Military Review

Combat aircraft. Find, chase, kill!

57
Combat aircraft. Find, chase, kill!

For quite a long time I thought about which pilots can be considered the most desperate. Of course, everyone who took to the skies during the Second World War were people of a strong nervous system. I would single out night fighters and especially bombers, since their work was not easy. Yes, and attack aircraft pilots on the IL-2 were also people deserving admiration, because shoveling the front line of the enemy’s defense, when everything that can shoot at you in a panic is very difficult.


But it seems to me that the most reckless were naval pilots. And torpedo bombers and in general - the elite. If a horizontal bomber could dump everything that was boiling inside it from a height, then the torpedo bomber had to descend and fly to its target. Under fire not only targets, but also neighbors. And before that, they still had to find these grains of sand in the endless ocean, hoping only for accurate intelligence data and their navigator.

Yes, the Americans, British and Japanese were very good fighting in the waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans. But there were more chances to survive in any case. Still, the warm waters of the Pacific Ocean in the battlefields are not the Arctic for you.

So the most, in my opinion, are the crews of German torpedo bombers who were looking for ships of the North Atlantic convoys in the white expanses of the Arctic, in the conditions of the polar night and other pleasures of our North.


And a very important aspect: the crews of the ships that opposed them. The Northern Fleet was the most combat-ready fleet of the USSR, plus the Americans and British on the ships of the convoys knew what they were doing and the faint of heart did not go to the Soviet Union. I'm just talking about ours.

So it was very difficult to implement the principle of “Find, catch up, kill” in the Arctic.

And today we will talk about the planes that attacked convoys. Specifically, about Heinkel torpedo bombers.


Having paid tribute to the “shoemaker” He.59 at one time, I will now note that by the beginning of the Second World War, the command naval aviation the leading powers have a clear opinion that the torpedo bomber is everything, completely obsolete. Too slow and too clumsy. Easy prey for fighters, and it was easier for anti-aircraft gunners to aim at such an object.

However, the German Ministry of Aviation, most likely, was a little mistaken when ordering a Heinkel seaplane torpedo bomber in 1935.

In general, for the development of a project for a multi-purpose seaplane capable of carrying a torpedo, not only Ernst Heinkel Flugzeugwerke was proposed, but also the Hamburger Flugzeugbau. It was supposed to be a twin-engine twin-engine monoplane, designed with the latest aerodynamics.

As a result, the firms presented their projects Na.140 and He.115. The Heinkel aircraft won the competition.


The winning aircraft was quite beautiful. Very graceful monoplane with smooth contours. The floats were mounted under the engine nacelles on vertical streamlined racks. The aircraft was armed with three 250 kg bombs or one 700 kg torpedo. Defensive armament was represented by two MG.15 machine guns. One machine gun was on the course and was located in the glazed bow of the cockpit, the second protected the rear upper hemisphere and was installed at the end of the cockpit above the wing. The crew consisted of three people: a pilot, a navigator and a radio operator.

The heart of the aircraft were two 9-cylinder air-cooled engines VMW-132K. The engines coped well with the acceleration of a seaplane, and in 1938 the He.115 set several world records for seaplanes, flying distances of 1000 and 2000 km with a load of 500, 1000 and 2000 kg at a cruising speed of 326 km / h.

After such success, a pre-production batch of 10 cars was ordered. They differed from the prototypes in the absence of braces on the wing, instead of them there were two struts and N-shaped racks. Changed the appearance of the cab glazing, trimmers and stabilizer ends.

As a result, the weight of the empty aircraft was 5 kg, the takeoff weight was 415 kg. The maximum speed is 9 km / h, cruising - 400 km / h at an altitude of 315m, flight range - 300 km.


The record-breaking seaplane received attention in other countries. The German Ministry of Aviation did not have time to sign contracts for the manufacture of a serious batch of aircraft, when Norway ordered 6 aircraft for its fleet, and Sweden even more - 12. Denmark wanted to have 10 such aircraft.

And mass production began. The first model that came into the possession of the German naval aviation in 1939 was the He.115a-1. It was a pure torpedo bomber. He could also carry bombs, the bomb bay included three 250 kg bombs, and two bombs (or two external fuel tanks) could be hung on two holders under the wing.

The export model He.115a-2 did not differ structurally in any way, but the radio equipment, sights and machine guns were installed depending on the customer's desire.

Simultaneously with the release of the first series of aircraft, Heinkel began work on a modification of the He.115b-1. It was an interesting attempt to create a multipurpose aircraft through the use of "field kits" for modifications.

He.115b-1 / R-1 carried two cameras in the bomb bay.
He.115b-1 / R-2 received reinforced holders for one 500-kg bomb.
He.115b-1 / R-Z could carry two 500-kg LMA-III mines or one 1000-kg LMB-III mine.
The He.115b-2 was equipped with steel skis, which made it possible in theory to use it from ice fields.
He.115c-1 was an attempt to strengthen weapons. In the bow, next to the MG.15 machine gun, the MG-FF gun was installed. Instead of MG-FF, MG.151 / 15 was installed on part of the aircraft, and stationary MG.17 machine guns were mounted in the engine nacelles, firing backwards.
He.115c-1 / R4 - a variant of the smoke screening aircraft.
The He.115c-2 was produced as a minelayer carrying three 500 kg mines.

The takeoff weight of the aircraft increased and stepped over 10 kg.

But by the summer of 1940, the seaplane as a torpedo bomber was outdated. Its tasks could be solved by faster and less noticeable land aircraft. The release of the He.155 was discontinued, but the aircraft continued to serve as patrol aircraft, fortunately, the flight range and time spent in the air allowed this.

Heinkel could not accept this state of affairs, and in 1939 the He.115d project was proposed.

The new aircraft was equipped with 14-cylinder BMW-801MA engines with a take-off power of 1600 hp. The crew was increased to four people, the gunner was added. The armament was very decent: a fixed MG-151/20 cannon in the nose, an MG-81J machine gun on a mobile mount, twin MG-81Z machine guns on the upper and lower mobile mounts.

Takeoff weight increased to 12 kg, maximum speed also increased to 650 km/h. The flight range was 378 km, and the ceiling was 3 m.

One prototype was built, which was transferred to coastal aviation. But the work carried out on the He.115d was reflected in the already produced machines: during the 1942-43 years, all modifications that were in the He.115 units received reinforcements in the form of a twin MG-81Z in the rear of the cockpit and a MG-151 / 20 cannon under fuselage in the nose.

The combat use of He.115 was episodic. Until 1940, aircraft did not take part in hostilities at all, since seaplane squadrons were being re-equipped from He.60 to He.115 and crews were being trained.

The baptism of fire took place in Norway, as part of Operation Weserübung. Two squadrons of seaplanes were involved in the capture of Norway, and according to the plan of the operation, they were supposed to participate in the landing in Trondheim.

In general, it turned out to be a uniform madhouse. It must be remembered that Norway also purchased He.115a-2 for itself. By the time Operation Weserubung began, three He.115a-2s were based in southern Norway, and three in the north.

Norwegian He.115a-2

One He.115a-2 from the southern part was captured by the Germans in Stavanger.
One He.115a-2 flew to the north of the country and became part of the 3rd squadron.
One plane flew to Scotland.

But when the Germans captured a Norwegian seaplane, the Norwegians returned "courtesy for a courtesy" and captured two He.115b-1s from the German squadrons.

And the Norwegians still had six seaplanes, which they actively used, bombing the Germans in the Narvik area. Considering that the seaplanes of the “a” and “b” series did not differ in appearance, it was not easy to determine whether this aircraft was “our own” or not.

When Norway surrendered, one plane flew to Finland, and three He.115a-2 and one He.115b-1 flew to Scotland. There, two aircraft were converted into special operations aircraft. The armament was strengthened, and it amounted to 8 machine guns of 7,7 mm in the wings and two coaxial machine guns of the same caliber in rear-facing rifle mounts.

In October 1941, Lieutenant Haakon Offerdal flew to Malta on He.115a-2. The aircraft received Luftwaffe markings and was used for covert operations, such as taking two agents on board in broad daylight in Tripoli. Offendahl made many flights to North Africa on various missions, but in the end the aircraft was destroyed in the harbor of Malta during a raid.

The converted He.115b-1 made the same flights to Norway, but the risk of using a German aircraft near the British Isles was too great and such flights were abandoned.

German He.115 aircraft were consolidated into anti-submarine squadrons and operated from the Aalborg base in Denmark. The main task was to hunt for British submarines and escort convoys.

Not.115 participated in the "Battle of Britain", operating over the North Sea. They were engaged in patrolling, laying mines in the places of the alleged appearance of British ships, hunting for small vessels, throwing mines in the mouth of the Thames and Bristol Bay.


It was He.115 on August 26, 1940 that opened the combat account of German torpedo bombers in World War II. On this day, four He-115 torpedo bombers attacked the English convoy Hx.65A at Cape Kinchardhead and sank the transports Remuera (11 brt) and Sage York (445 brt).

In general, the use of He.115 cannot be called successful. The plane was unnecessarily slow and clumsy, and, accordingly, was an excellent target for fighters. Where the British fighters operated, there was no place for Heinkels.

Not surprisingly, in December 1941, all He.115s remaining in flight were sent to bases in Norway in order to operate from there on North Atlantic convoys bound for the Soviet Union.

In general, due to the small number of German aircraft in that direction and disgusting coordination with submarines, the convoys did not suffer heavy losses. Until the moment the PQ-17 convoy was sent, everything was exactly like that.

The first attack on the PQ-17 convoy was made by He.115. No results, except for the fact that on July 2 the commander of the 406th squadron, Futter, was shot down. True, his comrades saved him and the crew. But on July 4, pilots from the 906th squadron 1./Ku.Fl.Gr.906 sank the Christopher Newport transport with torpedoes. Well, when the guard ships abandoned the convoy, the aircraft and submarines staged a defeat for the convoy, sinking 23 ships out of 36.

In the north, He.115 was used until 1944. The last 12 He.115s from the torpedo-carrying 1./Ku.Fl.Gr.406 were decommissioned and decommissioned on May 10, 1944.


In general, the aircraft has earned a good reputation among the crews. Reliable, durable, well-controlled, taking a decent load - if not for the dynamic qualities, it would be, if not outstanding, then quite such a strong “middle peasant”. Although Ne.115 had quite good seaworthiness.

As a patrol, minelayer or anti-submarine aircraft, the He.115 was quite good. Still, there was not enough speed for a torpedo bomber.


LTX He.115c-1
Wingspan, m: 22,30
Length, m: 17,30
Height, m: 6,30
Wing area, square m: 86,80

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 6 880
- normal takeoff: 10 690

Engine: 2 x BMW-132K x 960 hp
Maximum speed km / h: 300
Cruising speed, km / h: 285
Practical range, km: 2 800
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 200
Practical ceiling, m: 3 200
Crew, prs: 3
Armament:
- one fixed 15-mm cannon MG.151 forward;
- one 7,92-mm machine gun MG.15 in the bow installation;
- one 7,92-mm machine gun MG.15 in a mobile installation back;
- two 7,92-mm machine guns MG.17 in the tail of each engine nacelle;
- one LTF-5 or LTF-6b torpedo, or one 920-kg LMB-III mine, or two 500-kg LMA mines, or three 250-kg bombs in the compartment and two 250-kg bombs under the wing.

The second attempt to create a torpedo bomber was made by the brothers Siegfried and Walter Gunther, the creators of He.111. The aircraft turned out to be more than successful and went into production. Not immediately, but in Heinkel they turned to the topic of a naval bomber and a torpedo bomber.

The main one was taken by He.111F, on the basis of this aircraft, they worked out the theme of the first German torpedo bomber that was not a seaplane. The car received the name He.111J.


The Ne.111J was equipped with the proven 600 hp DB.950G engine. The main difference between aircraft and conventional bombers is not the use of a bomb bay. All He.111J weapons were suspended under the center section.

LT F5b torpedoes with a caliber of 450 mm had a length of 5,46 m, which made it possible to use them exclusively from an external sling. Two conventional bombs weighing up to 500 kg or four magnetic bottom mines could be hung on the same external nodes. The bomb bay, in the case of using an external suspension, was not involved at all.

Two prototypes were built, and then a small series of six He.111J-0 machines for testing, which were carried out at test centers in Leba and Bekenfjord. Based on the test results, the Luftwaffe ordered 90 He.111J-1 torpedo bombers, and then another 30 vehicles, in which bomb bays were modified so that the aircraft could also be used as conventional bombers.

These 120 torpedo bombers became in 1938 the basis of the Luftwaffe land torpedo bomber squadrons being created. "Junkers" Ju.88A-17 were created much later.


It is quite natural that it was He.111J-1 that became the platform for testing the L10 Friedensengel gliding torpedo.


It was an interesting project. A wing with a span of almost 950 meters and a tail unit were attached to a conventional LT.3C aircraft torpedo. Such a torpedo was suspended clearly under the fuselage of the aircraft, since it was heavier than conventional torpedoes by more than 200 kg. An aircraft with such a torpedo could take off only from very good concrete strips, since the clearance between the torpedo rudders and the ground was very small.

The drop was carried out from a height of 2500 m approximately towards the target. After dropping a planning torpedo, a wire 25 meters long was produced from a container under the wing. The wire was part of the height sensor. When the height became less than 10 meters, the mechanism fired off the wing and plumage, and the torpedo went under water. The propellers were launched there, and the torpedo went to the target and hit it. Or not hit.

According to the test results, several hundred of these torpedoes were produced, but there is no data on practical use.

In general, He.111J-1 did not come to combat use. The aircraft became obsolete before the start of the war and was gradually replaced by newer models. However, 120 torpedo bombers made it possible to train (and, as the war showed, not bad) a fairly large number of pilots who played a role in the Second World War.


LTH He.111J-1

Wingspan, m: 22,60
Length, m: 17,50
Height, m: 4,40
Wing area, м2: 87,70
Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 6 480
- normal takeoff: 9 960
- maximum take-off: 10 600

Engine: 2 x DB.600G x 950 hp
Maximum speed km / h
- near the ground: 340
- at height: 408

Practical range, km: 2 000
Practical ceiling, m: 8 000
Crew, prs: 4
Armament:
- one 7,92-mm machine gun MG-15 in the bow installation;
- one 7,92-mm machine gun MG-15 open upper turret;
- one 7,92 mm MG-15 machine gun in a retractable lower basket.
Bomb load:
- two 750 kg torpedoes or two 500 kg bombs or four 250 kg mines.

He.111H

All serious work on the destruction of ships and vessels went to two modifications of the He.111N. These were He.111H-4 and He.111H-6. The second generally became the most mass-produced "Heinkel" of the family.

The models were similar in appearance, they were equipped with the same Jumo 211F-1 engines from Junkers, which produced 1340 hp. at 2600 rpm.

The Ne.111N-2 actually did not differ from the base model Ne.111N-0, except for the presence of ventral holders for torpedoes and bombs. Defensive armament was increased to six 7,92 mm machine guns.

Model Ne.111N-6 was distinguished by more powerful armor protection. The oil coolers above the engines were protected by 5 mm armor plates on top, behind with an 8 mm armor plate acting as a damper, the water radiators were covered at the rear with 5 mm plates, the total weight of the armor on the aircraft was increased to 315 kg.


The armament was also strengthened. In addition to six defensive machine guns, the Ne.111N-6 was armed with a forward-firing 20 mm MG-FF cannon mounted in a ventral gondola.

Not.111N-6 had a maximum bomb load of 2500 kg. This made it possible to carry bombs, torpedoes and mines using internal and external suspension.


The aircraft was used quite universally, both as a day and night bomber, and as a torpedo bomber.

In addition, it was this aircraft that was used as a platform for testing a new weapons. It was the FX-1400 or "Fritz X" radio-controlled bomb, as well as the FuG.203 "Kel" equipment set. Other aircraft tested BV.246 Hagelkorn glide bombs and FuG.103 radio altimeters.

The release of Ne.111N-6 amounted to 1775 aircraft. This is a pretty high figure.

The plane was ambiguous. The main drawback of the He.111 was that not one, but two people were involved in the process of dropping the torpedo. The navigator gave the command, and the flight engineer carried out the reset. Because of this, delays often occurred and, accordingly, torpedoes missed.

But it was six He.111H torpedo bombers from the 3rd KG.26 squadron that sank the first transport from the North Atlantic convoys. It was a PQ-15 en route to the Soviet Union. On May 2, 1942, the Cape Corso transport with a displacement of 3807 tons was sunk by two torpedoes from German aircraft. The next day, the British steamer Botavon with a tonnage of 5848 brt was sunk by torpedo bombers.


On May 13 of the same year, eight He.111s from I./KG26, together with bombers, sank the British cruiser Trinidad.

But the highlight for the Heinkel torpedo bombers was the defeat of the PQ-17 caravan. Of the 24 ships sunk in the convoy, 8 were accounted for by the Luftwaffe (4 were definitely sunk by torpedoes) and 8 ships were damaged by torpedoes and bombs, and they were finished off by submarines.

Heinkel torpedo bombers fought until the very end of World War II. These were not the most outstanding torpedo bombers, but, nevertheless, very serious opponents. The main advantage of the Ne.111N was the ability to drop torpedoes one at a time. Yes, making a circle, hitting the target a second time is difficult. However, the German pilots did so and achieved results.

In addition, the large size of the fuselage and cockpit made it possible to place various radio equipment, for example, surface ship search radars.

Non.111 with FuG 200 "Hohentwiel" search radar

LTX He.111H-6

Wingspan, m: 22,60
Length, m: 16,60
Height, m: 4,00
Wing area, м2: 87,70

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 8 690
- normal takeoff: 14 000

Engine: 2 x Junkers "Jumo".211f-2 x 1350 hp
Maximum speed km / h
- near the ground: 360
- at height: 430
Combat range, km: 2 000
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 240
Practical ceiling, m: 8 500

Crew, prs: 5

Armament:
- one 20 mm MG-FF cannon and a 7,92 mm MG.15 machine gun in the ventral gondola firing forward;
- one 13-mm machine gun MG.131 in the upper mount;
- two 7,92-mm machine guns MG.81 in the rear of the gondola;
- one MG.15 or MG.81 or twin MG.81 in the side windows.
Bombings armament:
- two torpedoes up to 1000 kg each on external holders;
- 32 x 50 kg, or 8 x 250 kg in the inner bomb bay
- 16 x 50 kg inside + 1 x 1 kg bomb on an external holder.

The Heinkel torpedo bombers actually became the main weapon against the North Atlantic convoys and inflicted quite significant damage on both the allies and the USSR, which received less military supplies. If we take into account that the aircraft interacted closely with the submarines, pointing them at the same convoys, then the effect can be considered doubled.

Heinkel He.111H-6 aircraft from the KG 26 squadron at the Trondheim-Værnes airfield in Norway. It was these pilots who flew from here to intercept convoys.

Of course, He.111 could operate with impunity precisely in polar waters, where it was very difficult to organize counteraction in the air, even taking into account the fact that aircraft carriers began to go in convoys.

Today it is not worth counting who lost more, the Americans or the British, whose ships with cargo went to the bottom of the northern seas, or we, having not received Tanks, planes, gunpowder, trucks and jeeps.

The Heinkel torpedo bombers were an effective weapon of war. Yes, these aircraft cannot be considered the best, but the fact that the Germans skillfully used what they had available is an indisputable fact.
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  1. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 4 February 2022 05: 58
    +1
    Xe-111 I assembled just in the version of a torpedo bomber! and this model has become a decoration of my home airfield! Gives respect!
    1. Jose
      Jose 4 February 2022 08: 15
      -18
      I appreciate your skills as a modeller. But here I would not decorate my home with airplanes with a swastika. For moral reasons. As well as playing against your computer toys. If some Jewish boy would play SS toy soldiers, he would not be understood. If an Arab boy had glued models of Israeli aircraft, he would not have been understood either. If an Armenian boy played computer toys for Turks or Azerbaijanis, he would not be understood either. An enemy is an enemy.
      1. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 4 February 2022 09: 38
        +5
        Me too! There are no identification marks on all planes! and tanks too! even if my abilities as a painter were enough, I wouldn’t do it! I admire the machine, and I know its use!
      2. Zaurbek
        Zaurbek 4 February 2022 09: 48
        +4
        Especially during our childhood ....... although German technology is beautiful.
        1. serg.shishkov2015
          serg.shishkov2015 4 February 2022 10: 03
          +3
          I have my own scores for that war! I am de facto the first post-war generation! but there is such a thing - technical aesthetics! captured aircraft were used by us - 1 Xe-111 was converted into a transport aircraft in 1941, 2 Do-215 bought before the war were converted into aircraft for special operations, Arado-196 and Dornier-24 were used after the war, draw red stars and admire
      3. serg.shishkov2015
        serg.shishkov2015 4 February 2022 10: 07
        -8
        in one of the books I was disgusted by the B-17 with a swastika on the keel, the book was written by an Englishman, and the T-34 with crosses on the sides? when I read * the moment of truth * as a child - I was very surprised - THEY use our PCA! How dare you desecrate OUR weapons with your paws?
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 4 February 2022 12: 28
          +15
          Quote: serg.shishkov2015
          in one of the books I was disgusted by the B-17 with a swastika on the keel, the book was written by an Englishman, and the T-34 with crosses on the sides? when I read * the moment of truth * as a child - I was very surprised - THEY use our PCA! How dare you desecrate OUR weapons with your paws?

          How dare they? Yes, probably the "sofa patriots" were left to them as trophies. In addition to our PPSh, the Germans really liked our SVT, so what? If you look closely at the history of Soviet aviation, you can see almost all types of Soviet aircraft with Nazi identification marks. And they generally used the SB aircraft as a training one. True, there is not exactly our SB, but a licensed version, which was produced by the Czechs under the designation Avia B.71. 100 aircraft released. I-153s were in service with the Finnish Air Force, by the way, their emblem was the Blue Swastika, which they removed from their uniforms in 2020. So there is no need to demonstrate your leavened patriotism about disgust for the swastika here. Patriotism must be demonstrated when you look on the screens of such a mess as "Tankman", "Fighters", "Deviataev", "T-34" or "Podolsky Cadets". I don't even want to talk about such crap films as "Bastards", "Penal Battalion" or "Major Pugachev's Last Fight". But after all, they take it off and shove us this oats that passed through the digestive tract of the horse. Although in the same Shalamovsky "last battle ..." everything is turned upside down. Instead of "innocently convicted former Soviet prisoners of war", there were 7 Vlasovites, 2 policemen, one military man who thundered under a criminal article even before the war and a couple of criminals - these are the real characters of that "battle", and on these "heroes" they are trying to instill in us "a feeling of love for the motherland"? When a clear ideological stamp goes from film to film - a petty tyrant commander, a stupid womanizer political officer-commissar, a sadist special officer who always dreams of imprisoning the protagonist, and who is constantly trying to recapture the protagonist's bride, well, the hero himself should be imprisoned as an enemy of the people, yes, he always hits the enemy at the forefront. This is on our TV screens much more disgusting than the B-17 and La-5FN with swastikas on their keels, and PPSh in the hands of the SS.
          1. Suhow
            Suhow 4 February 2022 23: 35
            0
            In general, I agree with your opinion, but in my opinion the penal battalion is not bad. For example, my grandfather left the encirclement and was under occupation, then he was called up again and died in Poland, I didn’t hear about his harassment for occupation
            1. Fitter65
              Fitter65 5 February 2022 01: 45
              +3
              Quote: Suhow
              In general, I agree with your opinion, but in my opinion the penal battalion is not bad.

              of course not bad, but if you don’t know how it was, it’s just a “great movie”.
              Quote: Suhow
              , I didn’t hear about his harassment for the occupation

              There were such settlements where the Germans during the entire occupation may have appeared only a couple of times, or maybe they didn’t even have time. Somewhere the occupation did not last even a couple of days, but somewhere the whole districts went into the forest from the occupier. The occupation also did not last the same everywhere. Somewhere the Finns committed atrocities, somewhere the Hungarians and Romanians. And somewhere "their" locals, under the general supervision of the Germans and other invaders. Somewhere a German officer held out a chocolate bar "liberated from the Bolsheviks" to the camera. And somewhere, just a minor child, in front of his mother, he killed, so that the mother could "calmly" go to clean the German airfield ...
              1. Firelake
                Firelake 8 February 2022 08: 40
                -1
                And somewhere treated children and adults. Everything always depended on specific people.
                1. Fitter65
                  Fitter65 8 February 2022 09: 10
                  +2
                  Quote: FireLake
                  And somewhere treated children and adults. Everything always depended on specific people.

                  Well, there are quite a few such places of treatment on the territory of the former USSR that were under occupation. In Babi Yar alone, how many Soviet people of various ages have been cured of life. And how many such or similar "hospitals" there were in Belarus and the Baltic states, and near Pskov, and in Rostov-on-Don ... And those who did not have time to be cured on the spot, they were taken to other places to "treat" ... Such are "caring doctors" came to us on June 22, 1941 with a "humanitarian mission".
                  1. Firelake
                    Firelake 9 February 2022 07: 34
                    0
                    Everything depended on specific people. In war it is difficult to maintain a human face. But some managed
                    1. Fitter65
                      Fitter65 9 February 2022 08: 02
                      +1
                      Quote: FireLake
                      Everything depended on specific people. In war it is difficult to maintain a human face. But some managed

                      Well, yes, of course, Dr. Mengele alone is worth something. Or his colleagues from Salaspils. And they all retained the human form. All of them were caring spouses and parents. One out of a thousand who somehow helped people in the occupied territory, hundreds of thousands of murderers are not rehabilitated. sadists and executioners.
                      1. Firelake
                        Firelake 10 February 2022 07: 12
                        -1
                        Do you have problems understanding text? Read again.
                      2. Fitter65
                        Fitter65 10 February 2022 07: 51
                        +1
                        I perceive the text quite normally, comprehend and give an answer. But you can see big problems with this event, I have a moment of comprehension of what was written.
          2. serg.shishkov2015
            serg.shishkov2015 5 February 2022 05: 43
            0
            I agree! and with age began to relate to this with understanding! the use of trophies with us and with them is a separate interesting topic! after all, any iron without a person is dead!
        2. Victor Tsenin
          Victor Tsenin 4 February 2022 19: 36
          +1
          Yes, absolutely everyone uses successful samples from each other, they don’t pinch anyone’s eyes and don’t burn their hands) I.e. Still, reasonable limits should be followed.
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 5 February 2022 01: 52
            +2
            Quote: Victor Tsenin
            Yes, absolutely everyone uses successful samples from each other,

            And what do you mean by a "successful model" that is copied from each other? .. Yes, no one copies anything, especially creatively. If you look at all this bullshit, then you get the impression that the same scenario is being taken. and only the scenery changes. There was a pilot - in another film, a tanker, an infantryman became a signalman. Yes, they even, sometimes do not change the artist who plays the sadist - special officer. there is a feeling that he moves from one pavilion to another for filming without even changing clothes. occasionally the commander and political officer change places, and it’s not always that they laugh at the viewer there - good samples !!!! laughing laughing laughing
        3. Sergey M. Karasev
          Sergey M. Karasev 5 February 2022 10: 17
          +2
          How dare you desecrate OUR weapons with your paws?

          Didn't the photos of partisans with MP-40 cause dissonance in you?
          1. serg.shishkov2015
            serg.shishkov2015 5 February 2022 11: 16
            0
            it was old! and I saw photos of our partisans from MG-08/18! Two with them, and the third with DT! In those years, I perceived that war a little differently! Taking trophies from them is great, but leaving their weapons to them ,,,
          2. Fitter65
            Fitter65 6 February 2022 06: 50
            +1
            Quote: Sergey Mikhailovich Karasev
            Didn't the photos of partisans with MP-40 cause dissonance in you?

            But then, these are our trophies. By the way, and not only partisans ... good
      4. Fitter65
        Fitter65 4 February 2022 11: 25
        +8
        Quote: Jose
        I appreciate your skills as a modeller. But here I would not decorate my home with airplanes with a swastika. For moral reasons.

        And how do you, for moral reasons, tell and show your child with whom our pilots fought in the sky. It is interesting how, when talking about the feat of Talalikhin, you will show on your fingers the plane that he shot down with a ram in the night sky of Moscow. By the way, no one obliges you to glue a swastika on this model. As do many modellers.
        Quote: Jose
        An enemy is an enemy.

        You need to know the enemy, and not shake the air with slogans.
      5. TANKISTONE
        TANKISTONE 7 February 2022 19: 49
        +1
        Jose (Eugene) An enemy is an enemy.
        This is history. The stronger our enemy, the more valuable our Victory!
    2. Victor Tsenin
      Victor Tsenin 4 February 2022 19: 33
      0
      I envy you in a good way, my parents not only dropped the box with my models, they also stepped on it. Since then, as you know, I no longer glue models)
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 5 February 2022 01: 56
        +1
        Quote: Victor Tsenin
        the box with my models, my parents not only dropped it, they also stepped on it.

        How many models were in the box? Not just wondering what kind of box was that you could easily step on and crush? I’ve just been doing this business since I was 12, soon there will be 45 years of pure modeling experience ...
        1. Victor Tsenin
          Victor Tsenin 5 February 2022 02: 37
          +1
          There was Mi-24D, Ju-87D, Po-2, T-60, and, like, 3 others. Not much, but the frustration was notable.)
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 5 February 2022 04: 12
            +1
            It’s sad, of course, but even for 72 it’s already such a good little box that you won’t accidentally step on it. Most likely this is a planned sabotage.
            1. Victor Tsenin
              Victor Tsenin 5 February 2022 14: 09
              +2
              It is quite possible, but they are not recognized in life, I know them) However, I have been living alone for a long time and thoughts of starting anew, no, no, and they do appear.
  2. Babay Atasovich
    Babay Atasovich 4 February 2022 06: 39
    0
    Brrr ... I got confused in the article. wassat
  3. Fitter65
    Fitter65 4 February 2022 06: 50
    +9
    Oh, what happened, what kind of cataclysm happened? Roma even signed some of the photos in his article. Well, to be honest, I didn’t read it - it’s a pity for time, but I have enough material




    True, I did not indicate foreign publications on this device, as well as a footnote to an article on this device on "Corner of the Sky". In the early 90s, I had an airfix He 111 H6 at 1:72, but then I switched to 48, now take ICMovsky at 1:48 but, to be honest, the boxes are already 20 years ahead, there is no busy time ...
    1. serg.shishkov2015
      serg.shishkov2015 5 February 2022 05: 56
      +1
      I, alas, did not get such a concentrate of thought! bad luck! so infra dug grain by grain! but when in 2008 I rewrote and supplemented an article about him in my manuscript, I got a few sheets, a brief description of the modifications and combat use, sometimes I reread it for pleasure!
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 6 February 2022 06: 55
        +1
        Quote: serg.shishkov2015
        I, alas, did not get such a concentrate of thought!

        I beg you, all this is gleaned from here
        No, of course it's just like "starting capital". for someone it was, but someone just impudently translated and published a magazine article. like war in the air. drinksBy the way, the Polish edition on the topic of the 111th is generally a brazen copy-paste. On VO, even Roma sometimes writes his thoughts (I apologize for the expression) in reprints, of course, it is not clear why and for what. And these purely torn into Polish and were not embarrassed
        1. serg.shishkov2015
          serg.shishkov2015 6 February 2022 08: 13
          0
          I first read about Moran-Saulnier 406 in 1989 in the technical publication of the PNR! more precisely, I didn’t read it, but turning on the logic, I understood the performance characteristics! I don't speak Polish! a magazine like our * Modeler-Constructor *, and from whom the Poles themselves took the material, I don’t know, but * Morans * in the photo and in the drawings were with * shahovnits *
          1. Fitter65
            Fitter65 6 February 2022 08: 18
            +1
            Quote: serg.shishkov2015
            I first read about Moran-Saulnier 406 in 1989 in the technical publication of the PNR!

            "Types of armor and security". Well, there is one drawback in the Latin alphabet, and everything is easy to read. Well, of course, I have a plus -5 years of service in the SGV, I had to communicate a lot with the lords in the service, but the truth is that I began to forget colloquialism lately, there is no practice.
  4. Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 4 February 2022 08: 37
    +14
    The most reckless pilots were our torpedo bombers in the north, on IL4, and against going nuts as armed German convoys and warships.
    1. Non-fighter
      Non-fighter 4 February 2022 09: 26
      +4
      If my memory serves me right, then the torpedo bomber lived an average of 1,1 sorties.
    2. serg.shishkov2015
      serg.shishkov2015 4 February 2022 09: 52
      +10
      film * Torpedo bombers * - a quarter of a century ago, the names of pilots were named in * Wings of the Motherland *, they only flew on * Hampdens *. and the war in the North is the most terrible! there, not only man, but also Nature itself is trying to kill a person!
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 4 February 2022 11: 54
        +7
        Quote: serg.shishkov2015
        film * Torpedo bombers * - a quarter of a century ago, the names of pilots were named in * Wings of the Motherland *, they only flew on * Hampdens *.

        In the book by V. Minakov "The Angry Sky of Taurida" there are those photos that flash at the end of the film, with names and surnames. And not all of them flew Hampdens. In total, 23 Hampdens flew to the USSR, all of them entered, after the British handed them over to us, into the 24MTAP. the composition of the regiment was a mixed first squadron of 9 DB-3F torpedo bombers, the second and third squadrons of 10 Hampdens each, and during retraining two aircraft were destroyed. and two were damaged. In general, the Hempdens were in service with the "9 Guards MTAP (former 24 MTAP) until July 1943. The last flight of the Hempdens took place on July 4, 1943. The regiment was re-equipped with the A-20G Boston.
        Quote: Not the fighter
        If my memory serves me right, then the torpedo bomber lived an average of 1,1 sorties.

        The pilot from the Black Sea 5th Guards MTAP, Hero of the Soviet Union Vasily Ivanovich Minakov, made 206 sorties. Of these, 31 (THIRTY ONE) torpedo attacks.
    3. The comment was deleted.
    4. Fitter65
      Fitter65 4 February 2022 12: 02
      +4
      Quote: Victor Sergeev
      The most reckless pilots were our torpedo bombers in the north, on IL4, and against going nuts as armed German convoys and warships.

      In the film "Torpedo Bombers" documentary shots-inserts of a torpedo attack on a German convoy by an English torpedo bomber Bristol "Beaufort" flicker periodically. an aircraft of this type was not supplied to the USSR. So even in the USSR they confirmed that not only our pilots were "turretless".
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 4 February 2022 12: 26
        +3
        When the “torpedo-bofighter”, or simply “torbo”, crossed out with an oblique line, with a slight left roll, slides, all in tracers and black gaps over the burning and snarling after the strike of the “strafers” the convoy guard line, rushing to the center, to the center carefully preserved by the enemy meaning of the word "merchant tonnage", to the goal.
        Oil is boiling in the right engine, where the radiator is clogged inopportunely by a seagull that has turned up on takeoff.
        Lower and lower. Even lower, to the water itself. From there, the white paths of water columns stretch to the car, and if you go correctly, they fill the cockpit glazing, and you look into the sight, and you see the high side of the vessel, and you note the time between the passage of the vertical thread by the mast and the pipe, and you count the cables per minute, and then you multiply by six and you get the nodes, and then you enter this with the handwheel into the “torpedo computer” Mk.F, and it gives you time to reset - just keep the course, speed and height, he himself will enter the lapel angle, the lead angle into the torpedo, and you just have to stay on course and wait.
        Wait.
        And you wait.
        First, a 37 mm shell tears off the right console.
        But the plane is still in the air.
        The 20 mm splashes into bulletproof glass right next to the scope, and you don’t see anything behind the milk mesh of cracks, but you know that this is a firling, and the fourth barrel took you below.
        And the next second, you get from it two 20-millimeter cartridges of your "Spanish-shiz".
        “Torbo” is a strong aircraft, it can withstand it without falling apart, but the fire can no longer be curbed.
        And you yell to the navigator: “Bail out, Frank (Tony, Greg, Kevin, Sid ...), bail out !!!”
        And then you drop the torpedo into the white light so that the plane lasts a little longer in the air.
        And then you turn over through the torn wing and become a white geyser of water spray.
        Never, never, for any profit, I, Paddy Burns, will not lead the squadron to the attack on the "torpedo computer" Mk.F.
        © M.Tokarev. Paddy Burns, torpedo bomber.

        And the losses of the English torpedo bombers were the hardest.
        Torpedo bombers, on the other hand, found themselves in the position of forgotten puppies - they both flew at low-altitude torpedo throwing and continued, and their losses were always very high. I wrote: for the first three years of the war, the average number was 239 tons per lost crew (for lost aircraft, the ratio is even worse).
        © he
        To reduce losses without reducing efficiency, the British tried everything - torpers with cannon armament, switching to top-mast bombing, rockets. And they found a way out - strike air wings: massing forces and a combined strike, in which the torpers went on the attack only after and immediately after the targets were processed by the guns and missiles of the attack aircraft included in the wing.
        1. Fitter65
          Fitter65 4 February 2022 12: 31
          +3
          Quote: Alexey RA
          To reduce losses without reducing efficiency, the British tried everything - torpers with cannon armament, switching to top-mast bombing, rockets. And they found a way out - strike air wings: massing forces and a combined strike, in which the torpers went on the attack only after and immediately after the targets were processed by the guns and missiles of the attack aircraft included in the wing.

          It was practically the same with us. Everyone was looking for an effective way to deal with enemy shipping. And not only we and our allies, but also our enemies.
      2. Viktor Sergeev
        Viktor Sergeev 4 February 2022 14: 27
        +4
        I meant that the Germans had the most protected convoys, although the rest of the same heroes, sling in the plane clearly on a string to the ship hitting you from all trunks, here nerves are needed like ropes.
  5. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 4 February 2022 13: 03
    +6
    The Heinkel torpedo bombers actually became the main weapon against the North Atlantic convoys and inflicted quite significant damage to both the allies and the USSR

    I missed something about the "successes" of the German torpedo bombers. The main weapon against the northern convoys was the German submarines. And the "quite tangible damage" from German torpedo bombers hit an insignificant percentage of all cargo and for a very short period.
  6. sash-sash
    sash-sash 4 February 2022 13: 34
    +2

    The most interesting thing is that a unique high-speed aircraft with an internal arrangement of a twin engine DB-606A-2 - He.119 was created in Germany. Long range (about 3000 km), speed under 600 ... As a naval reconnaissance and / or torpedo bomber, this machine could become an outstanding means of fighting at sea. But, apparently, adherence to the traditional approach has won...
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 4 February 2022 14: 21
      +4
      But, apparently, adherence to the traditional approach has won...

      The lack of a sufficient number of DB 601 engines won. Your photo shows the only prototype of eight built as a floatplane. The remaining seven were in the "land version".
      1. sash-sash
        sash-sash 4 February 2022 14: 27
        +2
        The same twin motors with a modified system. cooling installed (were) on the Non-177.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 4 February 2022 18: 02
          +2
          From the end of 1942, they were replaced by DB 610. Nothing good came of these engines.
        2. Alf
          Alf 4 February 2022 18: 03
          +1
          Quote: sash-sash
          The same twin motors with a modified system. cooling installed (were) on the Non-177.

          Unfortunately no. XE-177s were equipped with DB-610s, each consisting of two twin DB-605s.
  7. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 4 February 2022 15: 58
    +2
    Well, yes. Our torpedo bombers are nobody. However, they are clearly not their own for the author ...
  8. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 4 February 2022 19: 31
    +3
    >Still lacked speed for a torpedo bomber.
    You know, swordfish will not agree) Still, dropping torpedoes, in those years, at high speed, is unlikely to lead to a hit. Well, the weakness of naval air defense, in the absence of aircraft carriers, gave quite good results.
    1. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 4 February 2022 19: 56
      +1
      Quote: Victor Tsenin
      Still, dropping torpedoes, in those years, at high speed, is unlikely to lead to a hit.

      Acoustic torpedoes appeared already somewhere in 1943. I don’t know if there were such in the air version, but at first such torpedoes were not smeared at all.
      1. Victor Tsenin
        Victor Tsenin 4 February 2022 20: 08
        +1
        Yes, I remember about Zaunkönig, but it is only for submarines.
    2. Ol willy
      Ol willy 7 February 2022 07: 46
      -1
      Swordfish operated under conditions of minimal air defense and enemy fighter aircraft, hence the success. Any more or less serious air defense (not Italian 1940, for example) would make a sieve out of them
  9. Senior seaman
    Senior seaman 4 February 2022 21: 24
    +1
    It seems to me, or is the "Norwegian Heinkel" not at all with Norwegian identification marks?
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 5 February 2022 00: 23
      +3
      It seems to me, or is the "Norwegian Heinkel" not at all with Norwegian identification marks?

      It has the insignia of the British Air Force. On June 10, 1940, four Norwegian aircraft (F.52, F.56, F.58 and F.64) flew to Britain The British assigned them their numbers - from BV184 to BV187, added additional fuel tanks, strengthened armament and modified the cockpit canopy and used for their own purposes.
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. Bez 310
    Bez 310 5 February 2022 18: 15
    +6
    "So the most, in my opinion, are the crews of German torpedo bombers ..."
    And what about the crews of Soviet torpedo bombers?
    Are you a specialist in naval aviation, do you know anything about the combat use of torpedoes, where did you get the statistics?
    If it's not difficult, tell us how you evaluated the "most-most"?
  12. Ol willy
    Ol willy 7 February 2022 07: 57
    -1
    In the East, torpedo bombers ceased to be relevant as early as late 1942 - early 1943. The Americans began furiously saturating their ships with rapid-fire anti-aircraft guns (comrade Drachinifel read out the reports of one American officer from one of the aircraft carriers that participated in the battles near Guadalcanal in 1942, extremely entertaining), as a result of which the Japanese torpedo bombers turned into a pile of burning metal, obviously on approach. The Americans themselves, on the basis of this, significantly reduced the ratio of torpedo bombers to dive bombers in their aircraft carrier groups, and stopped using torpedo bombers in the first waves.

    The Germans also understood this, therefore, for the conditions of attack of sea targets saturated with air defense, they began to promote adjustable bombs like Fritz and HS 293