Military Review

The story of why "Ural" devoured Zhiguli gasoline

131

- And what kind of gasoline does the Ural run on?


- And on none. He works on a mixture.

Once this answer puzzled me, a cadet of the DOSAAF driving school.

And only many years later I understood its essence: the Ural-375D, assigned to a driving school and intended to teach driving skills to cadets, really worked on a mixture of A-76 and AI-93 gasoline, because its driver-instructor was nicknamed
The kingpin drained the allocated AI-93 gasoline and sold it to private Zhigulists. And he more than compensated for his lack by pouring a cheaper A-76 into the tank, which Shkvoren bought for a symbolic price from the rest of the driving instructors of the glorious and long-dead Krasnopresnenskaya driving school DOSAAF of the USSR. For this huge truck could work not only on a mixture of gasolines with different final octane numbers, but also on the usual A-76, like the rest of the trucks that taught driving school cadets how to drive.

But how did it happen that the "Ural" suddenly got out of the glorious cohort of Soviet trucks and, declaring its own exclusivity, demanded an expensive "passenger" AI-93 for food, while the rest of the army trucks were modestly content with A-76 gasoline?

A lot of legends and legends have been hovering around this issue for a long time.

In particular, popular rumor brought to us distant rumors that supposedly this car was developed taking into account the prospect of its operation in the countries of Western Europe, with which the USSR sooner or later planned to unleash a war without fail.

And, fighting, the truck would be able to use local grades of high-octane gasoline, because (supposedly) in Europe in those years gasoline with octane numbers below 93 was not produced.

Another legend is more “peaceful”: supposedly the USSR did not intend to fight in Europe at all, but simply planned to use the future army truck exclusively as part of the Soviet army contingent stationed in the countries of the socialist camp in Europe, where, again (according to legend), low-octane you will not find A-76 gasoline during the day with fire.

The question of where the rest of the Soviet army vehicles operating in Europe using the A-72 and A-76 will find their livelihood is completely silent on both legends.

Apparently, it was assumed that they would work on imported domestic. Or on local gasoline, for which you will need to first increase the ignition timing (a matter of minutes). Or rather, do not increase at all, since in Europe in the early 50s (and even in the 70s) there was still low-octane gasoline.

Another curious question is also silent: in the same years as the Urals, other army trucks were also developed: GAZ-66 and ZIL-131.

Why weren't their motors designed for AI-93?

Or was it planned to send only one Urals to Europe, and the rest of the cars had to sit at home?

Vehicle development


To get to the bottom of the truth, you need to remember that in the early 50s of the last century, the USSR Ministry of Defense established itself in the opinion that it would be nice to replace military off-road trucks produced since 1946 - GAZ-63 and ZIS-151, with a new one, more modern technology. This important government task was entrusted to the Gorky Automobile Plant named after Molotov and the Moscow Automobile Plant named after Stalin (ZIS).

And the prototype of the future "Ural-375" was entrusted to develop the flagship of domestic automotive science - the State Research Automobile and Automotive Institute NAMI.

The design work was headed by Nikolai Ivanovich Korotonoshko, they began in 1953. The car was developed as a basic one, which was the basis for creating a new family of Soviet trucks with wheel arrangements 4x4, 6x6, 6x4 and 8x8.

But here's what's curious: in 1954, for some reason, the engine for this truck was instructed to be designed and implemented in metal by ZIS designers.

Thus, a very reliable assumption can be made that the technical requirements for the engine in 1953 had already been transferred to the VMS and, if the customer (the Ministry of Defense) initially set the requirement that the engine run on AI-93 gasoline, then it should have been included in the above year to the technical specification.

And how to check this, not being able to fish out the TK from the bowels of the archives?

It's very simple: you need to track what kind of gasoline was produced in the USSR, starting in 1950. The car was developed for the purpose of its further operation mainly in the USSR, therefore, its engine had to run on some brand of commercial gasoline produced in the USSR.

In the early 50s, according to GOST 2084-51, gasoline of 3 grades was produced in the USSR: A-66, A-70 and A-74. In 1956, it was decided to start production of two more: A-72 and A-76.

Which allows us to draw a very reliable conclusion: the customer could in no way put forward a requirement that the engine of the truck being developed be designed “for AI-93”, since gasoline of this brand was not yet produced in the USSR in the 50s and was not even in the project.

It was decided to produce AI-93 in our country only in 1967 (GOST 2084-67), when the Ural had been in production for 6 years.

They decided to decide, but its mass production was established only in the early 70s.

According to the information of the former "full-time" NAMI historian A. Karasev, the engines of the prototype cars of the future "Ural", passing under the NAMI 020 and 21 indices, were initially "instructed" to run on A-70 gasoline.

The life path of this engine was long, thorny and filled with extraordinary adventures (only a small novel can be written about this).

Engine development


This история began in the early 50s with the experimental V-shaped "eight" ZIS-E113 developed by the Zisov designers, which they, apparently, according to a long factory tradition, copied from some American engine.

It was a car engine with a volume of 6 liters, with a compression ratio of 7,3, a cylinder diameter of 100 mm, a piston stroke of 95 mm, developing a power of 180 hp. With. at 4 rpm. It was intended for the new government limousine ZIS-000, designed in those years.

Having increased the cylinder diameter in this engine to 105 mm and the piston stroke to 108 mm, the designers eventually received a 7-liter ZIS-E113A engine.

They planned to adapt it to a large city bus of their own design, passing under the ZIL-129 index. I don’t presume to judge whether the motor turned out bad or good, but, apparently, initially it was not prone to detonation, because it had a hemispherical combustion chamber of the COP with a candle in the center. This form of the COP was invented by the English designer G. Ricardo back in the 30s of the twentieth century.

However, according to the Zies engineers, such a design of the heads had significant drawbacks: too large a width, therefore, a large mass; double the number of rocker axes due to the location of the valves along an axis perpendicular to the axis of the crankshaft; placing a candle in a deep well, which impairs its cooling.

To correct these shortcomings, the engineers designed new heads with tent-type COPs and valves, the axes of which were located along a plane parallel to the axis of the crankshaft. This made it possible to reduce the width of the motor by 59 mm and reduce its weight by 20 kg.

As a result, with SS=6,8, the bus engine developed a power of 176 hp. With. at 3 rpm and a torque of 300 kgf-m at 47,5 rpm. To improve the vortex motion of the mixture in the cylinder, pistons with displacers were used.

Then the zisovtsy slightly modernized it again: they increased the cylinder diameter to 108 mm, reduced the piston stroke to 95 mm and reduced the compression ratio to 6,5. Its design power was determined at 180 hp. With. on A-72 gasoline, but in reality it was 170 liters. With.

In the final version, the engine received the ZIS-E129 index.

Two samples of this bus engine were transferred to NAMI for installation on the NAMI-020 and NAMI-021 cars manufactured at the Institute's Experimental Design Plant. For ZIL did not have other suitable engines of the required power at that time, and there was no time to design them.

Further work on the design of the car


At the beginning of 1957, experienced trucks were shown to the leadership of the Minavtoprom and a representative of the Ministry of Defense, and then their run tests were launched.

The story of why "Ural" devoured Zhiguli gasoline
NAMI-020 during off-road testing

The customer liked the cars very much, and as a result, it was decided to organize their production at the Ural Automobile Plant under the UralZIS-NAMI index.

The following year, this decision was finally confirmed by Decree No. 442 of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of April 17, 1958, obliging the plant to produce in 1960 the first production batch of these cars - 300 units.

It should be noted that even when testing early prototypes of NAMI-020 and 021, it was found that on the A-70 gasoline prescribed by the customer, the ZIL-E129 engines worked with strong detonation, which could be eliminated only by using A-74 gasoline (in those years, intended only for government ZIS-110) or aviation B-70.

But even on this gasoline, the engine could not develop the power specified in the technical specification - 180 hp. with., and developed only 153 liters. With.

Further development work on the engine


Meanwhile, the Zilovites (formerly zisovtsy) in those years also did not sit idle.

In the course of further research work on a new family of engines, they became convinced that the installation of valves in a row with a tent-type CV significantly increases the hydraulic resistance when the mixture enters the cylinder due to a decrease in the gap between the inlet valve and the CS wall, which worsens the degree of filling of the cylinder and, as a result, reduces the liter power of the engine.

Not wanting to return to the original design with a spherical CS, the engineers decided to abandon the tent-shaped CS they had invented and use a wedge CS. What, in their opinion, should only benefit the motor: in such a chamber, the valves can be located more freely, the engine will run more smoothly, access to spark plugs will be easier and it will be possible to use a piston with a flat bottom. And also, in their opinion, this form of CS will reduce the requirement for anti-knock qualities of the fuel.

However, as is known from the studies of the above-mentioned English engineer Ricardo, in a wedge chamber (compared to a spherical one), due to the position of the candle located at the very edge of the CS, the flame front propagation path is significantly lengthened, therefore, the risk of detonation increases. And this factor is especially unfavorable in engines with a large cylinder diameter.

As a result, the motors of the second experimental series with wedge-type KSs were designed at the plant, where the ZIL-1E130 was the base one, and on its basis the ZIL-E129B, designed for a city bus, was manufactured. He developed a power of 183 hp. With. at 3 rpm and a torque of 200 kgf-m at 48,5 rpm. To reduce the risk of detonation, the cylinder heads were made of aluminum alloy, which was supposed to improve their cooling.

After further improvements, the engine, which received the ZIL-3E129 index, had a working volume of 7 liters, a cylinder diameter of 108 mm with a piston stroke of 95 mm, a compression ratio of 6,5. And, according to the assurances of the designers, he developed all the same magical 180 hp. With. at 3 rpm, but on gasoline with an octane rating of 200.

The ZIL-3E130 and ZIL-3E129 engines used the same cylinder blocks, valve mechanisms and a number of other parts, which allowed the plant to use unification to reduce production costs. But with the same height of the COP of these two motors, its width for the ZIL-3E129 was greater than for the ZIL-3E130, which made the motor more prone to detonation.

This engine, which was held in the documentation of the Ural Plant. Stalin as ZIL-6E129, was installed on three prototypes of the future Ural-375, still passing under the name UralZIS-NAMI-375, manufactured according to new drawings at UralZIS in 1958 in the process of finalizing the NAMI-car delivered to the plant. 021.


Prototype "UralZIS-NAMI-375"

During the run tests, numerous engine breakdowns were revealed: exhaust valve heads stretching and breaking (which had previously been repeatedly detected during tests at ZIL), scuffing and partial melting of connecting rod bearings, and connecting rod breakage.

The representative of ZIL L. S. Kiselev explained this grandiose failure of the assigned work by the fact that this engine was proactively manufactured at the design bureau of the plant on the basis of experimental samples of high-class passenger car engines ZIL-111 solely for the purpose of installing it on experimental city buses ZIL-129. In connection with the defects revealed during testing at ZIL, the production of experimental samples of these engines was discontinued (by the way, bus samples too). Currently, the plant has begun manufacturing ZIL-375 engines specially designed for installation on Ural-375 vehicles.

Which raises a reasonable question: what prevented the designers from starting to manufacture a “special” engine a few years earlier, given that development work on it began as early as 1954?

In a word, during the tests it turned out that the Zilov engineers, according to the old Soviet tradition, gave subcontractors not what was required, but what was available, and even not useful to them.

The results of state tests were considered unsatisfactory, the car was clearly not ready for production, additional extensive development work and sea trials were required.

But the deadlines were running out, no one was going to cancel the decree of the USSR government, and as a result, on December 31, 1960, the factory workers nevertheless, with grief in half, managed to produce the first "serial" batch of new cars in the amount of 10 pieces, assembled by hand in the pilot production workshops and called "Ural- 375".

Thus, the task of the party and the government, although not in full, was nevertheless heroically fulfilled.

And the elimination of numerous design and technological flaws, as often happened in the USSR, subsequently dragged on for many years ...

"Ural" conquers the world


In the first years of production, almost all trucks were sent to the Soviet army, and they were developed on the instructions of the military. Therefore, the car received a number of original design features.

The cabin had an easily removable canvas top.


And the wind windows fixed on the lower hinges, if necessary, were stacked on the hood.


Prototype "Ural-375" with dismantled cabin top

Accordingly, the frames of the side windows were made easily removable, and the glasses themselves were lowered.

This was the requirement of the customer, with the aim of simplifying the transportation of the car by aircraft and reducing its height for the convenience of camouflage on the ground.
The engine was equipped with a shielded sealed battery ignition system, which further increased its tendency to detonate.

The reason for this was the P102 distributor, which did not have a vacuum ignition timing regulator UOZ, which excluded the automatic decrease in UOZ in the event of a rapid increase in engine load. In those years, vacuum regulators were already used in all domestic cars (with the exception of the ZIL-131, which had the same distributor).

The engine has been manufactured in Moscow at ZIL for many years.

A two-stage transfer case (with numbers 1,3; 2,15) made it possible to operate the power drive with the front axle disconnected (6x4), with the axle engaged through an asymmetric differential (6x6), as well as in the main differential lock mode (when operating on a heavy off-road).

The cars were equipped with a standard winch installed at the rear of the frame, driven by a transfer case with two cardan shafts.

To facilitate the working conditions of drivers, very useful devices unusual for Soviet trucks of those years were used: a power steering and a cabin heater.

Ural-375 cars were ordered to operate on A-76 gasoline, which he enjoyed using in huge quantities.

According to the temporary standards of 1965, the operating fuel consumption of a car was to be 68 liters per 100 km (control consumption of 50 liters per 100 km). For example: the rate of consumption of gasoline by trucks ZIL-151 and ZIL-157 in those years was no more than 40 liters.

In the early 70s, when on the eve of the mass production of new VAZ passenger cars requiring high-octane gasoline, the production of AI-93 was launched in the USSR, the army Urals were transferred to this brand of fuel in order to finally win the war with detonation, and " civilians "- left to work on the A-76. Although later in the instructions the plant indicated the possibility of using for various modifications of the ZIL-375 or A-76, or AI-93 engine (optional), and sometimes only AI-93. On the AI-93, the truck had to “fit” into the same 68 liters per 100 km.

From this we can conclude that the use of AI-93 gasoline during development was not planned and has historically developed as a way to combat detonation.

The appearance of "Ural 375D"


At the end of 1964, the first cars of the new model, the Ural-375D, began to roll off the main assembly line of the Ural Plant, and the production of the previous one (previously assembled at a pilot plant) was gradually discontinued.

It is this model with the “D” index that most people call “Ural-375”, which is fundamentally wrong, because the new car received several significant changes and looked different from its predecessor.


The cabin was now used all-metal with two rotary windows. And in the upgraded transfer case, there was no possibility to turn off the front axle.

Thus, the truck received a permanent all-wheel drive on all drive axles, and the wind windows no longer folded forward.

It should be noted that several years after the release of the new "Ural" in various auto publications, the car was often called "Ural-375" - without the "D".

Model "375D" became the base, other models with the letters "T", "C", "A", etc. were its modifications.

And the ZIS-E113 engine, mentioned at the beginning of this story, has been modernized for many years, modified, and eventually gave a start to life for an extensive family of Soviet 8-cylinder V-shaped engines, of which the ZIL-130 was considered the base. They were installed on the government ZIL-111, on the ZIL-130 truck and its modifications, on the ZIL-131 and ZIL-133, Ural-375 and Ural-377 vehicles.

And it was also used on buses of the Lvov and Likinsky automobile plants, among which the LiAZ-677 became the most massive, equipped with almost the same engine as the Ural-375, only with a “human” interrupter that had a vacuum regulator.
Which, however, did not save this engine from a terrible detonation, when at peak hours a bus packed with Soviet citizens majestically set off from the final metro station, in order to then spread the working people along the Moscow outskirts, who went on a well-deserved rest at the end of the next working day.


Used Books:
Anokhin V. I. Domestic cars. M., Mashinostroenie, 1968.
Babkin G.F. Automobile engine ZIL-130. M., Mashinostroenie, 1973.
Golodovsky Ya. E., Zaitsev I. V., Lavrov O. M. Off-road trucks (GAZ-66, ZIL-131, Ural-375). Military ed. Ministry of Defense of the USSR, M., 1968.
Gureev A.A. Application of automobile gasolines. M., Chemistry, 1972.
History of NAMI 1918–2003, v. 2. M, Nedra, 2006.
Karasev A. Execution cannot be pardoned. Fixed assets, No. 10 / 2013.
Brief automobile guide NIIAT for 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1975, 1976
Author:
Photos used:
Internet
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  1. Alien From
    Alien From 3 February 2022 15: 18
    +30
    Oh, I remembered Liases, warm in winter, and with the smell of gasoline ...... good nostalgia good
    1. Maks winter
      Maks winter 3 February 2022 15: 40
      +12
      we still have several in service around the city
      1. Fitter65
        Fitter65 3 February 2022 17: 37
        +5
        Quote: Maks Winter
        we still have several in service around the city
        In Amursk, three years ago, I saw handsome men rushing about, they say that they are still driving. LiAZs around the city, although there are already fewer of them. And the Ural-375D is of course an apparatus !!!! good good Although I still love the ZIL-131 and the XNUMXth. good drinks
    2. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 3 February 2022 15: 45
      +5
      Yes, with the advent of the Zhiguli, the AI ​​93 trade went into full swing.
      Received coupons for high-octane, and went to 76 or a mixture.
      Even at some gas stations, a mixture of these two gasolines has already been poured into tanks.
      Many then lined their pockets.
      The mistake was, of course, that they did not develop a diesel engine for heavy vehicles.
      1. 75 Sergey
        75 Sergey 3 February 2022 17: 28
        -4
        This is how you feel about people who spread rumors that are not confirmed by anything?!
        1. Blacksmith 55
          Blacksmith 55 3 February 2022 17: 37
          +7
          75 Sergey, you probably didn't catch it.
          You know the saying: what is written with a pen cannot be cut down with an axe.
          So, don't believe this saying.
          The drivers of the Urals received 93 gasoline, what they drove is another question.
          And even if the Ural piston was installed on the Zil 130, then they also received 93 gasoline.
          Although I do not rule out that some enterprises issued 76.
          1. 75 Sergey
            75 Sergey 3 February 2022 17: 55
            -2
            You claim it as if you received it yourself. I provided some kind of document, submit also a document of fuel consumption rates for Ural-375 AI-93 or AI-92, according to which the fuel would be written off, you know that without this the allocation of materials and their write-off is impossible. Well, at least find it online.
            We were taught at the Institute according to Soviet norms and manuals.
            1. Blacksmith 55
              Blacksmith 55 3 February 2022 18: 35
              +6
              I worked as a bus driver at an enterprise, I did not steal myself, they drained me from the bus, and not once, but 76 gasoline.
              Once they leaked so much that I could not deliver the shift on time. Then I broke the watchman , warned , if I noticed again , I would go to the director .
              Stopped.
              And I bought myself a car when I was already working as a mechanic.
              But I know not by hearsay how they poured gasoline. And he himself was a witness, but you can’t lay down your fellow drivers. Or would you do it?
            2. not main
              not main 4 February 2022 03: 21
              +3
              Quote: 75Sergey
              AI-93 or AI-92

              There is no fuel under the AI-92 brand! Just A-92. At least at gas stations.
              1. ivselim
                ivselim 4 February 2022 11: 52
                +1
                Quote: non-primary
                Quote: 75Sergey
                AI-93 or AI-92

                There is no fuel under the AI-92 brand! Just A-92. At least at gas stations.

                It used to be AI-92. I remember this moment well. at one time drew attention to this (change of name) at the next refueling of the car.
                1. aglet
                  aglet 4 February 2022 12: 31
                  +5
                  "It used to be AI-92"
                  earlier, i.e. in the ussr gasoline was ai-93
              2. Martin
                Martin 4 February 2022 17: 30
                +1
                Quote: non-primary
                At least at gas stations.
                A very authoritative source - a sign at a gas station, yeah. In the Soviet Union in the early 80s, A-72, A-76 gasoline (the octane number was determined by the motor method) and AI-93 (research method) were mainly on sale. Gasolines with smaller OCs were still encountered, but were already considered the “last century”, and with large OCs they were in short supply, although athletes managed to get them for their “charged” engines. For some reason, the determination of the OC of commercial gasoline by the motor method ended somewhere in the early 90s, since then only AI gasoline has been used at gas stations (despite the fact that “it is written on the fence”). The good old A-76 turned into AI-80, because. the research method gives a large figure for the same gasoline. At the same time, AI-95 and AI-98 firmly settled on the columns with the gradual disappearance of AI-80 (A-76). In the failed times of the “dashing 90s”, due to difficulties at the refinery, too, instead of AI-93, AI-91 and AI-92 were often imported. "A-92" is a gag of a specific gas station. As in "The Diamond Hand": "Cafe ... laced willow."
            3. 26rus
              26rus 5 February 2022 17: 32
              +1
              75 Sergey, Served in the army as a driver on the "Ural-375A" MSH-PSh, i.е. KUNG on a tractor and KUNG on a trailer. Refueling exclusively AI-93, and nothing else. The base fuel consumption rate is 71,5 / 100 km, plus coefficients - 10% for a trailer, 10% for driving in a convoy, 10% for off-road (polygon). As a result, almost 100 l / 100 km. PS I served a term after graduating from a university, specialty "Operation and repair of an auto-tractor fleet", so I have an idea how vouchers are filled and how fuel and lubricants are written off ...
          2. nerovnayadoroga
            nerovnayadoroga 4 February 2022 11: 35
            +2
            In civilian life, and even in the army, these cars rarely saw that they were prescribed a designer, A76 and all that, no nails, or in the army leaded AI93, the consumption for the Ural transport in the summer was over 70 liters, about 80/100 km of the way, if in forests, fields, yes, on a combat radio station, there, even for 100 liters, just in years, in the summer it also warmed up not badly, compared to the Urals, Zil 131, it was a fairy tale.
      2. 75 Sergey
        75 Sergey 3 February 2022 17: 33
        -4
        Here is a book of 1968, the publishing house "Engineering" Edited by Doctor of Technical Sciences Anokhin V.I. "Domestic cars"
        1. old_pferd
          old_pferd 3 February 2022 18: 15
          +13
          And in the Guide to the Ural 375D from the Ministry of Defense
    3. neri73-r
      neri73-r 3 February 2022 15: 58
      +7
      Yeah, back platform behind the door, behind the handrail. Or on the right in front in front of the cabin glazing.
      1. Alien From
        Alien From 3 February 2022 16: 14
        +5
        After all, there was an automatic transmission there, it switched with such a whistle and clang, the doors did not close completely)))) but still, Native smile I remember as a child I missed Icarus, I was waiting for this "cheat")))
        1. Azis
          Azis 3 February 2022 19: 55
          +4
          There seemed to be a torque converter with friction clutches, a whistle - yes, but where did the clang come from?
          1. Alien From
            Alien From 3 February 2022 20: 20
            +5
            As the members of the forum wrote above, a clang seems to be from cardans ... but it is impossible to confuse it with anything)
            1. ivselim
              ivselim 4 February 2022 11: 55
              +4
              Quote: Alien From
              As the members of the forum wrote above, a clang seems to be from cardans ... but it is impossible to confuse it with anything)

              It was as if metal cans were beating against each other ... Indescribable sound and sensations from driving))
            2. Tank jacket
              Tank jacket 7 February 2022 09: 15
              +2
              I remember the LiAZ with its corrugated handrails, the “bed” to the right of the driver was covered with quilted leatherette. good
        2. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 3 February 2022 20: 21
          +6
          Quote: Alien From
          doors didn't close all the way.

          Just not adjusted. Specialists did it so that they would not freeze.
          1. Alien From
            Alien From 3 February 2022 20: 25
            +1
            Caring for passengers, especially in severe winter) but not on foot laughing maybe, by the way, someone else will remember, on the back platform, some citizens were coolly rocked .......
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 3 February 2022 20: 29
              +6
              Quote: Alien From
              Caring for passengers, especially in severe winter) but not on foot

              Fine. Recently I was driving a Gazelle, so the driver asked the door on the motor to push, it froze .... And in Liaz he kicked it, and it didn’t last long.
              1. Alien From
                Alien From 3 February 2022 20: 32
                +2
                With such a characteristic zilch, all this is short-lived))))
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 3 February 2022 20: 35
                  +6
                  Quote: Alien From
                  With such a characteristic puff

                  It's normal ... The compressor is with air chambers ... Not lacquer with wiring and a motor.
    4. Gvardeetz77
      Gvardeetz77 3 February 2022 16: 07
      +11
      Quote: Alien From
      Oh, I remembered Liases, warm in winter, and with the smell of gasoline ...... good nostalgia good

      And how magically these LiAZs were given long climbs .... Returning from the dacha (well, then, rather, allotment of land), there was such a 2,5-3 kilometer climb, in a crowded bus it seemed endless, and even at that time, the time of a small number of cars collected a huge tail of cars behind them. But it’s impossible to overtake this “hurry-up” (double solid), and the valiant traffic police in the Soviet Union, like modern road workers, never took a bribe, occupying this golden hill on Saturday and Sunday. I remember my father had a schedule of this country route in the car in order to guess the time of departure :)
      1. AUL
        AUL 3 February 2022 18: 15
        +9
        LIAZ ... How much I crushed my sides in it, how many new expressions I heard there at rush hour ...
        The popular name for this miracle product is "cattle truck".
        1. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 3 February 2022 20: 44
          +3
          Quote: AUL
          The popular name for this miracle product is "cattle truck".

          Only the people did not know that in terms of comfort this cattle truck is much better than, for example, yellowish American school buses.
          1. nerovnayadoroga
            nerovnayadoroga 4 February 2022 11: 27
            +4
            Probably the first buses in the USSR received air suspension, automatic transmission and power steering, hence the smoothness of the ride.
            1. Mordvin 3
              Mordvin 3 4 February 2022 12: 00
              -6
              Somehow we went to the state farm. Autumn, rain, the carrier presses under 120 ... In general, they almost tumbled. They jumped into the ditch. Good bus.
              1. aglet
                aglet 4 February 2022 12: 34
                +5
                "carrier presses under 120 ..."
                120? on LiAZ? along the lane? you don't confuse anything? fast and furious, isn't it?
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 4 February 2022 12: 57
                  -3
                  Quote: aglet
                  120? on LiAZ? along the lane?

                  On asphalt. The road was excellent, and I don’t confuse anything, Ikarus caught up. I was sitting in the front seat on the right. It skidded, the young driver turned the steering wheel at ninety degrees, thumped into a ditch. The older drivers jumped up, they knocked on his scoreboard. And our classmate said to the driver: "God saved us and your quick reaction."
                  1. aglet
                    aglet 4 February 2022 13: 13
                    +10
                    "On asphalt. The road was excellent, and I don't confuse anything"
                    but it’s okay that he had a maximum speed of 70, and with an automatic gearbox you won’t exceed it much? well, maximum, 80, downhill
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 4 February 2022 13: 19
                      -5
                      Quote: aglet
                      but it’s okay that he had a maximum speed of 70, and with an automatic gearbox you won’t exceed it much? well, maximum, 80, downhill

                      I looked at the speedometer, and it was one hundred and twenty. I freaked out myself when he sped up. And Liazik was brand new, it felt like it was right from under the haulage.
                      1. aglet
                        aglet 5 February 2022 02: 01
                        +4
                        "I looked at the speedometer and it was one hundred and twenty"
                        Are you talking about Liaz 677 now? the instrument panel is not visible from the passenger compartment, and the driver covers everything with a carcass. and 120 on that speedometer is for all the money, well, the liaz could not squeeze out so much, and any bus of domestic production. Liaz was a city bus, and therefore he had a maximum speed of 70, but he didn’t go faster
                      2. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 5 February 2022 08: 34
                        -4
                        Quote: aglet
                        Liaz was a city bus, and therefore he had a maximum speed of 70, but he didn’t go faster

                        Here I went, damn it ...
                      3. aglet
                        aglet 5 February 2022 16: 36
                        0
                        "Here he went, damn it ..."
                        well, maybe in your dreams
                  2. Okolotochny
                    Okolotochny 5 February 2022 08: 12
                    +3
                    Volodya, the engine is located in front of him on the right, you could only lie on the right))
                    1. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 5 February 2022 08: 22
                      +1
                      One more thing... A badge-fly, I mean those seats that were located to the right of the entrance.
                      1. aglet
                        aglet 5 February 2022 16: 41
                        +1
                        "A badge-fly, I mean those seats that were located to the right of the entrance"
                        Well? maybe you are aware that in liaz677 the driver's seat and the engine were separated from the passenger compartment by a partition under the ceiling? you could see the top of the driver if the partition, as usual, was not hung with a special canopy
                      2. chimik70
                        chimik70 6 February 2022 01: 01
                        0
                        In our village, without a partition, I traveled behind only plexiglass, but in the city, yes, it was fenced off with glass. Apparently there were different modifications.
                      3. aglet
                        aglet 6 February 2022 18: 05
                        0
                        "we in the village without a partition went behind our backs, there was only plexiglass"
                        this is groove 652
                      4. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 6 February 2022 03: 44
                        0
                        Quote: aglet
                        was hung with a special canopy

                        What kind of canopy? There wasn't a damn thing.
                      5. aglet
                        aglet 6 February 2022 17: 49
                        0
                        "What kind of canopy? There was not a damn thing there"
                        do you think the curtain is called
                      6. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 6 February 2022 04: 01
                        -1
                        Quote: aglet
                        maybe you are aware that in liaz677 the driver's seat and the engine were separated from the passenger compartment by a partition under the ceiling? you could see the top of the driver if the partition, as usual, was not hung with a special canopy

                        I am very well aware. Somehow the tape recorder was running away from the carrier ...
                    2. chimik70
                      chimik70 6 February 2022 00: 56
                      +1
                      If I'm not mistaken, there was a row of seats to the right of the driver right next to the engine. They sat there backwards. If you sit half-turned, as we did as boys, then the speedometer can be seen. Although about 120 km / h, I also doubt it, they crawled very slowly.
                      Oh, I didn’t remember! There was a seat between the engine and the front door, they sat there sideways to the direction of travel, facing the driver. In winter, you snuggle up to the partition of the engine compartment, it’s warm!
                      1. aglet
                        aglet 6 February 2022 17: 51
                        0
                        "If I don't confuse to the right of the driver there was a row of seats right next to the engine"
                        confuse, there were no seats there
                        "Oh, I didn't remember! There was a seat between the engine and the front door"
                        and this is at the entrance 695, between the driver and the right door
                      2. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 6 February 2022 17: 51
                        -1
                        Quote from: chimik70
                        There was a seat between the engine and the front door,

                        There was a sofa.
                    3. Severok
                      Severok 6 February 2022 09: 47
                      +3
                      Liaz 677, engine ZIL 375, in the front central part of the bus, to the left of the engine, the driver's seat, separated from the passenger compartment by a partition from the left to the right side of the bus. To the right of the engine is a radiator with a damper that directs hot air from the radiator either into the bus cabin heating shaft or down onto the road. Gearbox 3-speed, with torque converter, with the possibility of its blocking. Torque transmission from the engine to the gearbox through the cardan shaft, from the gearbox through the cardan shaft with an outboard bearing. (bottle ringing during engine operation came from the front propeller shaft due to wear of the splines on the crankshaft extension and its flange, as well as due to wear of the same splines on the torque converter shaft and its flange) Front suspension spring with hydraulic shock absorbers, rear suspension with air springs and level controls gender. The cabin door drive is pneumatic, controlled through an air valve to the left of the steering column. Often in the ATP it was remade to control solenoids. Produced options with double glazing interior. Tank capacity 300 l, AI 93 fuel. Cabin ventilation through the cabin glazing windows and through three hatches in the roof of the bus.
                      Veteran drivers Liaz 677 had hearing problems on the right.
                      1. aglet
                        aglet 6 February 2022 17: 58
                        0
                        "bottle ringing during engine operation came from the front propeller shaft due to wear of the splines on the crankshaft extension and its flange, as well as due to wear of the same splines on the torque converter shaft and its flange"
                        any two-shaft gearbox gears have this ringing; they are not fixed and cling to each other at the ends, which is why the ringing. the VAZ 2108 checkpoint had a similar story, only the sound was muffled. I say it again - it’s impossible for all liases to wear out cardans to such an extent that they ring, the gearbox was noisy
        2. Serge-667
          Serge-667 8 February 2022 21: 15
          +1
          Н
          The popular name for this miracle product is "livestock truck".

          Actually Lunokhod.
          Cattle trucks were called everything that is more rigid, such as PaZik or Kubanets.
      2. Free wind
        Free wind 4 February 2022 03: 19
        -2
        Why, under the USSR, did traffic cops take bribes if there were no fines? There simply weren’t. A warning card was issued for the rights. And holes were made in it with a hole punch. 3 holes were allowed per year. Then the rights were withdrawn. Required retake of traffic rules.
        1. nerovnayadoroga
          nerovnayadoroga 4 February 2022 11: 15
          +1
          And there was no double solid axial, but for three notches in the warning ticket, with a validity period of one year, deprivation of rights for 6 months with a retake of traffic rules and driving, well, then there were options.
    5. Azis
      Azis 3 February 2022 19: 57
      +5
      It’s warmer in LAZ, on the back sofa, which is above the engine, 5-seater)
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 February 2022 05: 13
        +4
        Quote: Azis
        It’s warmer in LAZ, on the back sofa, which is above the engine, 5-seater)

        Yeah, especially in 30 degree heat!
        Already in the 90s, diesel LAZs had a joke with frozen diesel fuel!
        And how many of these and LIAZoavian monsters I didn’t push into the ice up the hill to “shove through”. Only when you smoke, they torment you - “get up, brother, we grind,” the entire male population of the bus climbs out of the last one and begins to “pull the barge hauler” in unison. As soon as the drivers were not perverted to avoid similar autumn holidays. Shovels and buckets of sand by the emergency exit were the norm.
        1. nerovnayadoroga
          nerovnayadoroga 4 February 2022 11: 21
          +3
          This is not the fault of the bus, but who sat in the back seat, ha!?
    6. Mikhalych 70
      Mikhalych 70 5 February 2022 00: 04
      0
      I beg your pardon, in what part of LiAZ was it warm in winter?
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 February 2022 07: 14
        +2
        Quote: Mikhalych 70
        I beg your pardon, in what part of LiAZ was it warm in winter?

        The latter, who wore the “livestock truck” among the people, had one pack for two! So the driver chose to let himself or the passengers warm!!! Passengers in the cold could only be saved by a quarrelsome conductor, who whitewashed the driver for the philanthropy !!!
      2. Alien From
        Alien From 5 February 2022 12: 47
        +1
        In any, compared with Ikarus or in the capital, the stoves were not turned on laughing
        1. Mikhalych 70
          Mikhalych 70 6 February 2022 12: 32
          -1
          in general, this is not a discussion thread for LiAZs. Therefore: the manholes were warm. And in LiAZs, especially on the rear accumulation platform, where the floor went by itself, and the body itself, and the cracks in the doors were several fingers wide, by definition it was cold in winter. And the drivers plugged the heating channel on the port side even in the cockpit. Fairly believing that passengers have to go several stops, and they have to steer all day. I. yes. A bottle of water, placed by the windshield, froze in 40 minutes.
          Accordingly, I propose to return to the comments and discussion of "URAL".
        2. Mordvin 3
          Mordvin 3 6 February 2022 17: 57
          -1
          Quote: Alien From
          stoves not included

          They stole them insolently. Somehow they swelled in the garage, 6 by 6, turned on the carousel stove, so the whole garage was heated.
    7. Grits
      Grits 5 February 2022 10: 02
      +2
      Quote: Alien From
      Oh, I remembered Liases, warm in winter, and with the smell of gasoline ...... good nostalgia

      And they were spacious too. Though they rattled like sheds. By the way, there was not a single Liaz in Vladivostok - only Ikarus. Although in all other cities of the Far East they were the main horses
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 3 February 2022 15: 26
    +23
    Let's honor the memory of ZiL by standing up ..
    1. Andrey Yuryevich
      Andrey Yuryevich 3 February 2022 15: 33
      +11
      Alien From (Alien From)
      Today, 15: 18

      Oh, I remembered Liases, warm in winter, and with the smell of gasoline ...... good nostalgia.
      parusnik (Alexey Bogomazov)
      Let's honor the memory of ZiL by standing up.
      . I join .. in my ears, still the "ringing of bottles" in Liaz.
    2. KLV
      KLV 3 February 2022 15: 56
      +5
      ... and LiAZs with their "bottle" sounds too.
      1. Waterways 672
        Waterways 672 3 February 2022 16: 50
        +8
        Quote: KLV
        ... and LiAZs with their "bottle" sounds too.

        The hydromechanical gearbox on LIAZ is significantly distant from the engine itself and is located between the front and rear axles. Its input shaft is connected to the engine shaft through two cardan shafts. These shafts, when rotating at idle without load, gave a "bottle" ringing.
        About gasoline. To switch from 93 to 76 gasoline, additional gaskets were installed between the block and the head; Part of the Muscovites went on sale for 76 gasoline-rural version. Yes, and some Zhiguli were exported on 80 gasoline, farmers bought them there, in England there was an analogue of our 76 gasoline. I had a "four" from England on 80 gasoline.
        1. 75 Sergey
          75 Sergey 3 February 2022 17: 26
          -8
          The ZIL375 engine worked from the factory on A-76 gasoline.
          This engine was installed on Ural375, LAZ "Tourist", etc.
          1. volodimer
            volodimer 3 February 2022 18: 05
            +7
            The author generally indicated
            army "Urals" with the aim of final victory in the war with detonation were transferred to this brand of fuel, and "civilian" ones were left to work on the A-76

            And about what kind of gasoline cars can run. Our basic GAZ-66, also initially sharpened for 76th, then started at 80m, now it drives at 92m (it’s easier for the institute to purchase) and all without alterations, no spacers. And when at the gas station there was a repair of a column with 80/92 and only 95 / DT worked, they filled up and 95m. The car flew uphill, and the engine purred softly, like a sleeping kitten. It is clear that they did not abuse it, but then I thought what kind of octane range this engine has.
            1. 75 Sergey
              75 Sergey 3 February 2022 18: 17
              -5
              Now everyone drives AI-93, the density of gasoline does not change, this is a long time ago when gasoline was extracted by direct sublimation, but even then it was possible to get A72, but in reality it was A66
              We are talking about the times of the USSR, when A-92 / AI-93 were in short supply.
              1. The comment was deleted.
            2. nerovnayadoroga
              nerovnayadoroga 4 February 2022 11: 45
              +1
              In the 90s I met a batch of Pazikov with experimental motors, they found it, as always in Russia, why read the forms, after the burnout of the inter-ring jumpers on one engine, they searched for pistons for a long time, but I just had to brew with argon and machine through a new groove for the rings, they didn’t find the pistons, and the pistons were lightweight with a shortened skirt and a sample in the bottom, registered according to the form, for running on high-octane fuel from AI93, all three buses immediately received 93 gasoline, they went to work, but they didn’t have long left ...
        2. aglet
          aglet 4 February 2022 12: 36
          0
          "Its input shaft is connected to the engine shaft through two cardan shafts. These shafts, when idling without load, gave a" bottle "ring."
          Yes, at least 10 shafts. how can a shaft (!!!) when rotating without load make a ringing, especially a bottle?
          1. Egg
            Egg 4 February 2022 18: 39
            +2
            Elementary, just at idle, dangles on broken spline connections.
            And it’s bottled, or how can anyone hear it.
            I heard a thin ringing, apparently the cups of mud protection on the crosses were hanging, they are remembered on the cross, they were fastened with a simple punching, loosened and rang.
            As for refueling, the 375th ones were exclusively AI-93 refueled, in any case, no matter how many pipe carriers I saw, everyone drove 93. And their cross-country ability in the northern swamps was fabulous, when they started to install diesel engines in the Urals, the cross-country ability became ... what ... diesel engines are buried, the soil is cut
            1. aglet
              aglet 5 February 2022 01: 43
              -1
              "Elementary, just at idle, dangling on broken splines"
              even on a broken slot, it clicks once, selects a gap, and silence. and what, all the lyazov had broken cardans, if this is a characteristic sound? maybe it was still in the box, or in the transformer?
              1. Egg
                Egg 5 February 2022 11: 23
                0
                How does he "click, choose a gap and silence" ?? We are talking about a spline connection with the help of which the length of the cardan is changed during the operation of the suspension and if necessary.
                1. aglet
                  aglet 5 February 2022 16: 26
                  0
                  "How does he" click, choose a gap and silence "
                  elementary Watson. in the spline connection, due to wear, a gap arises; during rotation, this gap is removed, i.e. the slots, under the action of centrifugal forces, are pressed against each other, and the gap disappears, while a click is heard, and then silence. that's clearer?
                  1. Mordvin 3
                    Mordvin 3 6 February 2022 04: 06
                    -2
                    Quote: aglet
                    this gap is removed, i.e. the slots, under the action of centrifugal forces, are pressed against each other, and the gap disappears, while a click is heard, and then silence. that's clearer?

                    No, it's not clear.
                    1. aglet
                      aglet 6 February 2022 17: 47
                      0
                      "No, it's not clear"
                      Well, read the details of the machines, everything is explained simply and clearly. well, you can also see a cross section of the splined part of any cardan, you don’t even need to explain anything, and you can see everything
                      1. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 6 February 2022 18: 00
                        -1
                        Quote: aglet
                        well, read the details of the machines,

                        I have read them. Details of machines and mechanisms...
                      2. Dude
                        Dude 7 February 2022 14: 26
                        +2
                        Quote: mordvin xnumx
                        Quote: aglet
                        well, read the details of the machines,

                        I have read them. Details of machines and mechanisms...

                        And yet it is Machine parts. And The Theory of Machines and Mechanisms (Here is My Grave). hi
                        R. S. And, of course, the universal joints are ringing, you are absolutely right.
          2. 75 Sergey
            75 Sergey 5 February 2022 13: 44
            0
            The splines of the cardan shaft, whatever one may say, have a gap between the mating parts, the cardan shaft itself is a rather thin-walled pipe, the uneven operation of the engine causes the splines to hit each other and this sound is amplified by the cardan shaft pipe.
            To reduce this effect, thick paper in the form of a folded sheet is now inserted into the pipe during assembly.
            The more splines, the stronger this effect.
            1. aglet
              aglet 5 February 2022 16: 33
              0
              "The uneven operation of the engine causes the splines to hit each other and this sound is amplified by the cardan shaft tube"
              on my typewriter there are 2 cardan shafts, and I understand their sores quite well. never, under any wear and tear of the slots and crosspieces, the bottle ringing was not heard, but the clicks were constant. this, by the way, is a characteristic sign of the beginning of the wear of the crosses, the splines wear out much less frequently.
              "The splines of the cardan shaft, whatever one may say, have a gap between the mating parts"
              Have you heard of the involute profile? this is just to keep the splines from wearing out
              1. Egg
                Egg 5 February 2022 19: 06
                0
                You have not forgotten that we are talking about cardans liaz and not about spaceships laughing
                1. aglet
                  aglet 6 February 2022 17: 43
                  0
                  "You haven't forgotten that we are talking about liaza cardans"
                  this is where the involute profile is applied. What do you think - the splines on the cardan are cut down with a chisel, manually?
              2. 75 Sergey
                75 Sergey 6 February 2022 08: 41
                -1
                On your machine, the propeller shaft is between the gearbox and the drive axle gearbox.
                Here the cardan shaft stands between the engine and the automatic transmission, i.e. always rotates when the internal combustion engine is running, as soon as the load has gone, the splines are pressed only in one direction and the sound disappears.
                1. aglet
                  aglet 6 February 2022 17: 44
                  0
                  "The slots are pressed only in one direction and the sound disappears."
                  what am I talking about? only they cling to xx in the same way
                2. Egg
                  Egg 7 February 2022 04: 42
                  0
                  Quote: 75Sergey
                  Here the cardan shaft stands between the engine and the automatic transmission, i.e. always rotates when the internal combustion engine is running, as soon as the load has gone, the splines are pressed only in one direction and the sound disappears.

                  The engine is on pillows, the box is on pillows, the movement of the car can only ideally be uniform and that is not a fact, and the sound arose mainly at idle and when coasting before stops. And the cardans were molded far from the best grades of steel, they only broke on the way ...
                  And in general, the topic is about Ural 375, and not about buses, buses are like that, in passing.
  3. yuriy55
    yuriy55 3 February 2022 15: 58
    +5
    Thanks for the article. Some warmth from the past wafted.
    There were such Urals in the unit. Trouble with refueling, and gasoline was poured insolently (who remembers, casts were hung on the tanks) ...
    Don't care. There are casts - there is no gasoline. There are also drain plugs... lol
    I remember a man stopped us and asked for 10 liters of diesel fuel. We tell him that it is on gasoline ... I didn’t believe it until the tank was opened ...
  4. rocket757
    rocket757 3 February 2022 16: 18
    0

    The story of why "Ural" devoured Zhiguli gasoline
    . Of course, the all-terrain vehicle is still the same, but what a "cow" it is ... oh yes, it also drives well into trams, right on the floor of the passenger compartment !!!
  5. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 3 February 2022 16: 44
    +4
    I would have killed that Herod who thought of installing the Ural lining on eight dozen self-tapping screws. I messed around with them.
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 3 February 2022 18: 18
      0
      That blockhead who gave me a minus would have tried to screw the Ural sheathing to the roof alone, pressing it with his hump, drilling holes, and twisting the screws.
  6. l.jensen
    l.jensen 3 February 2022 16: 46
    +1
    I got the impression that in the USSR everyone stole and cheated if they saw an opportunity. And that's the mentality. Therefore, everyone is stealing now, that is, the mentality has remained the same, so why are you surprised then that everyone is being dragged to London?
    1. ssergey1978
      ssergey1978 3 February 2022 17: 06
      +7
      And no one is surprised. Those who are not able to "drag to London" are simply outraged
      1. Mordvin 3
        Mordvin 3 3 February 2022 17: 40
        -3
        Quote: ssergey1978
        Those who are not able to "drag to London" are simply outraged

        Another. You, who are raking, need to be rolled under the asphalt. Along with London.
    2. 75 Sergey
      75 Sergey 3 February 2022 17: 20
      -2
      BREAK a lot, and you listen.
    3. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 3 February 2022 17: 29
      +5
      Quote: l.Jensen
      I got the impression that in the USSR everyone stole and cheated if they saw an opportunity. And that's the mentality.

      Bullshit. This still needs to be calculated, for example, how much I took from work, and how much I brought back, paying from my hard-earned money.
    4. 75 Sergey
      75 Sergey 5 February 2022 13: 48
      +1
      Do not judge by yourself, if this is the case in Ukraine now, it does not mean that it was the same in the RSFSR, but of course, in any herd there is a black sheep.
  7. 75 Sergey
    75 Sergey 3 February 2022 17: 15
    -16
    Ural 375 consumed A-76 gasoline !!!!
    The book "Domestic cars", author Anokhin 1968.
    That's where you come from, just to lie, for using the AI-92/93 truck in the USSR they would have been exiled far and for a long time, then every sneeze was counted.
    1. old_pferd
      old_pferd 3 February 2022 18: 21
      +6
      Why so emotional
    2. Vikxnumx
      Vikxnumx 4 February 2022 08: 59
      +5
      Open the NIIAT Automotive Quick Reference Guide and read about the car. In the 1985 edition, TWO types of gasoline are indicated: A-76 and AI-93.
      For some reason they forgot about the miracle car ZIL-135 !!!
      There are TWO such miracle motors ZIL-375 !!!
      Off-road, this miracle ate up to 150 l / 100 km!
    3. Alex koch
      Alex koch 4 February 2022 09: 55
      +4
      Sergey, calm down already

  8. evgen1221
    evgen1221 3 February 2022 17: 30
    -2
    IMHO, they tried to tear up another shtatovsky cubature,
  9. mmaxx
    mmaxx 3 February 2022 17: 33
    +1
    Wow, and he ate gasoline .... As if not in himself.
  10. singless
    singless 3 February 2022 17: 40
    +2
    worked on lyase. oh, gasoline flowed like a river, and if you mow a circle, it’s good in your pocket. I still remember 154 26 378 the order of work. studied in falconers at cat D, there were still cash desks
  11. Aag
    Aag 3 February 2022 17: 44
    +3
    Thanks to the author!
    Perhaps there is no more brutal muzzle, combat exterior than the 375th! (IMHO, of course). Only "Shishiga" (GAZ-66) can have a more ascetic cabin ...
    However, dear Author, let me make a couple of remarks repeat
    - I think it would be worth mentioning about gasoline in more detail (about octane
    numbers, the very title of the article suggests this; evaluation methods - motor, research ... methods, degree of sublimation ... over the years this has also changed.);
    - at the beginning of the article, when assessing the characteristics of internal combustion engines (internal combustion engines), there are no data on torque (later, lower, they appeared). Agree, - not entirely correct, informative ...
    Hopefully, quite young people also look in here. who, perhaps due to the current situation independent of them, are deprived of a decent education, but they are confident that, say, a passenger car with a curb weight of about a ton with an engine in "stop mares" is complete crap!
    Maybe then, without unnecessary moralizing, at least one of them will think: how the hell did lorries with 50 "mares" get out of the Second World War?! How did the USSR support and develop agriculture in "Belarus" with the capacity of VAZ-2101? .... hi
    1. lucul
      lucul 3 February 2022 20: 09
      -1
      Maybe then, without unnecessary moralizing, at least one of them will think: how the hell did lorries with 50 "mares" get out of the Second World War?! How did the USSR support and develop agriculture in "Belarus" with the capacity of VAZ-2101? ....

      Yeah, to rivet tanks in quantities of tens of thousands of units, and to have almost no own engine building - they copied the Western ones without exception.
      An example of a motor under the Ural -375 is a very good example - in fact, it was initially necessary not to touch the native hemispherical combustion chamber and EVERYTHING, and there would be no such problems, because as a result of the experiments, they came to the conclusion that all other types of combustion chambers only increase detonation.
      And after all, they sold this engine to us for a sample, and even put into their heads the idea that it was necessary with a different combustion chamber so that ours would suffer. .)))
      The Germans encrypted technical documentation in this way - they leaked drawings with intentional errors so that the enemy would throw away his resources and man-hours onto a product that was obviously inoperable. The West often threw such surprises to the USSR.
      The industry that does not have its own line of engines (from 1 liter to marine engines) is practically dead and uncompetitive, because it is the engine that sets the look and capabilities of the machine. Without knowing what engine will be in the product, the designer will never be able to create an outstanding car.
      A striking example of this approach now is India, and earlier - Russian Empire.
      Motor building is the main driver of the industry (along with machine tool building and electronics), without their development there is nothing to hope for the status of a superpower.
      1. Aag
        Aag 3 February 2022 20: 37
        +1
        I agree with some of your statements ("cry from the heart").
        But, I didn't write about it.
      2. Grits
        Grits 5 February 2022 10: 24
        0
        Quote: lucul
        Motor building is the main driver of the industry (along with machine tool building and electronics), without their development there is nothing to hope for the status of a superpower.

        So we still do not have the required number of engines - neither for ships, nor for planes, nor for cars. There is not even a domestic engine for a walk-behind tractor or a lawn mower. This is the eternal problem of the country
  12. andrewkor
    andrewkor 3 February 2022 17: 52
    +2
    And in my factory garage in the 70s, the Yaroslavl six was installed on the only Ural. It turned out very well!
    1. Egg
      Egg 4 February 2022 18: 54
      0
      In the north, in the 90s, Urals 375 were also often reworked, YaMZ 236 was installed, it turned out well, but only until they went off-road.
  13. Lewww
    3 February 2022 20: 24
    +7
    Quote: 75Sergey
    I have provided some kind of document, please submit a document of fuel consumption rates for Ural-375 AI-93 or AI-92,

    Sergey, I kind of wrote in an article that for Ural-375 in different years gasoline with different OC was recommended.
    When the production of AI-93 was launched, they began to recommend it.
    Scan page of the NIIAT reference book, 1982. will convince you?
    [Center]
  14. Lewww
    3 February 2022 20: 58
    +7
    Quote: 75Sergey
    Ural 375 consumed A-76 gasoline !!!!
    The book "Domestic cars", author Anokhin 1968.
    That's right, because in 1968 the release of the AI-93 had not yet been deployed
  15. Lewww
    3 February 2022 21: 17
    +5
    Quote: AAG
    However, dear Author, let me make a couple of remarks
    - I think it would be worth mentioning about gasoline in more detail (about octane
    numbers, the very title of the article suggests this; evaluation methods - motor, research ... methods, degree of sublimation ... over the years this has also changed.);
    This requires writing a completely different article, even more cumbersome than the one written.
    In principle, my article on the history of domestic motor gasoline is almost finished, but I don’t see the point in publishing it in view of the low interest of people in this topic, and this resource is clearly not suitable for this
    1. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 3 February 2022 22: 59
      +2
      I don't see the point in posting it.
      The fuel and blood of the war, so the article would be interesting to read, and I'm sure it is quite out of place here. Here, excuse me, they wrote about the Hyperboreans and moonshine from feces wassat .
  16. Siberian54
    Siberian54 3 February 2022 21: 37
    +2
    worked on URAL-375, ninety-third. On the road 45 l \ 100 off-road 70 \ 100 was not too much left. Then on 377 A-76 the same 45 +10 for the trailer
  17. ivan2022
    ivan2022 4 February 2022 10: 36
    -3
    In general, the USSR is "an epic country where people with dog heads lived and everything was the other way around."

    But it is necessary to compare not with the failed achievements of the USSR, but with other countries of the 21st century.

    Even at sunset, in 1988, the USSR ranked number 26 in the international quality of life rating, and now the Russian Federation ranks between 50 and 60. But in 1988, the people were depressed, and now everyone is kind of .... happy. To a terrible degree.

    The modern publicist, with her strained self-spitting on her story, suggests some form of severe mental perversion. To nausea. To vomit, because I didn’t read it to the end ...... and I don’t advise others. Dangerous for health.
  18. Lewww
    4 February 2022 13: 02
    +7
    Quote: ivan2022
    suggests some form of severe mental perversion. To nausea.
    Dear, when writing the article, I set the goal tell the truth about how the engine was developed for the future car Ural-375 and why it happened that AI-93 high-octane gasoline was recommended for it.
    The article contains numerous technical details and provides a list of 12 technical sources used. literature from which the information was obtained.
    On what basis did you conclude that the article is a "forced self-spitting of one's history" for me there is a Great Secret.
    However, you can’t please everyone, opinions must be multipolar love
    1. Andy
      Andy 4 February 2022 13: 58
      +3
      dear author, thanks for the interesting article. and do not be offended by any dissatisfied (they themselves do not know what they are actually dissatisfied with). I did not find in the article either slandering the USSR, or myths about a "country with dog heads". I wish you success
      1. Lewww
        4 February 2022 14: 52
        +6
        Thank you for your kind words, apparently I will soon post another automotive article on VO
  19. Ponchik78
    Ponchik78 4 February 2022 13: 54
    +3
    We had the Urals at the state farm))) Having never gone anywhere. But the gasoline allocated to it was mastered to the last liter))
  20. Lewww
    4 February 2022 14: 59
    +6
    Quote: Mordvin 3
    On asphalt. The road was great

    LiAZ-677 has max. speed on the "great road" was 70 km / h, and the braking distance from the speed of 60 km / h was 32 m smile
    120 km / h is only from the mountain with a good passing hurricane
  21. Eug
    Eug 4 February 2022 16: 04
    0
    In our regiment at the GPPR there were 2 truck cranes based on the Ural-375D. During the regulations (once every six months) of the BC stored at the position, the queue to the chief with canisters for the 93rd gasoline was longer than to the Mausoleum.
  22. frolish
    frolish 4 February 2022 18: 54
    +1
    Already nostalgia)) I studied in 1993 in this driving school DOSAAF on Shmitovsky passage. I remember forever under the driver Mostakov, who taught us the construction of the machine, it’s very interesting))) Like you’re the engine, lists everything attached, and then says, you’re not locksmiths, you don’t need more laughing
    Then, after him, some kind of grandfather led us, I don’t remember his last name, here he filled out the entire notebook for 24 sheets. He started any lesson, at least on the topic of the rear axle, by inserting the key into the ignition, the current from the + battery goes to the starter solenoid relay .... and so everything is in order until you reach the rear axle, and then it only began his device to tell. Hands fell off after his classes crying But then I realized how useful it was when I knew the whole length and breadth of the car. good
  23. Lewww
    4 February 2022 22: 27
    0
    Quote: frolishe
    Already nostalgia)) I studied in 1993 at this DOSAAF driving school on Shmitovsky Proezd.
    Exactly, that's where she was.
    Our teacher was Demikhovsky Saul Fedorovich.
    The uncle was sensible, then in 1989 he published the book Cars in collaboration with Shestopalov.
    I studied on the ZIL-131, and then I had to travel to SA on it
    Yes .. youth-youth winked
  24. Lara Croft
    Lara Croft 5 February 2022 13: 54
    0
    A good article is informative, as "TM" read ...
    However, the author has some kind of biased attitude towards the Zilovites, and in fact KAMAZ was developed in her design bureau ....
  25. Lewww
    5 February 2022 15: 00
    +1
    Quote: Lara Croft
    A good article is informative, as "TM" read
    I'm trying to revive the genre of "popular science literature"

    Quote: Lara Croft
    the author has some kind of biased attitude towards the "Zilovites"
    you're dramatizing -
    River, blue sky -
    This is all mine, dear.
    This is my homeland,
    I love all in the world!
    laughing hi
  26. ivar.zhukov
    ivar.zhukov 5 February 2022 20: 32
    0
    Like gasoline hawal is not childish. In the Arctic, for ease of work in severe frosts, such a technique is salvation. Well, we are in the army and enjoyed the moment. On the cab, on the left side of the back, there was a tank of 30 liters, we always kept a supply there and used the moment when leaving, you would drive into the garages and immediately how rich the Croesus was.
  27. Lewww
    6 February 2022 11: 57
    0
    Quote from: chimik70
    If I'm not mistaken, there was a row of seats to the right of the driver right next to the engine. They sat there backwards.
    not this way.
    In short, you enter the lane. the door of the bus, you turn right, there was a three-seater seat parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bus, where the passengers rode on the right side in the direction of travel.
    The one who sat in front, turning his head to the right, could look ahead and observe the actions of the driver.
    If possible, I always tried to sit there, but as far as I remember, the instrument panel was not visible from this place and it was not possible to determine which speed the bus was traveling from.
    And behind the driver, or rather behind the partition, there was a two-seat seat located across the axis of the bus and the passengers traveled forward.
    But they usually didn’t see what was going on ahead, because. the part of the partition behind the back was usually covered with paper posters or cloth.
    The left seat on this seat was the warmest, because the passenger pressed his left foot against the air duct box where hot air from the heater flowed.
    Therefore, in the winter we usually tried to get into this seat, and in the summer for a three-seater.
    The engine was located to the right of the driver and the roar from it was terrible, the carriers usually covered it with all sorts of carpets and canopies, but it didn’t help much.
    Well, in the summer there was Tashkent in the cockpit, because the glazing was like in an aquarium, and as far as I remember, there were no vents in the right window of the cockpit
    LiAZ-677 was a terrible horror, and the carriers who moved from it to Ikarus said that they were in paradise
    1. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 6 February 2022 20: 23
      0
      Quote: Lewww
      LiAZ-677 was a terrible horror, and the carriers who moved from it to Ikarus said that they were in paradise

      Uh-huh ... And they also dragged the stoves ....
  28. Lewww
    6 February 2022 12: 06
    0
    Quote: Severok
    Gearbox 3-speed, with torque converter,
    LiAZ-677 had automatic transmission two-stage, 2nd per. straight. Hence such a low maximum speed - 70 km / h
    Accordingly, there was a reverse gear.
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