Military Review

"The fight was terrible." Defeat of the Trinity Battalion in the Battle of Sultan-Buda

49
The painting depicts the defeat of the battalion of the Trinity Infantry Regiment of the Russian army on February 13, 1812 near Sultan Buda. On the left side of the picture at the head of the Persian army in a blue robe is Abbas Mirza. With his right hand, he points to the severed heads of the enemy. In the center of the picture on horseback is an English officer. On the right side of the canvas, a battle is shown that took place in the Russian camp. Russians (under banners with a double-headed eagle) are surrounded by Persians (under banners depicting a lion holding a saber in its paw against the backdrop of the rising sun). The picture was part of the decoration of the castle of Abbas-Mirza - Ujan. In 1828, the painting was taken by the Russians as a trophy to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg.

210 years ago, the Persian army of Abbas-Mirza invaded the Karabakh Khanate and defeated the 3rd battalion of the Trinity Infantry Regiment of the Russian army in the battle of Saltan-Buda. Most of the battalion fell in a fierce battle with an entire enemy army, the rest surrendered.


All Russian troops in the Caucasus were outraged by the surrender of the battalion of the Trinity Regiment.

Kotlyarevsky in his report to the Marquis Paulucci wrote:

“I could not believe that the Russians would surrender without the most extreme.”

War


The Russian-Persian war of 1804-1813 was caused by the desire of Persia (Iran) to restore its dominance in the Caucasus.

The Russians annexed Georgia and part of Azerbaijan, which the Persians considered their patrimony.

England stood behind Persia, which spoiled Russia wherever it could - in the Balkans, in the Baltic states, in the Caucasus, in Persia, etc. Then, when the Russian Tsar Alexander Pavlovich quarreled with France, the French began to incite Persia against us.

In May 1804, Persia, in an ultimatum form, demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops from Transcaucasia.

In the summer of 1804, hostilities began.

Because of the mistakes of St. Petersburg, Russia was completely tied up in Europe, so it could not allocate enough forces to quickly close the issue.

The war dragged on, but, thanks to our commanders, officers and valiant soldiers, on the whole it was victorious. Our troops acted with small forces, but the Persians, who were helped to create a regular army with artillery by the British, were beaten in the main battles. In 1806 Gudovich's troops took Derbent, Baku and Cuba.

When the war with Turkey began, Gudovich concluded a truce with Iran, but peace negotiations did not lead to success. Under the influence of France, and then England, Feth Ali Shah continued the war.

The organization of the regular Persian army according to the European model was carried out by French military advisers who arrived in Tehran in 1807, headed by General Gardan.

At the same time, the Russians in the Caucasus also had to fight with the Turks (1806–1812). Russian troops occupied Etchmiadzin, laid siege to Erivan, defeated the army of Abbas Mirza and captured Nakhchivan. Erivan failed to take.

In 1808, the new commander-in-chief Tormasov resumed negotiations with Persia. During the negotiations, the Persians suddenly invaded Georgia, but were defeated.

In 1809-1810, the Persians tried several times to invade our borders, but were defeated.


Invasion


In 1811, the Persians, with the help of British military advisers, strengthened their army.

Instead of Tormasov, the Russian troops were led by General Paulucci, in 1812 he was replaced by Rtishchev.

The situation in the Caucasus by 1812 was difficult. The proximity of the war with Napoleon diverted all the forces of the Russian Empire to the Dvina and Neman, part of the army was located on the Danube direction against Turkey. There were very few troops left in the Caucasus, and they did not even think about the offensive.

Petersburg again tried to negotiate with Persia, but without success. The demands of the Persians were excessive. Abbas Mirza relied on an army of 30 organized and armed by the British.

Knowing about the weakness of the Russians in the Caucasus and their problems, the Persian command was sure that this time it would achieve victory and drive the "infidels" out of the Caucasus.

Abbas Mirza wrote in his proclamation:

“... Now our sarbazes (regular infantry of Persia - author's note), like hungry lions, crave the blood of the Russians who are in Georgia, and as soon as we move there, Georgia will be subdued and the Russian commander in chief and his soldiers will be killed or captured.”

At the forefront in the Karabakh Khanate was the battalion of the Trinity Regiment (560 people), quartered in the winter residence of the Karabakh Khan Sultan-Bude. Three companies of the 17th Jaeger Regiment were based in Shusha.

Scouts and well-wishers reported that a large Persian army was preparing to invade. However, the battalion commander of the Trinity Regiment, Gini, treated his direct duties negligently and did not prepare to repel the attack.

As a result, our soldiers met vastly superior enemy forces in open areas.

The 30-strong Persian army (20 regular troops and 10 militias, 11 guns, 100 falconets) crossed the Araks and invaded Karabakh.

The Persian command was reinforced by British officers and non-commissioned officers.

One corps of 18 headed by Abbas-Mirza himself went to Sultan-Buda, the second corps - to Shahbulag (Shah-Bulakh) in order to intercept the messages of the Trinity Regiment with Shusha.

At the first news of the appearance of the enemy, 2 companies with 1 gun under the command of Captain Ilyashenko came out of Shusha to help the Trinity Battalion. But in the Shakhbulag region, the Russian detachment was blocked by masses of enemy cavalry. The huntsmen paved the way with bayonets along the Shahbulag fortress, but they could not go further. All roads and heights were occupied by large enemy forces.

"The fight was terrible." Defeat of the Trinity Battalion in the Battle of Sultan-Buda
Shahbulag Castle

Battle


On February 1 (13), 1812, the Persian army occupied the heights in front of the Russian camp.

Major Gini built a battalion in a square in front of the dugouts, he was supported by 2 guns. They were assisted by a small cavalry detachment of Mekhti-Kuli of Karabakh.

The Persian cavalry fell upon the square.

Our soldiers steadfastly repulsed one attack after another with the support of 2 guns.

The Persians suffered heavy losses. However, soon the enemy pulled up artillery. Iranian artillery, led by British Colonel d'Arcy, opened fire on the battalion's positions.

First, the enemy suppressed the Russian guns. One gun was knocked out, then the ammunition flew into the air, and the second gun fell silent.

The battalion began to suffer heavy losses from enemy fire.

At the beginning of the battle, Major Gini died, followed by Major Sochevsky, who took command. Soon the next senior captain Gumovich died. Captain Olovyashnikov took command.

The Persians continued their attacks. There were fierce hand-to-hand fights between the dugouts.

Later, Mehti-Kuli Khan, in his report to the Marquis Paulucci, noted:

“The fight was terrible, such as never happened. Our army, soldiers, cavalry and sarbazes of Abbas-Mirza and my subordinates did not stop killing for 7 hours…”

Olovyashnikov with a bayonet attack was able to repel another onslaught of the enemy and held his position.

By evening, the Persians were tired and retreated.

But the situation was hopeless: heavy losses (300-343 killed), ammunition almost ran out, and the remnants of the battalion were blockaded.

Surrender of the battalion. The retreat of the Persian army


The Persian commander-in-chief Abbas Mirza sent a truce and offered to capitulate.

Olovyashnikov refused.

Mekhti-Kuli-Khan offered to make his way to Shahbulag under the cover of night or to gain a foothold in the forest, where the enemy cavalry would not be able to act and there would be shelter from enemy cannons.

At this time, Abbas-Mirza sent a letter again, threatening that all the soldiers would be massacred.

Olovyashnikov broke down.

As military historian V. Potto noted:

“Olovyashnikov was already exhausted under the yoke of difficult circumstances and did not find in himself a sufficient supply of moral strength to decide on such a desperate feat.”

Meanwhile, Mekhti-Kuli with several soldiers successfully left the camp, fled to the mountains and reached Shushi. Not wanting to surrender, non-commissioned officer Timchuk and private Fedotov also fled from the camp, who independently reached Elizavetpol.

That is, the remnants of the battalion could well have escaped in hard-to-reach terrain.

At night, Olovyashnikov agreed to surrender, provided that the lives of his people were saved. On February 2 (14), the remnants of the battalion surrendered, handing over the banner. It was the only Russian banner that adorned the palace of the Persian Shah. In autumn, 52 soldiers escaped from captivity.

The Persian army continued the offensive and on February 3 (15) laid siege to Shahbulag, where Ilyashenko's huntsmen settled. Preparations for the assault began. Having shown the captured Russian soldiers and their banner, the Persians suggested that Ilyashenko also lay down weapon. Gave me time to think.

At night, Russian soldiers, with the help of local guides, left along the mountain paths. Ilyashenko's companies successfully reached Shusha. The Russians prepared for the siege.

Meanwhile, Paulucci called General Kotlyarevsky, who was in Georgia.

The detachment of Kotlyarevsky (about 1,5 thousand people) moved in a forced march to Karabakh.

On February 21, the Russians were in Novaya Shemakha and moved towards Zardob. Along the way, Russian troops smashed irregular bands that scattered around the area and robbed the villages.

Abbas-Mirza did not dare to fight with Kotlyarevsky and retreated behind the Araks.

Thus, the invasion of the Persian army did not have any important consequences.

In the course of the further campaign of 1812, Kotlyarevsky will defeat the Persian army, and Iran will have to recognize the Russian conquests in the Caucasus.

But the Russian army was outraged by the surrender of the battalion. After all, "Russians don't give up."
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
49 comments
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  1. Doccor18
    Doccor18 4 February 2022 04: 58
    +7
    England stood behind Persia, which spoiled Russia wherever she could - in the Balkans, in the Baltic states, in the Caucasus, in Persia, etc. Then ... the French began to incite against us.

    Centuries succeed each other, but nothing changes in geopolitics...
    ... due to the mistakes of St. Petersburg, she was completely tied up in Europe, so she could not allocate enough forces to quickly close the issue.
    ... but, thanks to our commanders, officers and valiant soldiers, on the whole it was victorious.

    Nothing changes.
  2. bukhach
    bukhach 4 February 2022 05: 07
    +6
    Thank you for your work, the material is very interesting and little known, it is clear that the war consists not only of victories and successes, we must also remember the failures, no matter how bitter they are.
    1. Sergey79
      Sergey79 4 February 2022 10: 06
      +2
      Thanks to the author. On this topic, there is a good work by Ph.D. O.R. Airapetov "Road to Gulistan". It describes in detail, interestingly and succinctly the policy of the Republic of Ingushetia in Transcaucasia during this period.
    2. Hypertension
      Hypertension 4 February 2022 13: 49
      0
      Quote: Buhach
      war consists not only of victories and successes, one must also remember failures, no matter how bitter they are.

      A.P. Ermolov, during his embassy to Iran in 1817, being (May 28 - June 5) in the Udzhan castle, saw a picture depicting the victory of the Persians over the Russians. Yermolov describes the incident as follows:

      “Looking around the castle, I asked the Persians accompanying me: what picture does the battle represent? Is it Aslanduz? As if the language of the Persians was bound and the lie, so common in their mouths, did not invent an answer. It was necessary to guess that it was not. Finally, I was told that the picture represents the defeat of the Trinity Battalion. I fell silent against the truth. "

      In 1828, a Persian painting dedicated to the battle was taken by the Russians as a trophy to the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, now kept in the Hermitage.
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 4 February 2022 05: 13
    +11
    . In the center of the picture on horseback is an English officer.

    the Persians, who were helped to create a regular army with artillery by the British,

    In 1811, the Persians, with the help of British military advisers, strengthened their army.

    Abbas Mirza relied on an army of 30 organized and armed by the British.

    Tired of listing, here, wherever you spit, you still get into the British. From scratch, proverbs are not born, so that's right - "The Englishwoman always crap."
    And our Ampirator also joined them as allies against Napoleon, there’s nothing to sit quietly and watch how they will cut each other ...
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 4 February 2022 05: 27
      +6
      So today the British in Ukraine behave the same way.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 February 2022 05: 40
        +6
        So they behave like this everywhere, only the grave will correct the humpbacked one.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 4 February 2022 08: 43
          +5
          Good morning Konstantin! hi
          Quote: Sea Cat
          So they behave like this everywhere, only the grave will correct the humpbacked one.

          In all directions around our border today.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 4 February 2022 09: 01
            +3
            Good morning, Dmitriy! smile

            So the eternal enemies, there will be no other relations with them, Russia is like a bone in their throat ... for some reason. request
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 4 February 2022 09: 06
              +5
              Quote: Sea Cat
              ..... Russia is like a bone in their throat...for some reason. request

              Somehow, from ancient times, the territory and interests of Russia across the aspirations of the Britons
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 4 February 2022 10: 38
                +7
                I wonder if there is at least one corner in the world where they would not fit with their "white man's burden"? laughing
                1. hohol95
                  hohol95 4 February 2022 11: 03
                  +6
                  Only Antarctica.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 4 February 2022 12: 25
                    +4
                    Yes ... How did they miss, again, I suppose, Russian machinations? laughing
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 4 February 2022 12: 30
                      +6
                      In ancient times, they decided that they did not need ice. And other minerals were not found in Antarctica then. And the penguins refused to work for Indian opium!
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 4 February 2022 13: 09
                        +3
                        So the penguins are to blame, not us. Even in Antarctica... fellow
                  2. Puzoter
                    Puzoter 5 February 2022 15: 06
                    +1
                    An entire American city of several thousand people operates in Antarctica year-round. So we got in there.
                    1. hohol95
                      hohol95 5 February 2022 15: 30
                      +1
                      But he did not appear there in the 19th century!
                      And there the Yankees, not Tommy, run the show!
                  3. napalm
                    napalm 9 February 2022 18: 25
                    0
                    Quote: hohol95
                    Only Antarctica.

                    The United Kingdom ruled over 31 km²[878] (not including the approximately 965 million km² of territory in Antarctica still claimed by the UK and its former dominions of Australia and New Zealand), which is about 1% earthly land.
            2. hohol95
              hohol95 4 February 2022 10: 46
              +4
              They stopped selling hemp to the British and buying copper from them ...
              wassat
            3. Rakovor
              Rakovor 4 February 2022 22: 14
              -2
              It was necessary to pursue a normal sane foreign policy and not toil with foolishness, then they would not have been "a bone in the throat."
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 5 February 2022 12: 40
                +3
                Do not tell me the direction of "sane policy"?
                Sailing in the favourite of a British battleship?
                And send your soldiers to North America to restore the British monarchy over a rebellious colony?
                1. Rakovor
                  Rakovor 5 February 2022 13: 13
                  -4
                  No, it’s better to send them to India to die for the French emperor, as Pasha the first wanted to do, fortunately, he was slammed with a snuffbox.
                  1. hohol95
                    hohol95 5 February 2022 14: 36
                    0
                    You just had to look at the "squabble of the British lion and the Gallic rooster"!
                    And take care of your own state!
                    1. Rakovor
                      Rakovor 5 February 2022 17: 51
                      -1
                      That's right, and we, with persistence worthy of a better use, got into their disassembly. First the Seven Years' War, then the notorious "armed neutrality", and so on. And then we wonder why England doesn't like us so much.
    2. Olgovich
      Olgovich 4 February 2022 07: 13
      0
      Quote: Sea Cat
      also joined the allies against Napoleon, no sit quietly and watch

      Greetings, Constantine!

      But at least someone in Europe, then, did you manage to "sit quietly and look" from the side?

      The choice, it seems, was between either remaining alone with the united powerful Europe of Napoleon, or, nevertheless, with at least some situational, albeit mean, ally, but balancing the chances.

      As for the Trinity Battalion, the commander’s decision to stand in the field with a handful of soldiers against cavalry and artillery fire is surprising, and this despite the fact that there was a good Shahbulag fortress nearby request
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 February 2022 07: 55
        +5
        Good morning Andrey!
        surprisingly the decision of the commander to stand in the field with a handful of soldiers against cavalry and artillery fire

        Yes, the commanders of the guys were not the same. request
    3. burigaz2010
      burigaz2010 4 February 2022 07: 18
      +4
      Well, yes, and he would have received an apoplexy with a snuffbox, or died of hemorrhoidal colic. Good afternoon Konstantin
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 4 February 2022 07: 53
        +4
        A stool, but by someone else's hands - they are specialists.

        Hi Michael! smile
        1. Andrey Moskvin
          Andrey Moskvin 5 February 2022 17: 54
          0
          You about Paul and Peter ...
  4. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 4 February 2022 08: 18
    +8
    England, which spoiled Russia wherever it could - in the Balkans, in the Baltic states, in the Caucasus, in Persia. Due to the mistakes of St. Petersburg, Russia was completely tied up in Europe, therefore it could not allocate enough forces to quickly close the issue.
    So England spoiled or because of the mistakes of St. Petersburg? smile
  5. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 4 February 2022 20: 00
    +1
    By the way, draws attention to the balance of power. The entire Central Asian campaign was carried out by Russia with the forces of several battalions. A couple of battalions, a few guns. And so they won.
  6. Miner
    Miner 5 February 2022 12: 22
    +1
    In memory of our heroes, I want to wash away this outrageous lie given in the article. The battalion did not surrender. According to Potto, in exhausting battles that lasted several days, people in hunger and, most importantly, in the absence of water, experienced inhuman stress. Holding the line, they reached the river, and here, mad with thirst, they lost the line, throwing themselves into the water. The square was broken, and the Persians dismembered the battalion. No one broke and he did not give up. Here.
  7. Basarev
    Basarev 5 February 2022 17: 58
    -4
    Has the banner been recaptured? Such an important symbol cannot be left in the hands of the enemy.
  8. Boxer
    Boxer 10 February 2022 13: 03
    0
    Prince Abbas-Mirza Qajar was the last rather gifted Qajar commander capable of operating against a European-style army. But what other Persians?) Persians were not taken into the Kyzylbash army, the Persians were considered unfit for military service.
    "Although the Turkic tribes are significantly inferior in number to the Persians, their political significance is very great. The current dynasty belongs to the Turkic (Azerbaijani) clan of the Qajars, whose members occupy a privileged and influential position in the country. The Persian army is replenished mainly by Turkic tribes, more suitable for military service, than the timid and pampered Persians."
    Sources: Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron. "History of Islam" (vol. III, St. Petersburg, 1896), Malcolm, "History of P." (L., 1815; 2nd ed., 1829; part in the Russian translation "Son of the Fatherland", 1853, part 171, nos. 23-25 ​​- about Agha-Mohammed); Markgam.
  9. restless
    restless 12 February 2022 00: 52
    0
    In 1806, the Russian Empire conquered Transcaucasia from the Persians and Turks. And in 1991, three drunkards Yeltsin, Shukhevych and Kravchuk signed a piece of paper and gave everything away for free, but they didn’t even think how many people died and how much Russian blood was shed. Now around Yeltsin-centres have done this traitor, praising him, this is treason and betrayal. A plague on the heads of Yeltsin, Shukhevych and Kravchuk and Gorbachev to boot - anathema to them for all time ...