Military Review

September 23 1944. The action began on the resettlement of the Ukrainian population from Poland to Ukraine

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September 23 1944. The action began on the resettlement of the Ukrainian population from Poland to Ukraine

23 September 1944 began the action to evict ethnic Ukrainians and Ruthenians from Poland to the Ukrainian SSR. The beginning of this operation was laid 9 September 1944, when it was concluded so-called. “Lublin Agreement”. The Polish Committee for National Liberation (PKNO) concluded three international agreements with three republics of the USSR — the Byelorussian SSR, the Ukrainian SSR, and the Lithuanian SSR. The official name of the treaty is “Agreement between the Government of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Polish National Liberation Committee on the evacuation of the Ukrainian population from the territory of Poland and Polish citizens from the territory of the Ukrainian SSR”. On the part of PKNO, the agreement was signed by the Chairman of the Committee Edward Osubka-Moravsky, on the part of the Ukrainian SSR by the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Ukrainian SSR Nikita Khrushchev. The agreement provided an opportunity for Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians, and Rusyns to leave for the Ukrainian SSR and return to the Polish Republic of Poles and Jews who, as of 17 September 1939 (when Soviet forces entered the Polish territory), were citizens of the Polish state. The main representatives of the Ukrainian government of the Ukrainian SSR in the evacuation of the population were N. Podgorny and M. Romashchenko (January 1 1946), from Poland - the consul Rogalsky, and then Iosif Bednazh. Their residences were located in Lublin and Lutsk. The main representatives had two deputies, regional representatives and representatives, experts and various technical personnel.

The agreement provided for the relocation to the territory of Ukraine of all Ukrainians who lived in Vlodavsky, Chelm, Zamostyevsky, Krasnostavsky, Bilgoraysky, Hrubieshovsky, Lyubachivsky, Tomashovsky, Yaroslavsky, Peremyshlsky, Leskovsky counties. In addition, this agreement concerned other areas of the Polish state, where Ukrainians lived, who wanted to move to the Ukrainian SSR. The Ukrainian immigrants took with themselves certificates of abandoned property; on the basis of these documents, they in the Ukrainian SSR were paid the appropriate material compensation.

23 September 1944, the action of mass migration of the border population from Poland to Ukraine and vice versa, has begun. However, since the beginning of winter, the number of people willing to resettle on both sides has decreased significantly. Due to this reason, we had to repeatedly change and shift the deadlines for the end of the resettlement operation. So, in winter, the 1945 promotion was suspended due to weather conditions. In the spring of 1945, residents of villages heavily destroyed during the withdrawal of the German army from the areas of Lupkovsky and Dukelsky passes left for the Ukrainian SSR. After that, the action began to acquire compulsory order, and Polish troops were attracted to it. So, from 1 September to 31 December 1945 g, with the help of connections 3 th, 8 th and 9 th divisions of the Polish army, more than 80 thousand people were evicted. Forced relocation during this period affected four districts: Zalessky. Peremyshl, Sanok and Lubachov.

Among the reasons for which the Ukrainian and Ruthenian population refused to travel to Ukraine, besides the obvious desires to leave their homes and acquired property, there were other reasons. So, some were influenced by the Bandera propaganda (OUN), which frightened people being expelled to Siberia by Stalin’s camps. In addition, units of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army and the Security Council of the OUN (b) terrorized the immigrants, destroyed members of the resettlement commissions.

In 1946, the eviction campaign was continued. In a number of villages the Polish army had to suppress the demonstrations of the population by force, there were casualties. In total, during the eviction of the Ukrainian population from the Polish Republic to the USSR, more than 482 thousand people were resettled from the Krakow, Ryashevsky and Lublin provinces. In total, about 518 thousand people arrived from the Polish Republic to the Soviet Union. And in Poland at the end of October 1946, about 1,1 million people were relocated from the USSR (of which more than 810 thousand people from the Ukrainian territory). Among them were more than 140 thousand Jews, most of whom were forwarded to British Palestine.

6 May 1947, the Polish and Soviet governments gave a joint statement on the completion of the resettlement of the Ukrainian population from the territory of Poland to the Ukrainian SSR and the resettlement of the Poles from the territory of the Ukrainian SSR to Poland.

The action of the mass migration of Ukrainians in 1944-1946. I could not completely solve the “Ukrainian question” in Poland. In the Polish Republic, there are up to 150 thousand Ukrainians. In 1947, the Polish authorities conducted Operation Wisla, when the Ukrainian population from the south-eastern regions of Poland was resettled to the north-western territories (they used to be part of Germany and were received by Poland after the end of World War II). The Poles justified their decision by the need to destroy the base for the activities of the UPA.
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  1. Dovmont
    Dovmont 23 September 2012 08: 17
    +11
    No matter what, but only Przemysl, Kholm, Yaroslav, Bialystok - these are native Russian cities. And these lands rightfully belong to the Rusyns who lived on them for more than 1000 years. Under the pressure of the English women, the Curzon line was drawn, which gave these lands to the Psheks, damn it.
    1. uladzimir.surko
      uladzimir.surko 23 September 2012 10: 30
      +2
      Interestingly, and you asked Belarus? hi
    2. artem772
      artem772 23 September 2012 12: 56
      +5
      Be careful, otherwise you can agree so that St. Petersburg is a German city, Birobidzhan is an Israeli city, and Gelendzhik is Turkish.
      In general, you need to understand who the "Rusyns" are. And this is the real name of today's Ukrainians. Most of the Rusyns were renamed "Ukrainians" and "Malorosov" by Poles and Russians, respectively. The Russians (then Muscovites) borrowed the name from them. And that insignificant part of the Rusyns who lived in Transcarpathia (in Austria-Hungary) were more fortunate - no one renamed them there, so there they have retained their real name to this day.
      1. Curculum
        Curculum 23 September 2012 14: 15
        +1
        Quote: artem772
        Russians (then Muscovites)

        Exactly - "Be careful, otherwise it is possible to agree to" the existence of "Kharkins" or "Hersins". laughing
        PS However, it has already been "proven" that the ancestors of Genghis Khan on oxen to Tibet rushed from Scythia ...
    3. Insurgent
      Insurgent 23 September 2012 23: 49
      0
      Bialystok is a native Belarusian land
  2. apro
    apro 23 September 2012 08: 43
    +3
    That’s how the problems of separatism are tackled quickly and quickly. Therefore, the Poles quickly crushed Bandera.
    1. Kaa
      Kaa 23 September 2012 13: 45
      +1
      Quote: apro
      Therefore, the Poles quickly crushed Bandera.

      That's it. And they took the initiative, but in western Ukraine they believe that the Russians have attacked them again. But it happened like this: “65 years ago, a brutal operation by the Polish communist government took place, during which about 150 thousand Ukrainians were thrown out of their homes. 28 March 1947 in General Karol Sverczewski, Deputy Defense Minister of Poland, was killed in an ambush by Ukrainian rebels from hundreds of "Horseradish" and "Stakh". during the Second World War) was used as a pretext for the beginning of the mass deportation of Ukrainians from the eastern territories of the state restored after the war.A leaflet distributed by Polish soldiers among the Ukrainian population after the start of the operation noted: “In order to finally eliminate the center of banditry in the southeastern territories, the government The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth decided, according to the law on to resettle the Ukrainian population from the territories covered by banditry. These actions are carried out by the state repatriation government. The Ukrainian population must understand that the resettlement is a consequence of the actions of the UPA. In fact, the large-scale action had another goal, which the propaganda did not talk about. Even in the first version of the operation plan (its then name was "Vostok"), another, more important, goal was very clearly indicated: "The final solution of the Ukrainian problem in Poland." It seems that the Polish officials who wrote this document were inspired by the wording about "Endlösung der Judenfrage" and were not at all shy about borrowing the terminology from the Nazis. During the Second World War, a real war broke out between the Ukrainian and Polish underground movements for control of territories that both claimed to be in. It was a war in which both sides resorted to ethnic cleansing and committed war crimes. Resettlement was officially declared voluntary. But soon it stopped on the territory of Poland - the Ukrainians, who considered these territories their ancestral lands, were not going to leave them. In order to "stimulate" their desire to be evicted, the Polish authorities in September 1945 involved military units in the deportation. The direct executor of the dirty operation, during which about 150 thousand Ukrainians were thrown out of their homes, was the Polish communist government, its military and police structures "http://argumentua.com/stati/kto-zapustil-vislu-ili-okonchatelnoe-
      reshenie-ukrainskoi-problemy-v-polshe
      1. smile
        smile 23 September 2012 17: 18
        +5
        Kaa
        I would like to add, it does not matter, communist, or what other power the Poles had. They acted absolutely in their own style and were guided by no means Capital. This is an example of the usual attitude of Poles towards Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians. In exactly the same way they acted on the territories occupied in the 20th ...
        By the way, as part of such a resettlement, my grandmother’s numerous relatives went to Poland from the city of Vilna. Resettlement was voluntary. Grandma wanted to stay in view of meeting my grandfather. She was ostracized by the family for having committed three crimes:
        messed up with an officer of the Soviet Army
        this officer, oh horror, Ukrainian
        he, a badge, is also a communist.
        The stump is clear, the gentle Polish soul could not endure such a shame and communication with relatives was settled only in the fifties ...
  3. Bandera
    Bandera 23 September 2012 14: 37
    -1
    To not talk about this historical fact, it was politically correct. This finally decided the aura of Ukrainians and Poles and resolved long-standing interethnic conflicts.
    1. smile
      smile 23 September 2012 17: 25
      -1
      Bandera
      You can agree, but I hope you will agree in this case that the measures against the Crimean Tatars and Chechens were even more justified and objectively contributed to the solution of the problem of banditry and pro-fascist partisan detachments?
    2. arches
      arches 23 September 2012 18: 16
      +1
      According to your logic, the Americans were also right about the Indians. With such considerations, anything can be justified, the weaker people are hindering the strong people - attack them, beat them, expel them, destroy them ..
      1. smile
        smile 23 September 2012 19: 17
        +3
        arches
        So the fact of the matter is that I gave an example of the failure of your logic. After all, in your opinion, it turns out that the forcible eviction of Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians was politically correct and resolved interethnic conflicts (of course, in favor of the Poles), and our similar actions (in which weapons were withdrawn into two divisions, up to 70 artillery pieces and mortars) - genocide.
        After all, it is your logic that allows you to justify anything.
        By the way. unlike the Indians, the Tatars and Chechens were not subjected to genocide, otherwise their numbers did not increase at times ... some kind of strange genocide .....
        because, there - correctly, the Poles of the Ukrainians - "hey, beat him, drive him out, destroy him"?
        1. smile
          smile 23 September 2012 19: 36
          0
          arches
          I apologize - I was mistaken - where I write "Your logic", it was necessary to write - the logic that you defend. Well ... jammed me :)))))
  4. Sasha 19871987
    Sasha 19871987 23 September 2012 20: 08
    0
    Yes, the war in one word, which only did not happen there ... how many horrors passed, okay, they simply evicted, but not shot ...
  5. arches
    arches 23 September 2012 20: 22
    -2
    The mistake, the comment was for Bendery, but personally I find it funny to read the excuses of the conquerors who came to foreign territory and justify their actions with the benefit of the local peoples. The Vistula operation to evict Ukrainians from the lands where their ancestors lived for millennia was genocide. The Poles asked the permission of the merchant Stalin - he allowed them to be produced.
    1. smile
      smile 23 September 2012 20: 38
      +2
      arches
      Thank. that they showed their true face ... :))) I must admit that I’m tired of people like you, but I won’t stop wondering - if the Poles justified the operation, I would understand .... but you ... well, since you like that your people. driven from the lands where they lived for centuries, forbidden to speak and get an education. they burn villages and hang up (the Poles did all this from year 20 to year 39 at the command of the omnipotent Koba) then I congratulate you ... the main thing is not to forget stupidly how to repeat the mantra - the Russians are to blame for everything ... and you must not think either in no case, for if you think about it. what are you talking nonsense ...
      And about the conquests -0, save the ardor - then I will soap your neck - now there is simply no time ...
      1. arches
        arches 23 September 2012 20: 45
        0
        I just condemn the Poles, but apparently you only hear yourself))
  6. arches
    arches 23 September 2012 20: 49
    -1
    Do not forget to always and everywhere proclaim - "Russia is always right"
    1. aleksandroff
      aleksandroff 24 September 2012 01: 02
      0
      stupid visible guy. jammed.
  7. 8 company
    8 company 24 September 2012 09: 45
    -1
    The Rusyns were not very lucky: on the 1st World War their Austro-Hungarians were starved in camps, on the 2nd World War they rushed from Hitler to the USSR, there they were also raked into camps. The Poles and the Western Ukrainians also did not favor them. Darted between the rock and the anvil for quite some time.
  8. codvosem
    codvosem 24 September 2012 13: 55
    0
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    codvosem 24 September 2012 17: 11
    0
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  10. Aaron Zawi
    Aaron Zawi 24 September 2012 22: 27
    +1
    And it seems to me that for this operation, modern Poles and Ukrainians really should be grateful to those who made the decisions. Indeed, due to the fact that ethnic disengagement was carried out then, Polish-Ukrainian ethnic conflicts are practically minimized today. Imagine that ethnic minorities under the influence of nationalists live compactly in these countries. This is a situation of constant conflict and well, if not armed.