery of 1 rocket at a speed of 450 km / h per 1000 km requires energy costs of 21,25 , 3,27 thousand kW-hours, that is XNUMX times less than that of Bora.
    6. “Lun” seaworthiness on the screen is 5-6 points, with a flight height on the screen of up to 5 meters. Bora has a formal seaworthiness of -8 points, but the speed of up to 55 knots is achieved at a wave height of not more than 2 m, and with a wave of 5 points (wave 3,5 m) - no more than 40 knots. However, the "Lun" in experimental flights switched to the "jump" (free flight) mode, rising to a height of 100 meters. On this basis, the "Lun" had no restrictions on seaworthiness.