Military Review

Flight personnel qualification by class

Flight personnel qualification by class

- Wait!

- I'm standing...

Are you still in 3rd grade?

- Well, yes…

- How much do you have to say to get the 2nd and 1st? What's the matter?

- Well, it's a long one. история... In general, I don’t see the need to write a bunch of pieces of paper in small handwriting, take tests, humiliate myself in front of every divisional head. I feel good anyway, but 400-600 rubles a year, with my monthly salary of 650 rubles, they don’t do me any good.

- Well, you are the navigator of the detachment, somehow undignified ... You urgently need to get the 2nd class and immediately draw up documents for the 1st!

- That's who needs it, let him draw it up.

- But with the 3rd class you will never become a squadron navigator!

- And what, somewhere the position of the squadron navigator has become vacant, and you plan to appoint me there, exiled to the “eternal second navigator” and who quite by accident grew into the navigator of the detachment?

- Well ... there is no place yet, but in the future ...

- No, there is no trial! I understand everything, I'll go ...

“Come and think about my words!”

This is the senior navigator of the regiment once again remembered that I was in the 3rd class, and again held a prophylactic conversation with me. Not the first conversation and not the last.


The class, or rather, the class qualification of the flight crew (pilots and navigators), characterizing their professional level of training, in accordance with the level of knowledge and practical skills, the ability to perform a certain amount of functional duties within the specified time standards and with high quality.

Class is 3rd, 2nd, and 1st.

Pilot crews are issued badges according to the assigned class qualification.

Signs of class qualification of navigators

Pilots and navigators are paid money for classy qualifications.

They do not pay for the 3rd class, for the 2nd class we were paid 400 rubles a year, and for the 1st - 600 rubles a year. Now they pay monthly interest on the salary, I don’t remember the exact values, but within 10-15%. The class also affects the pension, it is calculated from the increased salary.

The class is obtained after flying a certain number of hours day and night, in simple and difficult weather conditions, after performing the required number of landings with a minimum of weather, after performing a certain number of combat use weapons, passing tests and control in the air.

So it was in our time, now everything has changed slightly towards simplification, and the standards have been somewhat reduced.

Why reduced?

Guess for yourself, but I will not denigrate the current pilots and navigators, it's good that at least there are such.

Does the assigned class qualification accurately reflect the actual level of professional training of the pilot and navigator?

Anything happens...

Be that as it may, in the old days, the concepts of "first-class pilot" and "pilot with first class" were clearly distinguished.

Well, I told you a little about the class qualification so that you understand what it is about, and then I will tell you about how I got the class, not everything was so simple there, but you already know that I never have easy ways and didn't look for.

We all graduated from the military school without a class, as there was not enough general flying time, and other requirements were not always met.

In some flight schools, an experiment was carried out on assigning especially outstanding cadets of the 3rd class upon graduation from the school, but that's all - from the crafty, in general, this undertaking did not receive distribution.

It was impossible to get the “Military navigator without a class” badge, like any other, but there are no impossible tasks for a cadet, so we all graduated with beautiful badges.

Signs were mined in the warehouses of ensigns, and then finalized by skillful hands. It turned out very nice, well, just waste!

homemade sign

We flew a lot in the regiment, so the standards for obtaining the qualification "Military navigator of the 3rd class" were met very quickly.

I had enough knowledge, I was not afraid of the authorities, so I passed the necessary tests, flew off the check, filled out the documents, and three months after joining the regiment, I already received the 3rd class.

And then I served and flew, waiting for me to be appointed to the post of navigator of the ship in order to draw up documents for the 2nd class. There were problems with the appointment, I already talked about them, and I had to wait more than 3 years.

Circumstances developed in such a way that I was nevertheless appointed navigator of the ship, I was combat ready day and night, and I had the opportunity to pass tests, fly off checks and draw up documents for the 2nd class, which I immediately took up.

Tests are submitted to the regiment and division, checks are made along the route and with a minimum of weather, with regimental and divisional chiefs, documents are drawn up personally by the applicant for the class.

In general, there were enough worries ...

Gross tactical mistake

During the passing of tests in the division, I made a gross tactical mistake, which led to the fact that I refused to receive the 2nd (and therefore the 1st) class.

When passing tests, each divisional chief had to be persuaded to let you into his office, they say, they are so busy that they have no time to listen to these stupid pilots and navigators.

When the head of the meteorological service of the division, Lieutenant Colonel, once again did not let our group of those wishing to pass the test into his office, I, not having time to close the door tightly, allowed myself to speak out, turning to my comrades:

- That's the bastard! Some kind of "wind blower" of horseradish, and show-off - like the most important and necessary specialist!

The lieutenant colonel, having heard this cry of the soul, immediately jumped out into the corridor, figured me out and made me happy:

“And you, starley, will never pass me the test!”

That's how it all happened.

He forbade his deputy to take credit from me, and he openly mocked me, asking such wild questions that I had no idea about.

I dutifully endured everything, I thought that my conscience would wake up, and the lieutenant colonel would give me a test, because I had already learned this damned meteorology better than he did.

The lieutenant colonel's conscience did not wake up ...

I already flew all the tests, passed all the other tests, but this bastard did not let me through to the coveted 2nd grade.

Desperate, I went to the navigator shop of the division, where the navigator of the division was sitting, and asked for help in the fight against the head of the meteorological service:

- Comrade lieutenant colonels! I ask you to influence the head of the meteorological service, he is mocking me, and I cannot send documents for the 2nd grade!

The mossy lieutenant colonels listened to me, laughed, but refused to stand up for me, arguing that “everyone dies alone,” and lieutenant colonels must be respected.

Offended by such inattention on the part of my navigational superiors, whom I, naive, for some reason considered my senior comrades, I became very angry and expressed my decision:

- Okay, if you don't want to help, don't. I don't need this class... somehow I'll live without extra 400 rubles a year. I will never take a class again! And your class reports no longer interest me, I ask you not to contact me about the class!

Having flown a little as a ship's navigator, I was appointed a navigator of the detachment, became an instructor navigator, received a "captain", but did not return to the issue of obtaining a class.

Since I spoiled the reporting on the class to the senior navigator of the regiment, he periodically held preventive conversations with me, but they did not lead to anything.

In order for you to correctly understand the current situation, it must be explained that most of the navigators of the ships had the 1st class, and I, the navigator of the detachment, was only with the 3rd.

In general, it even looked somehow wild, but it didn’t affect anything, and I was quite happy with it.

Despite the fact that both the head of the meteorological service and the navigator of the division, all of them had long been replaced, my nasty character did not allow me to study the class, they say, he said, he cut me off. Yes, and laziness was, to be honest ...

I served and flew, I did not know grief, my 3rd class did not burden me, I was even appointed assistant (deputy) squadron navigator.

I had nowhere to move higher, the squadron navigator was a major exiled from the Crimea, who was ten years older than me, and was not going to move anywhere, before demobilization.

In general, such a cozy dead end formed in my service - I had no subordinates, I was not responsible for anything, I worked mainly as an instructor and flew on the most interesting missions. It was probably the best period of my service.

Everyone somehow reconciled with my 3rd class, and many did not know about it, because they believed that the assistant squadron navigator necessarily had a 1st class, well, as a matter of course.

On the weak

I don’t even know what would have happened to this class of mine further, but then vodka intervened. Well, as usual...

Somehow we washed something, with a large friendly team of the squadron. Already drank a lot. And so the squadron navigator began to tease me in front of everyone, they say, it’s a shame to go with the 3rd class, all with the 2nd and 1st, I’m the only one with the 3rd ...

I was absolutely not ashamed, even indifferent, but then I "got caught weakly."

Valera, the squadron navigator, deftly faked me:

- Yes, you are probably afraid to take tests in the division ...

My brain, relaxed by vodka, did not follow the language:

- Valera! You know perfectly well that I have not been afraid of anyone or anything for a long time, but in order to rub your nose, in a month I will send the documents for the 2nd grade.

In general, Valera divorced me like a kid.

The next day, I began to fulfill my promise. I went to the senior navigator of the regiment, pleased him that he would soon improve his reporting with my 2nd class, we planned flights for checks for me, along the way I issued tests for the regiment.

Yes, he did, that is, he wrote them down in the Flight Book and received the signatures of the necessary specialists. At my age and positions in the regiment, they no longer pestered me with knowledge tests, but simply signed where necessary.

After that, I asked the senior navigator of the regiment to call the senior navigator of the division and share with him my unexpected joy about my movements towards paperwork for the class.

In this division news I was received with enthusiasm, they helped me in everything, I was already a mature officer, and there were no problems with offsets.

After some time, I flew off all the checks, completed the necessary documents, handed them over to the “secret” and began to take a break from these heroic efforts, waiting for all the bosses to approve my documents.

After some time, I was awarded the qualification of "Military navigator of the second class", I washed this matter and decided that the 2nd class would be enough for me to demobilize.

Having received the 2nd class, I thought that all the heights in the short term had already been taken and began to serve for my own pleasure - I loved my work, the position was interesting and carefree, it seemed that it would always be like this.

Personally, everything suited me, of course, I would like to get a "major", but so far I have not seen the opportunity, and I was not going to fuss.

But at one fine moment, my whole measured service changed dramatically.
Completely unscheduled, one might say - treacherously, I was appointed navigator aviation squadrons. How and why this happened, I have already told, who are interested, read in the comments to the story "Self-preparation».

Yes, this is how life is...

New responsibilities and worries, problems and their solutions completely absorbed me, I was very pleased that I received the 2nd grade on time, and now at least you don’t have to think about it.

I did not make any attempts to get the 1st class, I thought that I did not need it.
Gradually, I got involved in a new position, got used to it and got used to it, and some tension in the service went away, a planned and even somewhere monotonous service began.

In general, everything went on knurled rut.

The division was checked by the GIMO (the main inspection of the Ministry of Defense), our squadron performed very, very successfully, and all the crews of the squadron went into battle in full force, the authorities noted my success in work.

They assigned me a "major", and I began to believe that life was a success.

The new senior navigator of the regiment, who came from another garrison after the Academy, noticed me and offered to transfer to the position of navigator of the regiment. I strongly doubted that the political commander's tribe would let me into the regimental link, but the new "senior" showed character, and I was appointed regiment navigator.

The service sparkled with new colors and worries, I had to retrain for a backfire, master flight management and the duties of a new position, I didn’t even think about the class, and no one remembered that I had a 2nd class.

But then our chief of staff of the regiment was appointed senior navigator of the division and suddenly remembered my 2nd class.

The fact is that, despite the fact that the new “oldest” was a normal man, he had a “fad” - he believed that everything “in charge” should be the best for him.

As soon as he came to our "navigation shop", the same conversation was repeated:

- When will you complete the 1st class? I'm ashamed to tell anyone that in my division I have a regimental navigator with a 2nd class! Stop embarrassing me!

- Viktor Valentinovich! Well, when should I take this class, write papers in small handwriting? Retraining for "backfire", flight management, work in the workshop ... And I don’t need this 1st class, it doesn’t give me anything, so it adds 200 rubles a year, and I get about 800 a month. Funny…

- This does not give you, but I need all the navigators of the regiment to be with the 1st class! So, start decorating!

Of course, I did not draw up anything - and there was no time, and laziness, and I did not see much sense.

Valentinych periodically babbled about the class, but as long as it happened within reason, I did not tense up.

Suddenly, a business trip to study in Nikolaev ripened, Valentinych decided that it was necessary to send me to study as a senior navigator of the regiment.

I really did not want to leave for 3-4 months, but nothing depended on me anymore, all decisions were made, a telegram from the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy with my name arrived in the regiment.

I was very annoyed with this business trip, because I had to fly on a new plane for me, and here all flights are postponed for 4 months.

When Valentinych again started talking about my class, I even answered sharply, saying that I had no time to deal with this nonsense, I had to leave on a business trip.

In general, we parted dissatisfied with each other.

I went to Nikolaev, to the 33rd Center for Combat Use and Retraining of Flight Personnel (TsBP and PLS) to study as a senior navigator of a regiment at the Central Officer Courses (CSC).

In principle, the matter is necessary and even good, I just had other plans for these 3,5 months. To study is a strong word, because I was already an active navigator of the regiment, and the teachers of the CTC could not give me anything new, many of them did not even grow up to the navigators of the regiments, but simply successfully settled down in Nikolaev.

Basically, I killed time in classes and self-study, and in the evenings I rested in restaurants, trying to get enough of such a rest to the point of disgust, so that I didn’t want to anymore, since we didn’t have any restaurants in the distant taiga garrison.

I fulfilled and even overfulfilled my personal vacation plan, went to restaurants more than 80 times in 100 days of business trip, which is a record for naval aviation in this type of training. I will tell you about some moments of my intense study, if I do not forget.

One wonderful Sunday morning, my comrade and I returned from an evening entertainment trip, went to our rooms to change clothes, drink beer to stabilize the body and rest a little while lying down until dinner.

Despite the fact that the rooms in the dormitory were for two people, in my room I found some kind of cluster of senior officers, majors and lieutenant colonels, with whom I studied together. When I arrived, they quieted down and looked at me with interest.

Since I wanted a beer, I did not waste time:

- What are you going to? I only have 3 liters of beer on my balcony, not enough for everyone. And in general, for a long time they could have been driven for beer, and not only for beer.

The people somehow perked up, roared, and the roommate pointed to my tunic, which hung on a chair. Above the right pocket, I saw some piece of paper pinned with a class qualification badge, but the badge was not mine, 2nd class, but someone else's - 1st class. Well, here's one.

I unfastened the piece of paper, which turned out to be a telegram addressed to me, and read the text aloud: “By order ... number ... from ... the qualification “Military navigator 1st class” was awarded. Congratulations. TO.".

The people made a noise, everyone congratulated me, and someone expressed a common opinion:
- We must wash!

- What to wash? I didn't register the class and didn't send documents, and I have no idea what kind of 1st class we are talking about!

- Put aside doubts! You told us that you don’t give a damn about the class, we didn’t quite believe the telegram either, we called Moscow, they confirmed your last name in the order. In short, do not evade the washing, and then you will find out the details in your regiment.

- Okay, I'll figure it out later. Only I don’t even have money, I told you that all my money was recently stolen from me ...

- Yes, we know that you have no money, but you need to wash the class! We went to the next room.

You must understand that in those distant times it was not so easy to call the regiment on the "Quiet" navy from Nikolaev, as they say - “now it’s not like just now”, there were no mobile phones, and not everyone was allowed to call on a stationary military phone outside the garrison, only on a special list or by seducing the telephone operator. This I mean that I immediately call the regiment and find out everything, I could not, this required a whole military operation.

We went into the next room, where there was a large table covered with dishes, according to the tradition of celebrating memorable events.

I was surprised at everything I saw, but they answered me:

- We knew that you had problems with money, but how can you not wash the class? They chipped in a little, and this is how the table turned out. Don't be shy, when we didn't have money, you helped us out too. Let's celebrate already, otherwise we got bored with something in this study ...

And we began to celebrate my 1st grade, the origin of which I did not understand anything.

We celebrated for a long time and with taste, one of the navigators presented me with his class qualification badge, and “Kondrat”, a senior pilot-inspector from the North, gave me his pilot badge, just as a keepsake.

The guys praised me for something, and I thought that I was lucky to serve with such good guys in naval aviation.

I still keep the badge that the senior pilot-inspector of aviation of the Northern Fleet gave me. A year later, this colonel crashed on a Su-25UTG, but I still have a memory of him.

Sign "Kondrat"

After I was awarded the qualification "Military navigator first class", I did not rush to find out by phone how my name got into the order.

I have already said that it was difficult to make a phone call, and I didn’t want to tell all the telephone operators in Nikolaev, Moscow, Vladivostok and Mongokhto that I had done nothing to get this class, apart from actually flying work.

Judging Mafia

Arriving home from a business trip, I also did not rush to find out from the first person I met about my class, but decided first to talk with the same Mishka K., who signed the telegram to Nikolaev.

Mishka is my good comrade, we have served side by side for a long time, at that moment Mishka served as a miner of the regiment with me in the same office, and we were on the same crew of the deputy regiment commander. The miner of the regiment is a navigator's position, almost like the navigator of the regiment, also a major, but with a slightly lower salary.

Mishka was an excellent navigator, very competent, meticulous in a good sense, quick to think, you could always rely on him, at the beginning of his career he was caught for violating secrecy, but survived, got out through the post of "Komsomol regiment", quickly became a lieutenant colonel, a miner of a division, after dispersal of the division, he moved to the anti-submarine regiment and soon became the senior navigator of the mixed regiment. He flew Tu-22m3, Tu-142, Ka-27ps.

Everything was fine with him, but only occasionally did he get sick with an old Russian disease - hard drinking. As they say - rarely, but aptly.

Having stocked up on vodka, I called Mishka to my house and proceeded to interrogation:

What do you know about my 1st grade?

- I know everything about your 1st grade!

- Tell me, don't talk!

Let's have a drink and I'll tell you everything.

- Can you? Won't you fall?

“Maybe, it’s not time for another one yet.

We drank a little, had a bite, smoked, Mishka told me about all the nonsense that had happened during my absence, and after my reminder, he moved on to the question that interested me:

- Well, do you remember that we, seeing you off on a business trip, had a good time “on the track”, and you flew to Vladik, where your plane to Nikolaev was parked?

- Of course, I remember, we added more in Vladik, then flew to St. Petersburg, drank and slept on the plane, they refueled us in St. Petersburg, they didn’t let us out of the plane, there was nothing to get drunk, we flew to Nikolaev with sick organisms ...

- All right, don't poison your soul. In general, you flew away, and I saw you off for about a week ...

- Like this?

- How, how ... As usual. I don't remember everything, but I woke up five or six days later, in a map storage, under the supervision of Kolka, our operator.

“Let’s go without details, what I don’t know, what can you do in such a state?”

- Yes, he probably did something like that if the senior navigator of the regiment was very dissatisfied, and the senior navigator of the division promised to put me under the "trial of navigational honor."

- And what is it?

- Yes, Valentinych came up with it, you know him, the entertainer ...

- Let's be short, closer to my class.

We drank some more, smoked, and Mishka continued his story:

- "Court of navigator's honor" in the person of the senior navigator of the division Valentinych sentenced me to corrective labor.

- What kind of work is this?

- Valentinych said that I can atone for my guilt by filling out documents for your 1st class, since he can no longer tolerate the navigator of the 2nd class regiment in the division, and now is the best moment, you are on a business trip and will not interfere.

And you agreed...

– Where will I go?

- And what, did you arrange everything yourself?

- Well, how is it all yourself? I'm a senior officer! I was engaged in organizational work, and I wrote the performance of Kolka, he also made a mistake, and I also “sentenced” him.

- Yes, you have some kind of judicial mafia formed here.

- Okay, nothing difficult. In the regiment I wrote all the tests for you, in the division - Valentinych walked through the offices with your introduction, Kolka wrote everything, I found your photo in the photo lab, remember, we took pictures for a pass. Valentinych quickly dragged your presentation on the commanders, called Vladik and Moscow so that they would not pull.

- All clear. If so, thank you for your timely binge, which turned me into 1st grade. But that's not all gratitude. I'll choose the time and put down for the 1st class in the navigational workshop, there you all - you, Kolka and Valentinych, I will officially thank you.

That's how I got 1st grade.

I myself took part in this process a little - I flew the required number of hours, fulfilled the necessary standards for the combat use of weapons and landings in the weather minimum, and most importantly - I organized a booze when departing on a business trip.
Photos used:

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  1. Bez 310
    30 January 2022 18: 16
    I didn't come up with that title!
    1. Real Pilot
      Real Pilot 30 January 2022 19: 09
      Mikhail Vladimirovich, I applaud you!
      Everything was interesting with you, I look forward to continuing the stories about the service.
      I realized my dream of flying already at a more mature age, in my youth I would not have passed a medical examination for vision, taking into account strict requirements ... I really like such stories.

      You've written stories before. Can you post them here?
      1. Bez 310
        30 January 2022 19: 20
        Quote: RealPilot
        Can you post them here?

        I publish, as far as the forces and possibilities of the editors.
        I don’t consider it necessary to publish very old stories yet, and they are somewhere on the Internet, but I don’t know exactly where. They were posted without my permission or knowledge.
        1. novel66
          novel66 30 January 2022 21: 11
          and I have a "navigator-sniper" badge!
          1. Bez 310
            30 January 2022 21: 19
            Quote: novel xnumx
            and I have a "navigator-sniper" badge!

            And I don't have...
    2. Aag
      Aag 31 January 2022 17: 27
      Quote: Bez 310
      I didn't come up with that title!

      Greetings, Michael!
      Thank you.
      I didn’t understand - you didn’t have “M” (“Masters”) in class? (You didn’t mention this at all).
      Sorry, a little off topic (not aviation, not Naval, not Rocket ..., - Strategic Missile Forces, and the years are a little late 88-99).
      Without the 3rd class, they were officially not allowed to the database (combat duty).
      In material terms, - EMNIP, +10 rubles to the monthly monetary pleasure .. They definitely (!) Did not affect the pension (maybe - only the severance pay ...
      But, it was considered good form to raise your "class". (I agree, for the most part, it was all ... an administrative issue). For example, I had a colleague (fortunately, he is still alive, relatively healthy) older than me, after military service, ... - but, I came as a lieutenant, retired as a major, and he, as a captain, in fact, from a starting position ... Well, such a man! Honest, meticulous, competent in his competence (position), and even higher ... boring ...
      By the way, regarding your previous article (about "tablets")), - the person fantastically designed work cards, in compliance with all the canons (many NSh did not know all the subtleties!), He wrote in ink at the speed of a typist (!). Quality? Many generals (without points) then they "bent over" commanders, chiefs, whose cards were drawn up by the mentioned comrade for using printers ...
      Well, and so ... - a sketch: if suddenly, I'm again "about the signs"))), - he turned out, suddenly (usually rotted on the database), at some debriefing, reading orders, etc .p. (when "Kamaz" from the database without stopping the rod immediately goes to the DKRA (house of culture of the Russian army, club). In short, he was a very rare "guest" at such events, unlike those who are supposed to be by position. And Here, sitting among the mass of colleagues, who are disproportionately more frequent "guests" in this audience, and also, sometimes, out of boredom, "drive their beaks" around the interior, - I always found a lot of typos, mistakes, absurdities in the design of the premises! room, office, a couple of posters, everyone stared at them for months - only he managed to find outrageous, seemingly obvious mistakes ...
      So, let the aforementioned comrade finish his service after 20 (!) calendars in almost the same position with which he started, but he more than corresponded to his position (maybe with some restrictions)! As often happened, in the discussed time, - he knew, supplemented, rescued officers, officials, a couple of steps above his career ladder ... My opinion - class, - the level of professionalism, should be tied to the position held! Ideally ... With all the "buns" ...
      On a personal example ... Dolgoros ... You know, yes, there are "wild" (connections, slyness
      1. Bez 310
        31 January 2022 17: 31
        Quote: AAG
        Did you have "M" ("Masters") in class?

        We didn’t have a “Master” directly, our “master” was called “Sniper”, photo of the sign at the beginning of the article. But not everyone treated this "sniper" with due respect, it was already rather an element of prestige, and it was received to a greater extent by the "necessary" people.
        1. Aag
          Aag 31 January 2022 18: 11
          Quote: Bez 310
          Quote: AAG
          Did you have "M" ("Masters") in class?

          We didn’t have a “Master” directly, our “master” was called “Sniper”, photo of the sign at the beginning of the article. But not everyone treated this "sniper" with due respect, it was already rather an element of prestige, and it was received to a greater extent by the "necessary" people.

          Thank you.
          I think I understand you.
          ... Unfortunately, my comment did not fit in time. I'll try to restore at least partially (don't grab your head!))).
        2. Aag
          Aag 31 January 2022 18: 30
          Quote: Bez 310
          Quote: AAG
          Did you have "M" ("Masters") in class?

          We didn’t have a “Master” directly, our “master” was called “Sniper”, photo of the sign at the beginning of the article. But not everyone treated this "sniper" with due respect, it was already rather an element of prestige, and it was received to a greater extent by the "necessary" people.

          ... continue (restore) ...
          There are (were))) "wild-growing" officers (connections; broken-down, + connections; sensible, but not without the first two points; they were just good - the previous points came to light later ...))).
          Putting on a badge of class above the real one was considered bad form. It was condemned at all levels. As a rule, it was not difficult to pass on the class (corresponding to the position held). Exceptions are a rare hazard of the nominee.
          I agree, there was a period when I, as "honest Masha", decided that while being in office (in good standing) for almost two terms (to be honest, it didn't really "soar", - on the contrary!) I decided to pass (one might say - out of boredom , conditionally ...) for the 1st grade.
          By the number of days of the database, the length of service, the indicators of the entrusted unit, there should have been no questions. but those who know the service from the inside, who know me, well, what a sin to hide, are partly companions in hunting, fishing, and, most importantly, in joint service ...).
          Well, so to me, because of the service, it once turned out ...)))) hi
  2. 210ox
    210ox 30 January 2022 18: 17
    Bravo, Michael! I myself, with my language and principles, was "beaten" But in civilian work. But it’s interesting, were they bullied for homemade signs? I understand that they did not always appear on the tunic ...
    1. Bez 310
      30 January 2022 18: 29
      Quote: 210ox
      for homemade signs bullied?

      No, it was even tacitly welcomed.
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 31 January 2022 00: 34
        No, it was even tacitly welcomed. [/ Quote]
        In the civilian navy, some "homemade" signs were welcomed, but like the military class, this was not the case, because everything went according to international rules, there was a sign "ship's captain, captain, master, or shipmaster", and the rest of the navigator signs they didn’t, although they worked at sea and didn’t wear a uniform with signs, the uniform was not acceptable for a civilian naval navigator.Well, above all was Extra Masters, which had units for the entire world fleet.
        1. kig
          kig 1 February 2022 15: 14
          Quote: tihonmarine
          Well above all was Extra Masters
          - since such a booze has already gone, I remembered a case from the life of the civilian navy. When passing through the Suez Canal, local pilots jump on the ship several times. As a rule, they are all fat, mustachioed and very important. Roughly like this:

          Well, we went through this channel again, and the next day at 10 o'clock coffee, our captain says: the next pilot was, well, very fat and important, and introduced himself as chief pilot. To which the captain replied: very nice, and I am the chief master. The pilot nodded majestically, but apparently he was hooked that someone also had the prefix chief, and when he was already collecting things before disembarking in Suez, he somehow casually asked - who is this chief master, because earlier he did not meet the rank. Well, the captain says: in our company, captains are divided into those who can manage bulk carriers, or tankers, or container ships, and the chief captain can work on any ship. So they parted, pleased with each other.
          1. tihonmarine
            tihonmarine 1 February 2022 15: 54
            Quote: kig
            When passing through the Suez Canal, local pilots jump on the ship several times. As a rule, they are all fat, mustachioed and very important. Roughly like this:

            Well, there were some, but in Africa they were more or less there, but not "well-fed". Here is a pilot in Lagos, he is also the head of the pilot service of Nigeria:
  3. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 30 January 2022 18: 21
    Thank you Michael Vital, interesting and even fun.
    And do not pay attention to bores and "non-believers"
  4. CHEREDA73
    CHEREDA73 30 January 2022 18: 26
    A year later, this colonel crashed on a Su-25UTG, but I still have a memory of him.

    Colonel Alexander Kondratiev! I knew him well.
    With his son, my namesake, we studied in the same class and were best friends ...
    1. Errr
      Errr 30 January 2022 21: 35
      The quote below is about him?
      November 27.11.1992, 25 at night in the PMU, when performing a flight to the aerobatics zone at low altitudes, due to a pilot's error in piloting technique, while diving, he crashed on a Su-XNUMXub with the crew of st. navigator of the regiment pilot lieutenant colonel Demyanenko Valery Viktorovich and Art. inspector-pilot of the OBP Air Force of the Northern Fleet, Colonel Kondratyev Alexander Nikolaevich. The plane collided with the ground, the crew died.
      1. CHEREDA73
        CHEREDA73 30 January 2022 21: 45
        Yes. Everything exactly...
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 January 2022 21: 56
          While the cadets served in Kharkov, they fought three times, but so that like this, two experienced pilots ...
          1. CHEREDA73
            CHEREDA73 30 January 2022 22: 15
            It happens, Anton, and so. I don't know the details, so I won't speculate.
            I can say one thing, that the death of his father greatly influenced the future life of his son. He was forced to leave the prestigious MVOKU school to help his mother...
            I can't tell further, because this is not my life...
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 January 2022 22: 19
              I can't tell further, because this is not my life...
              This is just understandable. I don't want to talk about the fate of my childhood best friend either. Life has passed like a comb through our generation.
          2. Ura65
            Ura65 31 January 2022 01: 20
            I came after the OBU school to the CP IAP. And when I began to work independently on flights, the head of the CP once asked: "Who needs to be paid the most attention during flights?" Naturally, I answered that young lieutenant pilots. "And also "And he himself answered:" And also to colonels.
  5. Boris Borisovich Skrynnik
    Boris Borisovich Skrynnik 30 January 2022 18: 49
    Gorgeous and pleasant, like a man ... But why are you silent about your brother?
    1. Bez 310
      30 January 2022 19: 22
      Quote: Boris Borisovich Skrynnik
      But why are you silent about your brother?

      Sometimes I say things...
  6. Gvardeetz77
    Gvardeetz77 30 January 2022 18: 58
    Isn't the class "reset" when changing positions (VUS)?
    For example, he was a company commander, a specialist of the 2nd class, became the NSh of the battalion and rolled down to the 3rd and after a year (or six months, I don’t remember) again take it to the 2nd, and then a year later to the first.
    1. Bez 310
      30 January 2022 19: 24
      Quote: Gvardeetz77
      classiness is not "reset"?

      You can be the chief of staff of the regiment and the navigator of the 1st class, if the position is flight or forklift.
      1. Mityasha
        Mityasha 3 February 2022 10: 41
        Yes, I had an NSh regiment, the position was forked. He moved to the headquarters line from the Pravaks. He reached the NSh regiment, recovered to the flight, and every year it was necessary to record one rise in the air in order to pay the OUS, naturally, in the difficult 90s, signing up for the planned one was a huge problem. But the deputy on LP, gritting his teeth, he found a place. Naturally, the NSh did not fit the plane from the word at all. But he did not refuse bonuses. laughing
        1. Bez 310
          3 February 2022 10: 53
          Quote: Mityasha
          I had an NSh regiment, the post was forklift

          The NS regiments were different ...
          Our NSh regiment, navigator, became the senior navigator of the division and the chief navigator of the Pacific Fleet Air Force.
          1. Mityasha
            Mityasha 3 February 2022 10: 56
            I agree. It was only in the 90s that fork positions were canceled at the chief of staff. Purely pilots remained in the VTA, it was not possible for the ground crew to break through there. And now the realities are such that the FIRST deputy regiment commander has the smallest TR in comparison with other non-flying deputies.
            1. Bez 310
              3 February 2022 10: 57
              Quote: Mityasha
              It was only in the 90s that fork positions were canceled at the chief of staff.

              In the MA, the positions of the NSh regiment became non-flying since 2005.
              1. Mityasha
                Mityasha 3 February 2022 11: 00
                By the way, many of the naval officers ended up in our regiment after massive layoffs, the regiment's navigator Alexei Gubin, despite the difference in age, was my excellent friend and consultant on obscure issues.
                And then the commander of the regiment and his deputy were also from the fleet. Zam transferred from Mongokhto.
                1. Bez 310
                  3 February 2022 11: 08
                  Quote: Mityasha
                  And then the commander of the regiment and his deputy were also from the fleet. Zam transferred from Mongokhto.

                  Where did they serve?
                  One of our deputies became a regiment commander in Shaikovka.
                  1. Mityasha
                    Mityasha 3 February 2022 11: 09
                    Borya Seredkin. And the regiment commander left as division commander, vacating his position, also from MA.
                    1. Bez 310
                      3 February 2022 11: 13
                      Quote: Mityasha
                      Borya Seredkin.

                      In short, Bob.
                      If I don't forget, I'll tell you how I helped him escape to YES.
                      1. Mityasha
                        Mityasha 3 February 2022 11: 20
                        It will be interesting to listen, at the meeting I will ask - is it true. So he is not alone, he brought his brother with him.
                      2. Bez 310
                        3 February 2022 11: 25
                        Quote: Mityasha
                        he brought his brother with him

                        I don't know anything about my brother.
                      3. Mityasha
                        Mityasha 3 February 2022 11: 28
                        Well, he did not serve in the regiment, in the battalion. Maybe that's why it went unnoticed. He transferred a little later, apparently Borya gave an attitude after coming.
                      4. Bez 310
                        3 February 2022 11: 29
                        Quote: Mityasha
                        Maybe that's why it went unnoticed.

                        Quite possible...
                        But I'll tell you about Bob, so as not to forget, I even wrote the title.
  7. Gardener91
    Gardener91 30 January 2022 18: 58
    Does the assigned class qualification accurately reflect the actual level of professional training of the pilot and navigator? In ia accurately reflects, 100%!
    1. Bez 310
      30 January 2022 19: 25
      Quote: Gardener91
      In ia accurately reflects, 100%!

      Yeah ...
      1. Gardener91
        Gardener91 30 January 2022 21: 29
        Quote: Bez 310
        Yeah ...

        Are you ironic? After all, there you are alone in the cockpit. And the commander, and the right, and the navigator, and the flight engineer, and the SUV operator ... For the crew commander, add. there was no material article. They always tried to bring young pilots to the 2nd class as quickly as possible in order to put them in remote sensing. And yes, class was assigned after passing successive programs according to the KBP, no more than once a year. And confirmed every year. The training plan was approved at the level of the VA commander. And the flight crew handed over the tests twice a year.
        1. Bez 310
          30 January 2022 21: 37
          Quote: Gardener91
          Are you ironic?

          Yes, I'm ironic... You yourself know and are talking about a race with a class to intercede on the database. And you yourself know that a raid on a class is not a measure of skill, but only a starting point. But we won't.
          And about the fact that the fighter "One in the boundless sky" can be argued, but I will not.
          1. Gardener91
            Gardener91 30 January 2022 21: 48
            Quote: Bez 310
            You can argue, but I won't.

            Well, no need ... I always respected the "horns", and, if possible, considered it an honor to "steer".
            1. Bez 310
              30 January 2022 21: 57
              Quote: Gardener91
              considered it an honor to "steer"

              I also had to "steer" the Tu-16.
              To be honest, the activity is not for the intellectuals that some navigators consider themselves to be. Pure mechanics...
  8. bober1982
    bober1982 30 January 2022 19: 27
    I didn't want to meet, but I had to.
    Having flown a little as a ship's navigator, I was appointed as a detachment navigator.
    Completely unscheduled, one might say treacherously - I was appointed squadron navigator.

    Well, and the like. It is very difficult to comment, it is unscheduled and treacherously going into a binge.
    The training of the flight personnel for the class is the most important part of the combat training of the regiment, division and air army, control over the implementation at the highest level and, from the whims and whims of anyone does not depend.
    Again, it's hard to comment.
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. chenia
      chenia 30 January 2022 21: 39
      Quote: bober1982
      Flight crew training for the class, the most important part of combat training

      You take this event quite seriously. In the land, everything is mainly based on the results of inspections and exercises (sometimes competitions). General order. But, that the third class, that the master did not pay extra a penny (then until the 90s). And the class did not affect (although it increased by itself in the process) on the position.
      Although, I think it's wrong.
    3. akarfoxhound
      akarfoxhound 30 January 2022 22: 00
      Completely agree with you. I also have a very strange perception of these "hunting stories". But they have a general tendency: I was a rare squishy, ​​everything was "heights almost to the waist", I drank, walked, the immediate command staff sent, I didn’t need anything in aviation, but I was so awesome by the letter of the mathematical coefficient that all the authorities, having seen the hope of aviation in their subordinates and realizing their personal stupidity and mediocrity, contrary to all principles and systematically across the fundamental aviation documents, pulled the violent organism up! And the never-drying talent incessantly resisted, regularly condescending to superior requests for the career growth of a radiant and boozy talent.
      Kozma Prutkov "How lieutenant Rzhevsky rose to the rank of general"
      1. Bez 310
        30 January 2022 22: 16
        Quote: akarfoxhound
        I also have a very strange perception of these "hunting stories".

        You haven't been for a long time.
        Probably studied high-altitude and oxygen equipment?
        Quote: akarfoxhound
        ... drank, walked ... never-drying talent ... radiantly boozy talent

        Do you have any unpleasant memories on this topic? Were you sick? Hope everything is ok now. Take care of yourself.
        1. akarfoxhound
          akarfoxhound 31 January 2022 10: 26
          What a handkerchief full of renit resentment at the "Munchausen" stories? Ai-i-i!! The scoundrels deigned to deign to pilyunut on the laurel wreath of Comrade Saah himself ... ah, what kind of person, do you understand!?
          studied high-altitude and oxygen equipment ... drank, walked ... never-drying talent ... radiant and boozy talent

          No, well, for your materiel sclerosis, I can still explain with age, but in order to immediately reset to zero in what was described in each opus ??? Here the analogy of the aquarium inhabitant's memory syndrome - "from side to side" is directly looming. You would have tied up, otherwise I'm looking
          pleasant memories
          contribute to the relapse of admission to the "xepoic breast"!
          1. Bez 310
            31 January 2022 11: 04
            Quote: akarfoxhound
            "Munchausen" stories

            I will not argue with you, no matter how you ask.
            But I have a proposal for you - tell us about your service, well, such "non-Munhausen" stories about the "aviation" where you served. Everyone will be very interested to learn something from an area that is rarely talked about.
      2. Vladimir Mashkov
        Vladimir Mashkov 1 February 2022 20: 51
        Quote: akarfoxhound
        I also have a very strange perception of these "hunting stories".

        Totally agree with you! And everyone who served together, under the command of Bezlyudov (I emphasize: together or under the command, and not side by side) or read ALL of his autobiographical stories, I am sure, will agree with you. Unfortunately, most readers, commentators of Bez's articles simply do not know the "real navigator" of the "beloved and kind chief of staff of the air regiment" and simply the "legend of naval aviation" the most modest Mikhail Vladimirovich is well, they are not familiar with all his work, in which he WONDERFULLY characterized HIMSELF. They know him only from the last few stories on VO (it must be said, quite interesting), where Bez, taking into account the previous criticism of his revelations, portrays himself as the same persecuted, but steadfast hero, fighting his way through life solely thanks to the highest professionalism and his outstanding abilities. Moreover, often MV does not hesitate to sell a blatant lie to a gullible reader, just subtly laughs at him.

        The same is true in the story about relearning. No, all of us, of course, were once on business trips and at refresher courses, retraining, visited restaurants, drank. For example, when I worked at the MRH and the MMF, I visited Vladivostok and Odessa. But more often still - in Vladivostok, where my classmates and I visited many restaurants, we celebrated the birthdays of colleagues 2-3 times a month. Plus 1-2 times individually. Everything! And now read CAREFULLY what Bez writes:

        “Mostly I killed time in classes and self-study, and in the evenings I rested in restaurants, trying to get enough of such rest to the point of disgust, ...

        I fulfilled and even overfulfilled my personal vacation plan, went to restaurants more than 80 times in 100 days of business trip, which is a record for naval aviation in this type of training. ...

        One wonderful Sunday morning, my comrade and I returned from an evening entertainment trip, went to our rooms to change clothes, drink beer to stabilize the body and rest a little while lying down until dinner.

        Pay attention to what it was, according to Mikhail Vladimirovich "... more than 80 times in 100 days of business trip"! I would especially like to draw your attention to the fact that Bez usually returned in the morning. I say this not in order to blame, reproach MV for something (this is his personal matter), but to show the unreal, inhuman tension of Bez's "rest". MV is, of course, VERY capable, but it is VERY doubtful that even such a capable person as he could "rest" like that. True, with his autobiographical work, Bez convinces that he is capable of such feats. 75% of his work is somehow related to drinking, which MV describes very colorfully. He drank, according to his own stories, from cadets to the last day in the army. I drank vodka, cognac, alcohol. I drank before the service, during the service, after the service, on vacation. I drank with colleagues, subordinates, bosses and strangers. Sometimes he fought, behaved inappropriately. Therefore, it is surprising that MV is offended by political officers who were forced to communicate with him about his behavior.

        And yet, I don’t completely believe Bezu, I think that he fantasizes and composes a lot. Storyteller. Well, not really much in his writings! Yes, and if he drank as much as he writes, he would have died a long time ago from cirrhosis of the liver, or he would now constantly lie under the fence! And he's good at writing stories. True, he is bilious, sometimes caustic and angry with some people. Maybe because he quit?

        And in vain, many commentators scoff at the "beaver" - Vladimir and some other people who criticize Mikhail Vladimirovich FOR THE DEAL. Reading the comments of some approvers, one gets the impression that he has fallen into the society of anonymous alcoholics. However, in Russia they always felt sorry for the persecuted and drunkards ...
    4. Mityasha
      Mityasha 3 February 2022 11: 07
      Vladimir beaver1982, you are irreconcilable. When I read my memoirs, I draw many parallels. And they drank, and fought in taverns, and served, everything was even though I did not serve in the fleet aviation ... Maybe your unit was exemplary?
      About class, yes. At the beginning of the year, they plan this important part of combat training, and then they don’t know how to close it, because the commander will smear it when summing up the results.
      I had a case, planned. The third class of problems was not, just write. Above is the problem. We recruited as many as 2 people for training for the 8nd. In the first half of the year, we got a stick for lagging behind the plan. Well, in the next period, there was one thieves, for whom the NS Army already ordered to be submitted to the second class, and everyone waiting was registered there by a steam locomotive. The result is that everyone received a class before the end of the year.
      1. bober1982
        bober1982 3 February 2022 17: 54
        Quote: Mityasha
        Maybe your part was exemplary?

        Shock regiments, in Soviet times, of course, then everything crumbled.
        What period did you serve? It is not entirely clear why there were problems with training for the class, by the way, they planned not from the beginning of the year, earlier, and, according to the combat training plan, there were no problems either, they flew a lot.
        I drank in taverns, as you put it, but didn’t fight - there were no reasons, there’s nothing to be proud of, just like to grieve too. Potemkin
        1. Mityasha
          Mityasha 4 February 2022 06: 43
          I agree with you. Served later than you. When there were problems with kerosene, they even introduced the concept of reduced combat crew. They held their pants normally, they were well trained, but the rest stood in line to do a couple of lifts, if they were lucky ... I didn’t say anything about pride. He noted that everyday life and free time passed like everywhere else. Someone did push-ups on a glass and went to taverns, there were athletes and keen hobbies. It was no different from what was described, for small details and names of cities ...
  9. Grossvater
    Grossvater 30 January 2022 20: 03
    Hmm! They say that the mess in aviation began when one of the Wright brothers stole another's pliers. wink! On the other hand, a self-regulating system...
  10. bober1982
    bober1982 30 January 2022 21: 10
    If you have a 3rd class, then you will fly as part of a crew, flight (detachment), squadron, at this level - during the day in simple weather conditions. That is, the level of combat readiness will be low. Consider yourself a classy navigator, but have a third class in in fact, these are fantasies, especially with such a low class to be the navigator of the detachment.
    No one will tolerate this state of affairs.
    1. Gardener91
      Gardener91 30 January 2022 21: 44
      Quote: bober1982
      If you have the 3rd class, then you will fly as part of a crew, a flight (detachment), a squadron, you will be at this level - during the day in simple weather conditions.

      Here I disagree with you. 2nd class often people could not get for a number of subjective and objective reasons and this process stretched for 2, 3 and even 4 years. Having the level of training at night SMU, or even night UMP, not to mention training during the day with worked out, received tolerances for types of flight training, such pilots were planned and included in the combat-ready squad according to their personal level of training, regardless of class. The database in this case was excluded, but not below the level (full training) of the 2nd grade.
  11. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 30 January 2022 21: 11
    Very entertaining as always, thank you! But what is the miner of the regiment, please do not blame me, but maybe. miner?
    1. Bez 310
      30 January 2022 21: 21
      Quote: Victor Tsenin
      but m.b. miner?

      Well, yes, a miner.
      We were responsible for bombing and mine training, and performed the rest of the duties of the regiment's navigator.
      1. Victor Tsenin
        Victor Tsenin 30 January 2022 21: 30
        Everything is now convinced, just please do not neglect the primordially useful letter e)

        And one more request - think about publishing military stories in the future, you write in a very lively language)

        I’ll add more, so that they understand correctly - what kind of collection do you remember, except for the adventures of Schweik, perhaps, life?
        1. Bez 310
          30 January 2022 21: 39
          Quote: Victor Tsenin
          publishing war stories

          Definitely - no.
          The game is not worth the candle.
  12. Cool but not Igor
    Cool but not Igor 30 January 2022 21: 14
    The beginning is about persuading the boss to get another class, well, just exactly like on my piece of iron, these instructors always torment the machinists
  13. bober1982
    bober1982 30 January 2022 21: 18
    And finally, I'll say...
    A cool qualification for any pilot, this is sacred, and not just an annual increase in rubles.
  14. xomaNN
    xomaNN 30 January 2022 22: 23
    It is doubly pleasant to read about the everyday life of naval aviation warriors also because the author turns out, like me, from the North, from Severomorsk. And the 60s too. Already recruited for a memoir book. Good luck with your writing! And greetings from Maly Severomorsk.
    1. ELDER_VDV
      ELDER_VDV 30 January 2022 23: 14
      ZEMLYAYAYAYAK))) Safonovo-1, st. Panina d. 5 apt. 40
    ELDER_VDV 30 January 2022 23: 13
    But when you retire - only pilots get an increase by class !!!
    1. Bez 310
      31 January 2022 08: 04
      Quote: STARSHINA_VDV
      upon retirement - only for pilots the increase goes by class !!!

      Yes, but I don't think it's right.
    2. Mityasha
      Mityasha 3 February 2022 10: 50
      Who said that only pilots? Or do you have a typical infantry approach: are everyone on the plane pilots? I hasten to disappoint you, in addition to pilots, navigators, radio gunners, flight technicians, flight engineers, commanders of firing installations, flight specialists, flight data annotators, etc. fly (I don’t know how in the Navy and A-50). And if the VUS is flying, then everyone gets an increase in pensions!
      1. ELDER_VDV
        ELDER_VDV 9 February 2022 17: 55
        I'm talking about those who are in the sky (in general) !!!
  16. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 30 January 2022 23: 58
    In general, Valera divorced me like a kid.

    A navigator must stand his ground to the end, that's why he is a navigator.
  17. Alex 1970
    Alex 1970 31 January 2022 07: 01
    Our commander of the second battery had the badge "Master", no one else had this. Everyone called him the master of rocket strikes. Major Safronov was a mischievous uncle. The second battery always envied us, our battalion commander was generally a healthy person, and our battery was the best in the brigade under him. And three years in a row!
  18. Stealth Man
    Stealth Man 31 January 2022 14: 25
    Gradually, honestly .. Well, it's interesting to read, as always. Thanks !

    ps He himself "owned" the 2nd class, but my dad - the maximum -).
  19. MP
    MP 31 January 2022 14: 43
    I don't know how the author managed to reach retirement age. In civilian life, they try to get rid of such problematic workers as soon as possible. Commercial management does not need such a headache. Even if he is an indispensable specialist. But it is clear that the man is uncommon.
    1. Bez 310
      31 January 2022 14: 56
      Quote: Mpx
      I don't know how the author managed to reach retirement age.

      You may not believe it, but after I was given an apartment in Europe, and I was already completely getting ready for a well-deserved rest, the Commander of the entire MA of the Navy offered a "colonel" and a transfer to him in Moscow. But "airplanes don't fly backwards"...
      1. CHEREDA73
        CHEREDA73 31 January 2022 16: 08
        But "airplanes don't fly backwards"

        It is clear that this is a figure of speech.
        And so, in aerobatics - the "Bell" figure, just the plane is flying backwards (not for long smile )
        1. Bez 310
          31 January 2022 16: 27
          Quote: CHEREDA73
          "figure of speech"

          Yes, this is the expression of the general, deputy commander of the MA Pacific Fleet, the former commander of our anti-submarine regiment. The man was bad, but the commander was excellent.
      2. MP
        MP 31 January 2022 19: 41
        Not surprised. I won’t even be surprised if you are familiar with Captain XNUMXst Rank Andrei Shalygin.
        1. Bez 310
          31 January 2022 20: 13
          Quote: Mpx
          Andrey Shalygin

          No, the name means nothing to me.
          1. MP
            MP 1 February 2022 09: 26
            He has his own YouTube channel
            1. Bez 310
              1 February 2022 09: 27
              Quote: Mpx
              He has his own YouTube channel

              And let him lead...
  20. iouris
    iouris 2 February 2022 13: 30
    Regarding the qualification "pilot / navigator-sniper" there are serious and justified by the provisions of the probability theory of doubt. So, the inspector general of the USSR Ministry of Defense Marshal Moskalenko, observing the work of the pilots of the Guards. IAP at the range, noted: “The bomb falls 200 m from the target, and the rating is“ excellent ”(??) In fact, the results of the range bombing of pilots practically do not depend on their qualifications. In any case, there is no scientific evidence to the contrary.
    But that doesn't matter anymore.
  21. Bobrovsky
    Bobrovsky 2 February 2022 19: 38
    Looking at the navigation badges, I remembered how navigators were called in Long-Range Aviation - the first - fornication and the second - a bandit with two knives.
    1. Mityasha
      Mityasha 3 February 2022 10: 53
      This is the first time I hear such an expression, what long-range aviation did you serve in?
  22. bk316
    bk316 3 February 2022 13: 41
    Thank you for the article. Although I have nothing to do with aviation, but reading your stories I somehow get younger or something .... You have the talent of a writer.