Military Review

History of the uniform. Khaki appears on the battlefield...

126

"All that's left of them." 17th Lancers at the Battle of Modderfontein. Painting by Richard Caton Woodville, Jr. (1856–1927)


"Hey soldier, have you met him,
My dear friend?" —
“He was dressed in khaki, went into secret.
Look for another guy."
"Hey soldier..." R. Kipling. Translation by V. Vasiliev

History uniforms. In foreign films dedicated to the events of the 1898th century, we often see British officers and soldiers dressed in red uniforms. And at the same time, in films about the beginning of the 1902th century, we already see officers and soldiers in khaki. Louis Boussinard in his adventure story "Captain Head Off" wrote that the British in Africa received the form of khaki directly during the Anglo-Boer War of XNUMX-XNUMX. But is this true and is it possible to rely on the descriptions of the French author who wrote the book about the “bad Englishmen” in everything?

Indeed, the use of "red jackets" took place, for example, during the Anglo-Zulu War and the Anglo-Egyptian War (1882). However, many British officers took a much more practical approach to dressing their soldiers, and this was especially the case in India. It is known that the khaki cloth uniform, the Urdu word for dust, was first worn by Indian irregulars on the Northwest Frontier as early as the late 1840s. That is, she met already during the Uprising. During the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1878-1880, khaki clothing was already very widely used.

The fact is that the regiment commander received money for uniforms, and many of them began to consider it simply pointless to buy expensive fabric for clothes, in which, among other things, it was also very hot. Therefore, they began to buy cheap locally produced cotton fabric, and sew uniforms from it directly into the regiment. The benefits of such a replacement turned out to be very significant in monetary terms, so the supply of this fabric soon began to be centralized.

History of the uniform. Khaki appears on the battlefield...
Private sepoy of the 31st Madras Light Infantry Regiment (now 3rd Balochsky). Color lithograph by Richard Simkin (1840–1926), 1888

In 1885, a cheap "dusty" gray mineral dye was patented, and khaki uniforms were allowed in all regiments of the Indian Army. In Africa, General Wolseley's soldiers wore light gray woolen uniforms specially made for them during the Seventh Anglo-Ashanti War of 1896. These and other khaki uniforms of gray twill or sand-colored cotton fabric were worn by British troops during Mahdist war 1884-1885. Thus, from the mid-1880s, the khaki combat uniform was the usual marching dress of the British troops in the empire, and became the official "foreign dress" as early as 1897. So it is unlikely that the British infantry advanced on the position of the Boers in their bright red uniforms. It is clear that Boussenard wanted so much, but in reality it was no longer so. In addition, troops from India were the first to be transferred to Africa, and they had long been completely dressed in khakis.


British soldier in khaki uniform 1900. Drawing from Foster G., Hoch P., Muller R. "Uniformen europaischer Armeen" VEB, Berlin, 1978. P. 279

In 1902, a slightly darker shade of khaki was chosen as the color of the domestic service uniform. During the campaign in the south, the white tropical helmet was often brewed in tea by soldiers themselves or other makeshift dyes were used to make it less visible. It was later fitted with a khaki cloth case.

In 1898, during the campaign of General Kitchener in the Sudan, the best units of the Connaught Rangers and the North Staffordshire Regiment at the battle of Omdurman still wore the old uniform, that is, red coats, black trousers and white helmets, and ... that is why they became the last British troops, wearing red on the battlefield!


"Save the guns!" Battery E of the Royal Horse Artillery retreats from the Battle of Maiwand after a stunning attack by the Afghans. Painting by Richard Caton Woodville (1856–1927)

The khaki uniform was also worn by the soldiers of the British militia - yeomanry, which was recruited from village gentlemen, horse owners. This volunteer cavalry was formed for the first time in 1730, during the Jacobite uprising. Then the local defense detachments bought horses, uniforms and weapon. In 1794, when the country was threatened by the invasion of Napoleon's troops, Parliament proclaimed the Provisional Cavalry Act, which formalized this system. The law required horse owners to equip one cavalryman for every ten horses they owned; those with fewer than ten horses were grouped together and had to share the costs among themselves in proportion to the number of horses they owned.


Officer of the 21st Punjab Regiment 1912 Color lithograph by Richard Simkin

As a result, by the end of 1804, 44 people stood in the ranks of the yeomanry. Parliament lifted the restriction that yeomanry could only be called upon to defend the country, stating that the country needed to be protected on the continent as well.


British soldiers in khaki with a machine gun

Before the war in South Africa, the main task of the yeomanry was to help the authorities, that is, they served as a kind of national guard. Training was held on weekends, and several times a year the entire regiment gathered for joint training and reviews. Yeomanry units were named after the county in which they were raised, such as the North Somerset Yeomanry, the Sussex Yeomanry, the Yorkshire Hussars and so on.


British infantry officer circa 1906, British cavalryman circa 1914. Bottom right: Lee-Metford rifle (top) and Lee-Enfield (bottom). Drawing from the book Foster G., Hoch P., Muller R. "Uniformen europaischer Armeen" VEB, Berlin, 1978. P. 255

For the war with the Boers, the yeomanry system was activated again. Of the 10 men available, 000 were sent to South Africa as a battalion of imperial yeomanry, equipped and organized as a unit of mounted riflemen. By the end of the war, 3000 men had passed through the yeomanry training system, most of whom were sent to the front. From 32, the organization of the yeomanry units was standardized: each regiment had four squadrons.


British yeomanry 1900 dressed in khaki. Illustration from the book Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914" Vuksic, V., Grbasic, Z. P.223

In the same 1901, the khaki military uniform was adopted for all branches of the military. Leggings worn since 1859 were replaced in 1900 with gaiters. The military cap has become part of the military uniform of soldiers and officers since 1905. Regimental insignia found their place on the collar and above the visor of the cap. The rank of officers was indicated on the lapels and on the galloons around the lapels. The field uniform of the cavalry differed from the infantry only in regimental insignia. Cartridges were carried in bandoliers.


Private of the 21st British Lancers in khaki uniform, 1898. This is what the cavalrymen of this regiment looked like when they fought the Mahdists at the Battle of Omdurman. Illustration from the book Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914" Vuksic, V., Grbasic, Z. P.223

Serious opponents of the British in southern Africa were the Boers, who were descendants of Dutch colonists who moved to South Africa after the Dutch East India Company established its first trading post at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. By the end of the XNUMXth century, many families from Holland and Germany arrived here. Later, the Huguenots expelled from France were added to them, who mixed with the mass of the Dutch who already lived here. The natives - Bushmen and Hottentots - were used by the colonists as slave labor.

Until 1795, all power in southern Africa belonged to the Dutch East India Company, but then the colonists proclaimed self-government and ceased to obey anyone. In 1806, the cape was captured by Great Britain. The Boers did not like the new regime: English became the only official language, the British deprived them of all leadership positions, and the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 also deprived them of their labor force. So they migrated north and east where they founded the Orange Free State, Natal and the Transvaal. However, this resettlement did not free them from British intervention, since all the conquests of British subjects belonged to ... the British crown. However, the Boers were determined to resist British expansion, which resulted in the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902.


The Boers did not have a uniform, but being dressed in clothes made of homespun fabric dyed with natural dyes, they blended into the terrain, as if they were wearing a khaki uniform. Commando drill 1900. Illustration from the book “Cavalry. The history of fighting elite 650BC - AD1914" Vuksic, V., Grbasic, Z. P.221

The Boer Republics had an undisciplined but well-armed militia force of about 47 men aged between 000 and 16. After the announcement of mobilization, they gathered in the regional centers and formed detachments called commandos. Each such detachment of about 60 people was led by a commandant and several cornets, who in turn commanded cornets of about 200 people. In practice, there were units of 30 to 100 men. Officers were chosen by vote; if they proved incapable, they were immediately re-elected. Each militia had one or more horses, so commandos were a sort of mounted infantry, as were units of the British yeomanry, as were the Boers, who had no sabers. Foreigners and natives were not accepted into the armed forces.


Boer Fusiliers in infantry line

It was said that the Boer boys were not given dinner if they did not hit the target with the first shot. Therefore, these people were excellent riders and shooters. Both men and horses were accustomed to the South African climate, in contrast to the soldiers brought from Britain, who went through a painful period of adaptation.

At the start of the war, the Boers inflicted several serious defeats on the British - at Stormberg, Magersfontein and Colenso in 1899 and at Spion Kop in 1900. Guerrilla tactics destroyed British communications and forced them to erect a line of small forts to block the movement of the Boers. The later occasional successes of the Boers could no longer prevent the British from systematically isolating their units and destroying them one by one, which allowed them to decide the outcome of the war in their favor.

To be continued ...
Author:
126 comments
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  1. Gato
    Gato 30 January 2022 05: 37
    +11
    khaki is an Urdu word meaning "dust"

    And this word in Afghanistan and Pakistan means "hashish", which is very similar in color. I will not insist on this version, but why not? It is clear that "hashish color form" does not sound :)
  2. andrewkor
    andrewkor 30 January 2022 07: 06
    +12
    As a child, I read both "Captain Break the Head" and "Young Boer from the Transvaal." The article smelled of childhood! Thanks to the author!
    1. kalibr
      30 January 2022 07: 52
      +7
      Quote: andrewkor
      The article smelled like childhood!

      Have you read the book "Strange General"? From there!
      1. novel66
        novel66 30 January 2022 12: 56
        +15
        The beautiful lies of war were for me the cadets of Saint-Cyr,[1] who swore to wear their ceremonial bright crimson plumes in battle - they were killed to a single man by snipers in gray-green uniforms. R. Aldington
      2. Edward Vashchenko
        Edward Vashchenko 30 January 2022 13: 31
        +7
        Literally to the holes in my childhood, I read "Captain Tear Head"!
        Vyacheslav Olegovich,
        thanks for the hacks!!!
        if I'm not mistaken, there was an article in "TM" about hacks, how interesting it was to read ... Alas, alas, after the army, I lost interest in "hacks")))
        hi
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 January 2022 14: 19
          +5
          Alas, alas, after the army, I lost interest in "hacks")))

          And I still have a tunic, with the "Second Class" on my chest, I wear it on the 23rd.)) soldier
          "Captain" is also one of my favorite childhood books. smile
          1. Edward Vashchenko
            Edward Vashchenko 30 January 2022 16: 11
            +8
            Constantine
            good afternoon, the second is cool.
            Although I was a senior specialist in small arms and melee weapons, but only with the 3rd class, it is difficult to earn a second from gunsmiths)
            hi
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 January 2022 17: 13
              +11
              If in training, when passing exams, the stabilizer on the T-62 had not failed, then it would have been the first. I have few advantages, but I always knew how to shoot and I know how, as my company commander said - you both draw and shoot, draw a line from point to point and slapped. He was probably right, I still have not forgotten how to draw and shoot. smile
              1. Edward Vashchenko
                Edward Vashchenko 30 January 2022 17: 15
                +6
                I still haven't forgotten how to draw and shoot.

                It is strong! good
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 30 January 2022 18: 04
                  +10
                  This is to the issue of the design of Lenkomnat and without separation from the crew.

                  Again, my demobilization album.
                  1. Edward Vashchenko
                    Edward Vashchenko 30 January 2022 18: 49
                    +2
                    Seriously what to say good
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 30 January 2022 19: 11
                      +9
                      Perhaps, in our regiment, it was the only demobilization album in which there were no photographs, there were many of them, but they all lay down in packs.
                      Well, if it's broken:
        2. kalibr
          30 January 2022 14: 32
          +5
          Quote: Eduard Vaschenko
          in "TM" there was an article about hacks,

          There was a series of articles on uniforms. I read it at the time and really liked it. I never thought that I would work with them myself ...
          1. Edward Vashchenko
            Edward Vashchenko 30 January 2022 16: 08
            +6
            I adored "TM" as a child, read all the articles in a row. I did everything that they suggested to do)))
            hi
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 January 2022 18: 16
              +2
              "TM", "Around the World" and "IL", but there was nothing more. "Samizdat" only.
              1. Edward Vashchenko
                Edward Vashchenko 30 January 2022 18: 54
                +4
                There was also a Pioneer, but before and ... "Funny pictures with" Murzilka " laughing
                "Crocodile", later "Rural Youth": Trinity wrote about rock, then "Student Meridian", and also "Youth" ... I don't want to read, "Science and Life", again ...
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 30 January 2022 18: 59
                  +4
                  "Around the World", "Ural Pathfinder", "Roman-newspaper"
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 30 January 2022 19: 15
                  +3
                  Yes! "Rural Youth" I found "Snail on the slope" there.

                  "Crawl, snail, crawl
                  On the slope of Fuji

                  God, how long has it been...
    2. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 30 January 2022 08: 32
      +9
      I remembered something else
      "Day-night-day-night - we go through Africa,
      Day-night-day-night - all in the same Africa
      (Dust-dust-dust-dust - from walking boots!)
      There is no vacation in the war!

      Eight-six-twelve-five - twenty miles this time
      Three-twelve-twenty-two - eighteen miles yesterday.
      (Dust-dust-dust-dust - from walking boots!)
      There is no vacation in the war!

      Give it up, give it up, give it up, see what's ahead.
      (Dust-dust-dust-dust - from walking boots!)
      All-all-all-all - she will go crazy,
      And there is no vacation in the war!

      You-you-you-you - try to think of something else,
      God-my-give-strength - not completely crazy!
      (Dust-dust-dust-dust - from walking boots!)
      And there is no vacation in the war!

      Count-count-count-count - lead the bullets in the sash,
      Slightly-sleep-took-up - the rear ones will crush you.
      (Dust-dust-dust-dust - from walking boots!)
      There is no vacation in the war!

      For-us-all-nonsense - hunger, thirst, a long way,
      But-no-no-no - worse than always one, -
      Dust-dust-dust-dust - from walking boots,
      And there is no vacation in the war!

      During the day-we-we-are-here - and it's not so hard,
      But-a little-left-gloom - again only heels.
      (Dust-dust-dust-dust - from walking boots!)
      There is no vacation in the war!

      I-walked-through-hell - six weeks and I swear
      There-no-no-darkness - no braziers, no devils,
      But-dust-dust-dust-dust - from walking boots,
      And there is no vacation in the war!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 30 January 2022 08: 46
        +6
        Illustration for Kipling. smile
        1. saygon66
          saygon66 30 January 2022 16: 34
          +6
          - "When the funeral patrol leaves
          And the kites fly away...
          - Comes about the dead to take a report
          Wise hyena squad...
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 30 January 2022 17: 15
            +2
            Beautiful, namesake, but somehow sad.
      2. parusnik
        parusnik 30 January 2022 10: 07
        +8
        And the first lines reminded me of something else:
        "Day-night-day-night - we go through Africa,
        Day-night-day-night - all in the same Africa
        - Shut your mouth, green face!" (c) mf "We are with Sherlock Holmes" laughing
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 January 2022 10: 36
          +10
          Great cartoon! fellow
        2. The comment was deleted.
      3. kalibr
        30 January 2022 10: 15
        +8
        Quote: mr.ZinGer
        And there is no vacation in the war!

        "The Bard of British Imperialism"
        1. mr.ZinGer
          mr.ZinGer 30 January 2022 10: 45
          +10
          And besides, still a small bespectacled man and a Nobel laureate, in general, a "washed-out" person.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 January 2022 15: 51
          +4
          I don’t know how anyone, but I associate Kipling’s poetry with the poem “Soldier and Sailor Together”, which described the tragedy of “Birkenhead”, which formulated the principle “Women and children first”.
          Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
          1. kalibr
            30 January 2022 16: 46
            +8
            Quote: 3x3zsave
            and I associate Kipling's poetry

            With four: The burden of the whites, the Commandment, the Table and the Ballad of the West and the East. Only the commandment could not remember. And he knew these by heart, read to students at lectures.
          2. Korsar4
            Korsar4 30 January 2022 20: 05
            +2
            A lot of what Kipling's poetry is associated with. For example, from what was not called, "Mary Gloucester." In general, a wonderful combination: in some verses there are marches and rigidity, in some lyrics. And the smell of travel. And enough humor.
          3. Catfish
            Catfish 30 January 2022 20: 50
            +1
            I associate Kipling only with himself:
            And the Milky Way hummed in the distance - the starry haze fell silent,
            And now they found themselves at the Gates, where Peter the Klyuchar was the watchman.
            “Come, come to us too, Tomplinson, answer clearly and clearly,
            What good he had done before he had to die;
            What good he managed to do in the vale of sorrow and evil!”
          4. Catfish
            Catfish 30 January 2022 20: 54
            +2
            And with something he never wrote:

            In 1898, Hilaire Belloc (1870-1953) published his famous machine gun poem in a collection called The Modern Traveler:

            The Modern Traveler

            Blood thought he knew the native mind;
            He said you must be firm, but kind.
            A mutiny resulted.
            I shall never forget the way
            That Blood stood upon this awful day
            Preserved us all from death.
            He stood upon a little mound
            Cast his lethargic eyes around,
            And said beneath his breath:
            'Whatever happens, we have got
            The Maxim Gun, and they have not. '

            The last two lines of the poem:
            'Whatever happens, we have got The Maxim Gun, and they have not.' - "And in the event of any "Maxim" with us, and not with them" is often erroneously attributed to Rudyard Kipling, apparently because of Kipling's reputation as a "singer of the British colonial empire"

            Other translations:


            For each question there is a clear answer:
            We have a "maxim", they don't have it.

            ***

            We have an answer for every question you have:
            We have a machine gun, but you don't!

            ***

            We will answer all your questions like this:
            We have many "maxims" - you have no "maxims".


            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 January 2022 21: 35
              0
              You will laugh, Uncle Kostya, but the mother of my children believed that Kipling also wrote Bombers, until I poked her nose into the dates.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 30 January 2022 21: 55
                +1
                Nephew, dear and beloved (I'm not afraid of this word), any mother should not poke her nose in a place that is not intended for this, I regret that there are obvious gaps in your upbringing, I mean, where you need to poke your nose. Forgive me for being rude, but if you call the woman you were with "the mother of your children" and not "the girl I fought," then I can’t say anything else. Regret.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 30 January 2022 21: 59
                  +1
                  Uncle, you don't know anything about my women. Regret.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 30 January 2022 22: 08
                    +1
                    These are your Women, and only you should know about them, but you can trace a certain attitude towards one of them, and I am "sincerely sorry, Your Majesty" for both of you. (C) request
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 30 January 2022 22: 13
                      +2
                      What's there...
                      As Alla Borisovna sang: "The stuffing cannot be turned back."
                      1. Catfish
                        Catfish 30 January 2022 22: 30
                        +1
                        "The stuffing cannot be turned back."

                        Yes, and it makes no sense, and useless. I went through it too, only I was smart enough not to have children. By the way, your compatriot was, from St. Petersburg, Miss UDNA in Eastfile. With what relief I sighed when I finally untied myself. We are idiots, and we are not ashamed to admit it.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 30 January 2022 22: 39
                        +1
                        Well, why the hell are you criticizing?
                        It was not my mind that worked for me, but an exaggerated sense of responsibility. It broke after 15 years of marriage. And "the mother of my children" is still quite a decent epithet... It got to the point that I couldn't be in the same room with her.
                      3. Catfish
                        Catfish 30 January 2022 22: 44
                        +1
                        I don’t criticize, and, God forbid, I don’t sympathize, I’m just sincerely sorry for the children, however, they’re not to blame for the fact that one of the parents goes away, I’m not talking about you, because I understand who is here from the eye.
                      4. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 30 January 2022 22: 51
                        +1
                        And those who are here and whose opinion I'm interested in will perceive my story adequately.
                      5. Catfish
                        Catfish 30 January 2022 23: 09
                        +1
                        Yes, spit on this ... story, and the children will understand you, just like mine understood me, although their mother is not very smart.
                      6. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 30 January 2022 23: 12
                        +1
                        although their mother is not crazy
                        Oh, I finally got it!
                      7. Catfish
                        Catfish 30 January 2022 23: 32
                        +1
                        Then what is the problem? I don't understand this anymore.
                      8. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 30 January 2022 23: 42
                        +1
                        Yes, there is no problem! You suddenly showed me that on the forum I tactfully call a woman "the mother of my children", and not directly and honestly "a female dog." Although I have much warmer feelings for female dogs.
                      9. Catfish
                        Catfish 30 January 2022 23: 45
                        +1
                        Although I have much warmer feelings for female dogs.

                        It's more than noticeable.
                        And I didn’t present anything to you, it didn’t rest against me in a stump. Sorry and good night. hi
                      10. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 30 January 2022 23: 47
                        +1
                        Everything is fine. Have a nice lunch! laughing
      4. Bogalex
        Bogalex 30 January 2022 15: 09
        +7
        Yes, yes, we have known this since childhood:

        "A soldier is always healthy,
        The soldier is ready for anything
        And dust, like carpets,
        We knock out of the roads.

        And don't stop,
        And don't change legs
        Our faces are shining
        The shoes sparkle!

        On the scorched plain -
        Behind the meter meter -
        Go to Ukraine
        Soldiers of the "Center" group ... "
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 January 2022 20: 45
          +2
          Soldiers of the "South" group were advancing across Ukraine. request

          But Vysotsky remains himself, he can.
          1. Bogalex
            Bogalex 30 January 2022 21: 00
            +1
            Thanks for the educational program, of course, but, believe me, it was not entirely appropriate.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 January 2022 21: 22
              +1
              Didn't mean to offend, sorry. Just a long conversation with my friends about this song and no "educational program". request
          2. Liam
            Liam 30 January 2022 21: 12
            +5
            Quote: Sea Cat
            Soldiers of the "South" group were advancing across Ukraine

            The encirclement ring near Kiev was closed by Guderian's tank group from the Army Group Center
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 January 2022 21: 19
              +1
              Alas, if Guderian himself always decided what to do. smile
              "The available forces of Army Group South were not enough to fulfill the tasks assigned to it."
              "Lacking strategic reserves, the German Stavka decides to transfer part of the forces of Army Group Center - the 2nd Army of Weichs and the 2nd Panzer Group of Guderian, to temporarily transfer tasks to reinforce Army Group South." (c)
              And what, what am I doing wrong?
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 30 January 2022 12: 43
      +2
      I don’t know such a “Young Boer of Transval”, but I read “Tear Off Your Head”, but I don’t remember well
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 30 January 2022 20: 39
        +1
        "Tear your head off" I read, but I don't remember well

        And it’s not necessary, you can just as well remember Pinocchio. laughing
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 31 January 2022 06: 33
          0
          Kostya, welcome. Pinocchio I remember
  3. Van 16
    Van 16 30 January 2022 08: 18
    +7
    Thanks for the article, interesting!
    I remembered the song - "Jimmy's mom saw off to the war, hid handkerchiefs in a knapsack, saw off Jenny Jimmy to the war, chamomile petals flew from her hand. Jimmy, don't miss!"
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 30 January 2022 09: 07
    +3
    And in the Russian army, the khaki uniform was introduced only in 1907.

    Although before that the army wore gray overcoat...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 30 January 2022 13: 27
      +9
      Quote: Olgovich
      And in the Russian army, the khaki uniform was introduced only in 1907.

      Although before that the army wore gray overcoat...

      Gray caftans, camisoles and overcoats were in the Russian army until the 20th century.
      Recruits of the era of Peter I and the militias of Alexander I were dressed in unpainted uniforms. The light green, and later dark green uniform of the Russian army, in terms of protective properties, was much better than red English,
      However, it was not in vain that the first jaeger (shot) teams also dressed in green uniforms.
      The British did the same with their light companies, later regiments.


      For clarity!
      Etc. In the first picture, the huntsman is on the left side, on the right is the musketeer.
      Later, Skobelev experimented with the form.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 30 January 2022 15: 15
      +4
      And in the Russian army, the khaki uniform was introduced only in 1907.
      Reichswehr changed into Feldgrau in the same year
  5. north 2
    north 2 30 January 2022 09: 27
    +12
    And in the Russian army, the Russo-Japanese war forced the introduction of khaki. Or rather, its results. During the assault on land, the Japanese shot Russian officers very accurately. There were only two options, either for the officers to change into soldier's overcoats or to sew overcoats and covers for caps from material with the color of the best camouflage. So the rear bureaucrats and staff rats in St. Petersburg also reared up against this. And yet, thanks to the efforts of General Botyanov, in the Tsarist Army in 1908 they began to introduce a khaki field uniform. But it was necessary that even khaki elements were not present in the front officer's uniform.
    1. Ryazan87
      Ryazan87 31 January 2022 19: 13
      0
      The Japanese, during the assault on land, shot Russian officers very accurately

      There were also, obviously, "storms at sea."
      1. In the Russian army, in fact, there was a uniform of 1882, where a dark green / black color was supposed. Gymnastic shirts were used in hot climates, which had to be done in Manchuria (later this extremely sloppy type of uniform took root as the main one).
      2. The white color rather created problems in the movement of large masses of troops, which was already pointed out during the Chinese campaign. They tried to repaint centrally already during the Japanese war, as well as to introduce a modified cap.
      3. Most of the major battles of the Russo-Japanese War took place in the autumn-winter period (Shahe, Mukden), this must be taken into account.
      4. The Japanese started the war in blue uniforms and received protective uniforms already during the hostilities.
      5. The unification of soldier's and officer's uniforms is a common trend of all armies of the 20th century. By the way, therefore, combat officers did not particularly like, for example, shoulder belts.
      And yet, thanks to the efforts of General Botyanov, in the Tsarist Army in 1908 they began to introduce a khaki field uniform

      In the Russian army, "summer clothing in a protective color" was introduced by Order No. 632 of the military department of December 15, 1907 (preliminarily reviewed and approved by the Emperor on November 15, 1907). And yes, the protective color is not khaki.
      But it was necessary that even khaki elements were not present in the front officer's uniform.

      And what about the dress uniform? Until 1913, the lower ranks did not have a protective color and in full dress (although they didn’t have much time there either).
  6. ycuce234-san
    ycuce234-san 30 January 2022 11: 31
    +7
    Foreigners and natives were not accepted into the armed forces.


    In the end, this cost them their independence. The total population of the Boer territories was 18 million people, in which the Boers themselves were a mere drop.
  7. vladcub
    vladcub 30 January 2022 12: 50
    +3
    "foreigners and natives were not accepted into the armed forces" V. Oh, I read about our compatriots that fought on the side of the Boers. Something similar flashed on the site
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 30 January 2022 13: 24
      +4
      The most famous Russian volunteer of the Anglo-Boer War was Lieutenant Colonel E.Ya. Maksimov. At the end of April 1900, he, commanding a detachment of volunteers, mainly from Holland, participated in several battles. In the battle near Tabanchu, he received three severe wounds: a temporal wound with damage to the skull, an explosive bullet in the shoulder blade and a shoulder contusion. Despite being wounded, Maximov continued to participate in hostilities and in reconnaissance of enemy positions. According to Sister of Mercy St. Izdyedinova, on the day of the battle near Kronstadt, barely recovering from moving from near Tabanch, he, having heard the shooting, despite the injuries and protests of the doctors, got on his horse and not only took part in a detour of the positions, but also single-handedly made a reconnaissance, which none of the Boers dared. After being on a horse all day and reaching complete exhaustion, he could no longer hold on to the saddle. But, being taken to a hospital in an abandoned Kronstadt, in order not to be captured, he again got into the saddle and got to Honing Spruit, located 70 kilometers away.

      Boer General Louis Botha, characterizing E.Ya. Maksimov, said that although he himself was not a coward and had seen many brave people, he not only did not see anyone like this Russian colonel, but did not even imagine.

      On May 24, 1900, at a meeting attended by several hundred Boers and Europeans and six commanders, E.Ya. Maksimov was proclaimed a "combat general" (fechtgeneral). Thus, he became the second foreigner to receive such a high rank.

      1. LisKat2
        LisKat2 30 January 2022 14: 18
        +5
        Who was the first? In fact, apart from Businar, I don’t know any details about this war.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 30 January 2022 14: 23
          +4
          I don't know this either, I didn't do it on purpose. I only know that several naval officers were released on "unpaid leave" and they took an active part in this war.
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 30 January 2022 14: 32
            +1
            It will be necessary to look for some details about this war
          2. vladcub
            vladcub 30 January 2022 14: 49
            +1
            "released on" unpaid leave ", but we don't know where the officers went. Probably, they hang out in a nearby tavern.
            Break me with thunder, no command had no idea where the officers were going
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 30 January 2022 15: 20
              +3
              the command did not know where the officers were going


              Exactly the opposite. laughing
        2. vladcub
          vladcub 30 January 2022 14: 30
          +2
          You are no exception. Little is known about this war. Why is that? Probably, the "wrong" war was. If only the Boers were revolutionaries, otherwise the descendants of slave owners.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 30 January 2022 15: 22
            +3
            ... descendants of slave owners.


            How is it? Whom did they keep as slaves? The Zulus, for example, went to the machine guns "on foot", the slaves...
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 31 January 2022 10: 07
              0
              Zulus and Boers are not the same
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 31 January 2022 16: 47
                +1
                Wow! laughing I never doubted that the Negro differed from the European at least in color.
                1. vladcub
                  vladcub 1 February 2022 15: 34
                  0
                  For the blind in the fig: skin color, but you can hardly understand by touch
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 1 February 2022 15: 38
                    0
                    For the blind by smell and touch. laughing
        3. Dock1272
          Dock1272 30 January 2022 14: 57
          +10
          Well, besides "Take off your head" I know that it was during and after the Anglo-Boer War that the concept of concentration camps was finally created and formalized as a means of destroying the population and prisoners ... and it was the British who formalized it (like, a stronghold of democracy and tolerance)))
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 30 January 2022 15: 19
            +6
            So it was, you alone remembered it.
        4. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 31 January 2022 19: 20
          0
          Georges de Villebois-Mareille.
          Maximov will die in the Russian-Japanese war, but before that he will have time to participate in a loud duel - he killed the Most Serene Prince A.F. Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and, it should be noted, on a stupid occasion.
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. kalibr
      30 January 2022 14: 34
      +4
      The book "The Strange General" is from fiction ... It's about him, about Maximov ...
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 30 January 2022 13: 43
    +2
    "undisciplined but heavily armed militias" ANY regular army has an advantage over militias. If the balance of power: 1x1,1, 2x1 in favor of the militia, they have nothing but a temporary advantage. The regular army makes all the militias, and if the ratio is 10xXNUMX, then the militias win here.
    And in the Anglo-Burgian war, the balance of power was not in favor of the Boers.
    The experience of all wars shows that a regular army is preferable
  9. CHEREDA73
    CHEREDA73 30 January 2022 13: 50
    +9
    Quote: vladcub
    "foreigners and natives were not accepted into the armed forces" V. Oh, I read about our compatriots that fought on the side of the Boers. Something similar flashed on the site

    Guchkov Alexander Ivanovich
    He was wounded while fighting on the side of the Boers.
  10. LisKat2
    LisKat2 30 January 2022 14: 12
    +6
    Good day everyone. Vyacheslav Olegovich, in defense of Louis Businard.
    He is not a professional historian and did not have so many illustrations. He knew well that the British had red uniforms, perhaps he knew: "in 1898, during the Kitchener company in Sudan .... they wore old-style uniforms," ​​and the Boer War began in 1898, it is logical to assume that the Boer companies of the British will red uniforms.
    Is it logical
    1. kalibr
      30 January 2022 14: 39
      +2
      Quote: LisKat2
      Is it logical

      Logically! But if you compare his book with the same "Kim" Kipling - it's heaven and earth. In terms of information content and reliability. And they wrote a lot about it at that time ...
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 30 January 2022 18: 12
        +4
        At Boussinard, Jean Grandier’s company of milksops opposed mainly the Gordon Highlanders, maybe that’s why there is a description of colorful uniforms? When it came to battles with lancers and dragoons, as far as I remember, colorful uniforms were not mentioned.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 31 January 2022 10: 10
        0
        Q. Oh, most likely, she did not read Kipling
  11. Undecim
    Undecim 30 January 2022 14: 58
    +6
    It is known that the khaki cloth uniform, the Urdu word for dust, was first worn by Indian irregulars on the Northwest Frontier as early as the late 1840s.

    1848 Corps of Guides.

    In 1868, in Ethiopia, or, as they said then, in Abyssinia, British troops were already officially using khaki.

    4th King's Regiment at the Battle of Magdala April 13, 1868.
  12. depressant
    depressant 30 January 2022 15: 56
    +4
    How it lifted up before and lifted up now! .. Louis Boussinard... Boussinard - remember at last!
    I understand that, while hurriedly tapping the text on the phone, you can type some words with errors, punctuate them incorrectly, or skip them altogether ... it is easy to check in any search engine - first check, questioning the capabilities of your memory, check, type it correctly and thereby show respect for those gathered to discuss the article - no, this is not. Instead, a display of painfully hurting disregard for culture. Actually, trampling it...
    How to live?!? wassat )))
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 30 January 2022 16: 02
      +5
      Strongly agree! For some reason, representatives of other cultures write on the forum in Russian much more literate than native speakers.
      1. depressant
        depressant 30 January 2022 16: 12
        +3
        Maybe because representatives of other cultures do not want to seem ridiculous? Are they afraid of it?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 January 2022 16: 25
          +3
          I doubt it, rather, knowledge of several languages ​​generally improves the culture of speech. Have you noticed, Lyudmila Yakovlevna, how purely Viktor (Liam) writes, or the Israeli forum users? And some Bulgarians can generally be recognized only by the absence of the letter "e" in the Bulgarian "layout"!
          1. depressant
            depressant 30 January 2022 16: 39
            +4
            Noticed Anton!
            You should have heard how clean and very smart Russian children and teenagers speak Russian. Where are ours! True, I have not seen Azerbaijanis in recent years. But the Uzbek merchants are the same, they speak Russian perfectly. But with our local - strained. The vast majority originate from remote villages and if only from the Moscow region. Podmoskovye still at least somehow own speech, albeit depleted.
            But I think it's something else as well. The disregard for the "urban", for the intelligentsia, for the manifestations of class-alien elements of aristocracy that developed in the times after the Second World War. Hostility towards everything. War is like a watershed. Before - they were drawn to culture. She was like a dress code. After that, such a craving became not only optional, but even aroused hostility.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 January 2022 16: 49
              +3
              I would still separate oral and written speech. My own oral language is very littered and it’s still not good to pronounce long speeches “to the audience”. But I'm working on it.
              1. depressant
                depressant 30 January 2022 16: 52
                +3
                Work, Anton, work!
                And then, as soon as I remember your photo, I see a city dweller who easily owns adverbial phrases wassat )))
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 30 January 2022 16: 55
                  +2
                  And I have nowhere to go, a new hobby obliges me to be Demosthenes.
  13. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 30 January 2022 16: 39
    +3
    It became interesting whether the cycle will be extended to the history of the uniforms of other armies or will it be limited only to Great Britain?
    1. depressant
      depressant 30 January 2022 16: 53
      +3
      For example, the uniform of the Zulu army)))
      And look how you and I were downvoted, as if I don't know who did it. People defend their right to be who they are. But political scientists tell us that the task of our collective oppressors is to completely eradicate the remnants of culture from us, because as long as they, the remnants, are in us, it is too difficult to manipulate us.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 January 2022 17: 24
        +4
        For example, the uniform of the Zulu army)))
        You really giggle. In the XNUMXth century, the Zulus had the strongest native army on the continent.
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 January 2022 17: 31
        +5
        like I don't know who did it.
        But I don’t know and don’t want to know, because these idiots don’t know how to write at all. Someday, when I'm in a bad mood, I'll get angry and ask Smirnov to deal with the degenerates.
        1. CHEREDA73
          CHEREDA73 30 January 2022 18: 01
          +6
          Hello, Anton and Lyudmila Yakovlevna!
          I read your dialogue full of passions hi
          As always, delighted and with a smile! drinks
          I hope my presentation of thoughts does not bother you?
          And the Russian language, Anton, I was taught by a wonderful person, Narbut Tatyana Alexandrovna, who lives in St. Petersburg!
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 January 2022 18: 04
            +3
            Hello, Eugene!
            What passions are there ... That's when Lyudmila Yakovlevna and I were arguing, then yes!
            1. CHEREDA73
              CHEREDA73 30 January 2022 18: 07
              +4
              Now I'll think about punctuation wink not to be scolded...
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 January 2022 18: 18
            +2
            Me - honored teacher of the RSFSR Raisa Nikolaevna Aggeeva (that's right, with a double letter "g" in her surname). She was our class teacher, in connection with which we wrote twice as many essays on literature as established by the school curriculum.
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 30 January 2022 18: 16
          +4
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          I will ask Smirnov to deal with the degenerates.

          What for? request
          You are an adequate person, Anton, like Lyudmila Yakovlevna and many others ... What is it that bothers you so much in these minuses? Why are you so worried about them? By God, I don't understand. Can you explain clearly?
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 January 2022 18: 25
            +4
            Because, Mikhail, there are rules for using the resource, in which a ban on indiscriminate minusism is prescribed as a separate clause. Why do I obey these rules, and some imbecile, who cannot connect two words, ignores them?
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 30 January 2022 23: 10
              +2
              And let it be. laughing What do we have to do with them?
              About the rules. They are formulated too "lapidary" to attract someone by them.
              It reads:
              Purposeful downvoting of all comments in a row by one user is prohibited.

              I'm not talking about the concept of "targeted". Purely subjective. Any defendant will say: "I did it just like that, without a purpose" and that's it, the accusation collapsed. But the keywords here are "all" and "in a row". If not all comments are downvoted and there is a "space" between the downvoted comments, then the rule does not work either.
              When imposing any sanctions in such a formulation of the question, the poor fellow Smirnov will be forced to be guided by the only criterion - his own "revolutionary sense of justice." Once, when I was asked what an insult is, they answered literally the following: "an insult is something for which you want to punch in the face." Here, approximately from this series - formally the rules of the site are not violated, but, it seems, there is nothing to give in the face ...
              And, by the way, it is quite possible that by setting minuses, people relieve psychological stress and, thus, prolong their lives, avoiding stress, nervous breakdowns, etc. It can be said that this is a kind of psychotherapy that prolongs people's lives. Do you wish them harm? Here you go... smile
              I believe that depriving some individuals of the opportunity to put minuses is the same as cutting off the hands of a child who wrote a swear word on a fence. And to react to these disadvantages somehow in general ... to fall into childhood yourself. smile
              In general, "a soldier will not offend a child."
              My opinion.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 January 2022 23: 35
                +2
                What do we have to do with them?
                And I have a business. At least in connection with the fact that not so long ago Lyudmila Yakovlevna was executed because of the minuses affixed in responses to her comments. Fragments of hyper-responsibility ache in me.
      3. saygon66
        saygon66 30 January 2022 23: 29
        +3
        - There was after all ... Oddly enough!
        - In the ZhZL series, a book by Marat Brukhnov was published: "Chaka" ...
    2. kalibr
      30 January 2022 16: 54
      +2
      Quote: 3x3zsave
      It became interesting whether the cycle will be extended to the history of the uniforms of other armies or will it be limited only to Great Britain?

      To ALL COUNTRIES as far as possible. There will be 1 more article for Britain and that's it.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 January 2022 16: 59
        +3
        If something needs to be photographed, please contact me - I will do it.
      2. depressant
        depressant 30 January 2022 17: 08
        +3
        There will be 1 more article for Britain and that's it.

        Or maybe one of the reasons for the "people's liberation" movement in India was the replacement of bright and attractive uniforms in Indian corps with a dull khaki uniform. Indians love everything colorful.
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 31 January 2022 10: 13
          +1
          "everything is colorful)))".
          Oh yeah, dance and sing in khaki? Indians? Somehow it’s not right. laughing But ours is doing great!

          Good morning, Lyudmila Yakovlevna!
          1. depressant
            depressant 31 January 2022 11: 34
            +2
            Good morning, Sergey Vladimirovich! )))
            Glad to see you. Honestly, when I watched these dances of girls in tight skirts, I was always afraid that just about one of them, awkwardly waving her leg, would definitely fall. I fell like that once - in my early youth, when I still wore dresses wassat ))) But it didn't hurt, just in a daze I found myself on the floor)))
  14. Kaw
    Kaw 30 January 2022 18: 09
    +3
    It turns out that the Boers were avid slave owners, and the British advocated the abolition of slavery. Breaking templates.
  15. Tests
    Tests 30 January 2022 19: 16
    +6
    a depressant (Lyudmila Yakovlevna Kuznetsova), respected, in the form of regiments of the British Indian Army, if you figure it out, this is work for about a year ... For example, the Indian Army still has the 7th Light Cavalry Regiment today. What is famous? He fought with Pakistan 3 times, with China and Portugal ("Liberation of Goa"), was the first regiment in the Indian army to receive our PT-76 tanks. He triumphantly defeated the troops of his neighbors on the rivers and swamps in East Pakistan. And the history of the regiment begins in 1784, when the British East India Company recruited cavalrymen in the Principality of Arcot. And they called the regiment the 2nd regiment of the Madras native cavalry. The uniforms were red, in 1814 the uniforms became dark blue, the collars and cuffs of the sleeves, the stripes became orange. During the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1817, all the native cavalry were dressed in uniforms of light gray-blue color, from 1846 the edge instead of orange became yellow-brown, and such a uniform remained the dress uniform until 1914 ... And about everything colorful, not only in India ... Someone needed the cavalry in the FSO to be in uniform with epaulettes, a neck officer's badge, valves on the cuffs of the sleeves of uniforms, shoulder straps with a monogram and an emblem, a regimental badge - for everyone, without it, a running man from the PM at a distance of 30 meters, you can’t get into rain and snow with the wind ... Something tells me, maybe I’m wrong, all the heraldists and their tsatski are needed by those who left the blockade and children of the blockade to freeze, on the Day of the final lifting of the blockade Leningrad, outside the guarded perimeter of the Piskarevsky cemetery, I went to the graves alone ... it was sad for me to look at this picture on all the central channels of the sovereign's television ...
    1. depressant
      depressant 30 January 2022 21: 45
      +2
      Yes, I'm aware of this story...
      Finally in the know. At first, I did not understand what my friends were talking about on one of the forums - so, they just exchanged a few words, hinted at the scene. Well, I didn't understand, I was joking. I don't watch TV. And suddenly on other resources - a flurry of indignation, outlining the history in detail. I wasn't surprised.
      Why be surprised? Or be indignant - what? Such feelings can only be manifested if there is even the slightest hope that the feeling will affect the object. And if this object is "Dear closet!"?..
      For example, do you know why a memorandum was sent to NATO? And he was sent, among other things, in order to distract the population from the merger of the Pension Fund with the Social Insurance Fund with the subsequent transformation of this two in one into a NON-STATE social fund. That there is a catastrophe for the population and a prerequisite for subsequent extinction. Where to direct anger? On whom? On a soulless closet?
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 31 January 2022 10: 20
        +1
        "memorandum sent."
        And I would call this action: "Memorandum for internal use."
        Delight for the eyes and ears of turbopatriots. bully What about a visit to the Piskaryovskoye cemetery? It's not sad, it's ... disgusting. That's how you should be afraid of your people, yes, what people. bully
        1. depressant
          depressant 31 January 2022 11: 55
          +1
          I can imagine how everything was lined with loyal snipers ...
          But on the other side...
          Here is the burning of the practically built "Agile" on the stocks ... And before that - the fires of warehouses in the port of St. Petersburg.
          You know, when "Agile" was on fire, I discovered the burning somewhere at half past 11 in the evening, or at half past 12 and rushed to the Internet. When the upper deck was just occupied, a box with plastic scraps was already on fire on the 3rd. Arson? Sabotage? So Peskarevka is justified? Or "Agile" in order for Peskarevka to be justified? And so much more was justified. So think whatever you want...
          I have big conclusions about the Great French Revolution, it’s not for nothing that I read Ryzhov. I will not load you now, I will do it a little later wassat )))
          But the preliminary conclusion is this. The people must be kept in such a black body that they are completely excluded as a political class. Hence all this military sabotage tension. Plus, it's legal. Unprecedented. Mouth opened to just say "Uh..." and you're already at fault. Vaughn, a colleague of the Tests (below), has already spoken in the language of Aesop. And if they don’t twist it yet, then they just give time to realize that it’s impossible to say "Uh ...". But when enough time has passed for everyone to realize it, the gags will push the individual unconscious. The people must not dangle underfoot and interfere with the reshaping of the internal alignment of political classes - the Official-State and the Capitalist.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 31 January 2022 12: 30
            +2
            People, you say? Ndaa! More and more speaks for the fact that we have .... the electorate.

            But in Canada, it seems that both citizens and people ... are available. bully
            Frame from the old, old film "Convoy". Remember? good
            1. depressant
              depressant 31 January 2022 13: 25
              +1
              "Convoy"?
              Did not see. I'll have to see)))
              But what should I see there?
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 31 January 2022 13: 36
                +2
                Ha, ha, ha, ha! laughing Dalnoboev protesters against police misconduct. Against arbitrariness! A good dynamic film. I recommend it.
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 31 January 2022 19: 46
              +1
              Honorary film. Watched it three times in the past.
              Hello, Sergey!
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 31 January 2022 19: 49
                +1
                Hello Anton! There is a cool clip on YouTube based on his motives. Performer? Oh, it’s spinning on the tongue, but! recourse
                Ricky Martin!!!Remembered!!! good
                You can also mention "White Stripe Fever". Wow, what trucks are there !!!
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 31 January 2022 19: 52
                  +1
                  Remember, send...
                  I hope not Shevchuk, on "Autoradio" ... laughing
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 31 January 2022 20: 09
                    0
                    I just found it and sent it. I hope you like it. There is also a native soundtrack from the film, but this clip ... will be more energetic. bully
              2. Phil77
                Phil77 31 January 2022 20: 12
                0
                Damn, Anton! Guilty !!!! This is Robbie Williams !!! I often confuse their devils. Sorry!
  16. Tests
    Tests 31 January 2022 00: 22
    +2
    depressant (Lyudmila Yakovlevna Kuznetsova), dear, either last Tuesday, or Wednesday, at lunchtime, magpies flew to the feeder, dispersing the titmouse, cracked: they say the breadwinner-drinker-shoe-dresser of the blue, after epilation, the bear, sent a letter grandfather for a great puddle, so that he puzzled his advisers and advisers and did not interfere, to sports games, at which the breadwinners-drinkers-shoes-dressers of a bear and a dragon, purely in a boyish way, will grind the bazaar and decide when the lured notaries, specifically, will draw up: one - to take the coal mines, and the other - a paradise island in the warm sea. Maybe the white-flanks crackled in vain, or maybe ...