Military Review

"Sheep" in a wolf's skin

42

In the previous article, I tried to talk about the freight locomotive of the Land of the Soviets, which "pulled out" all the hardships of the war.


The steam locomotive "Eshka" transported equipment and troops, took out the wounded and refugees to the rear, served as the workhorse of sanitary trains.

He did not get only one hypostasis.

He didn't fight. In the truest sense of the word.

"Sheep" in armor


Indeed, in addition to freight, passenger, fire and other trains, there were also armored trains. And their component is armored locomotives. Here the basis for those was a steam locomotive of another type.

"O" ("Main") is the first steam locomotive that became the main one in the locomotive fleet of Russian railways.

In the period from 1890 to 1915, more than 9 thousand locomotives of this series were manufactured at twelve steam locomotive plants, which made the steam locomotive "O" the most massive of the pre-revolutionary locomotives.


A steam locomotive with an axial formula 0–4–0 entered the railroad tracks a very long time ago, even by the standards of the young Soviet state.

On it, Russian engineers also worked out different options for steam distribution mechanisms and diameters of the main wheels. Hence the various names: Od, Ok, Ov, Ol, Op and Ou.

В history he entered under the beloved name "Sheep" - a derivative of the sub-series "Ov".

It was more often possible to meet this name in literature and films devoted more to the First World War and the Civil War (the same story "Gandja Armored Train").

As is already known, by the forties other “liters” came to the fore.

"Sheep" under the USSR was released in a small batch in the twenties in the amount of seventy-two pieces. Like shunting locomotives.

The fact is that even the very thinned "royal heritage" by that time began to be prepared for withdrawal from lines to maneuvers in depots and enterprises.

But the military did not discount this locomotive.

Back in the Civil "Sheep" served as the basis for various booking options, moreover, on both sides of the front line and in some newly-minted foreign states (such as Poland).

In 1924, the Red Army had one hundred and twenty-three armored locomotives.

True, by the beginning of 1930, only forty-two armored locomotives remained in the warehouses. But this does not mean that armored trains were abandoned. Just their composition and construction began to streamline.

So, in 1935, a project of the main pre-war armored train BP 35 appeared.

The exact data on the number vary somewhat, but there were at least 47 of them in light and heavy options.

But there were also armored trains of the NKVD, but there the numbers differ even more - the number varied due to the trophy trains.

The beginning of the Great Patriotic War turned out to be difficult for armored trains as well.

The tactics of the First World War turned out to be a failure - trains chained to the railway line became easy prey for anti-tank artillery, tanks и aviation.

There were successes, but there were also statistics - forty-two armored trains were lost in 1941!

True, with the outbreak of war, factories, workshops and depots began to build armored trains of the OB-3 type (lightweight third).

On October 29, 1941, the People's Commissariat of Defense of the USSR, by directive No. 22ss, signed by the People's Commissar of Defense I.V. Stalin, ordered the formation of 1942 armored train divisions of two armored trains by the end of 32.

The industry overfulfilled the plans and built 85 armored trains, 65 of which were of the OB-3 type.

Later, in the forty-third year, the production of the most advanced domestic armored train BP-43 began.

They also built "fortresses on wheels" without any blueprints in besieged Odessa, armored trains in Leningrad.



Why am I doing this?

Moreover, in 99 percent of cases, old men of the Ov type served as the basis for armored locomotives.

And not only because they were at hand in the depot or workshops.

The load from the driving axles of the Sheep was lower than that of modern machines, which made it possible to protect the locomotive with thicker iron.

During the war, OB-3s were covered with simple steel, at best, "culling" of the armor of steel mills, mostly what was at hand, twenty to thirty mm thick.

Well, the silhouette.

He was lower than his peers. So less noticeable. Harder to hit.

The memory of the Sheep is immortalized in six museums and eleven monuments, as well as on postage stamps. And in films: "The Barber of Siberia", "The Edge", "Anna Karenina" and others.

Author:
Photos used:
en.wikipedia.org odessitua.com
42 comments
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  1. avia12005
    avia12005 22 January 2022 05: 52
    +17
    And in the USSR, toys-steam locomotives were very popular. These real hard workers were given well-deserved honor

    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 January 2022 06: 19
      +23
      Today too. True, already for overgrown uncles like me, who have not played enough yet.

      Just started collecting. A gift from my girls for the New Year.
      1. avia12005
        avia12005 22 January 2022 06: 20
        +6
        Great job! Will there be smoke?
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 January 2022 06: 36
          +9
          Probably not, a wooden constructor. So - fire is contraindicated for such toys laughing hi
          1. avia12005
            avia12005 22 January 2022 07: 29
            +6
            You can make the so-called "cold steam". Previously, on Chinese steam locomotives in the 90s, oil was used for this purpose, which was heated using a battery and a heating element. wink
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        22 January 2022 06: 55
        +19
        Well, smoke can come out of it... Once... laughing And so, of course, these wooden constructors are interesting. Only very delicate ones.
        And I'm still trying to remember what kind of railway they gave me as a child ... I remember that a black engine and two green passenger cars. Ring and remote control. What was he like...?
        1. igor67
          igor67 22 January 2022 10: 57
          +7
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          Well, smoke can come out of it... Once... laughing And so, of course, these wooden constructors are interesting. Only very delicate ones.
          And I'm still trying to remember what kind of railway they gave me as a child ... I remember that a black engine and two green passenger cars. Ring and remote control. What was he like...?

          This is a railway from the GDR, I, or rather my wife, have such a 40-year-old toy
          1. vladcub
            vladcub 22 January 2022 20: 52
            +1
            As a child, I did not have such a miracle.
            When it appeared, it was no longer old enough, and sometimes you want to play.
            That would be a video: a man is in his seventies, and he plays railroad
          2. volodimer
            volodimer 23 January 2022 19: 11
            +2
            They gave me this happiness for 4 years, i.e. in 75. And in the advertisement there was also an oval road with a branch. There is a locomotive on it.


            Found pictures
            1. igor67
              igor67 23 January 2022 21: 06
              +3
              Quote: volodimer
              They gave me this happiness for 4 years, i.e. in 75. And in the advertisement there was also an oval road with a branch. There is a locomotive on it.


              Found pictures

              We have this set, it's been 40 years already,
        2. qQQQ
          qQQQ 23 January 2022 10: 31
          +2
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          What was he like...?

          Most likely Pico. They still have super for all ages and levels of railway.
      3. Avior
        Avior 22 January 2022 12: 53
        +3
        For uncles, a toy railway with trains looks like this :))

        I recommend trimming - dark and light beer in one glass :))
    2. Alien From
      Alien From 22 January 2022 12: 05
      +12
      As a child, I had a friend, the son of a diplomat. He had his own room, completely given over to the GDR railway, with all the infrastructure, double-decker cars, locomotives and steam locomotives. For a Soviet child, it's like Disneyland. We played this game all day long. Recently I looked at how much this thing costs now and was stunned ........ wassat Thank you leader, interesting writes hi
      1. Monar
        Monar 23 January 2022 04: 01
        +3
        I read a long time ago. I don't remember the details. In Europe, they imposed a penance on one priest for such a penance. Indeed, he went further. The whole apartment for this case. With arched tunnels between rooms. winked
    3. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 22 January 2022 12: 23
      +6
      And there were wonderful articles on VO where they described a "duel" between Soviet and Nazi armored trains.
      It is read with interest, but as it is short.
      And thanks a lot anyway.
  2. cat-begemot
    cat-begemot 22 January 2022 06: 09
    +8
    Interesting, but too general and short.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 January 2022 06: 23
      +12
      Quote: kot-begemot
      Interesting, but too general and short.

      I agree. In the color of what I would like to offer Igor, they are not afraid to give performance characteristics and the history of the creation of steam locomotives. Climbing directories or the Internet is much less interesting than reading in one fell swoop!
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        22 January 2022 06: 51
        +18
        Thanks for the kind words, but here, in general, the story happened - I printed half of the article and suddenly it turns out that some keys refuse to work for me !!! You understand - shock! Right - I added it "in haste", with an addition to the moderators to correct my "replacements". Corrected, but directly stated - for the first and last time!
        So, as usual, I thank the commentators and ask you to take into account the circumstances)))
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 22 January 2022 16: 57
          0
          Igor, hello and thanks! smile
          There are things in the article about which I have never heard anything, but still, I would like to turn it around.
          I have a keyboard on metal levers, a completely non-lethal thing, buy yourself the same one - it won’t let you down. smile
        2. Saxahorse
          Saxahorse 22 January 2022 18: 08
          +1
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          printed half of the article and suddenly it turns out that some keys refuse to work for me !!!

          Bad dancer .. Remember yourself what's next. The keyboard and mouse is the cheapest computer component. It's a shame to refer to such problems!

          Thank you very much for the article though! I really liked the steam locomotive series.
    2. alex neym_2
      alex neym_2 22 January 2022 06: 29
      +5
      It won't be enough! It looks like it's in a hurry...
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 January 2022 06: 47
        +5
        Quote: aleks neym_2
        It won't be enough! It looks like it's in a hurry...

        No, not soon - this is the "style" of the Author. Someone likes it, I personally would like it to be "wider".
  3. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 22 January 2022 06: 12
    +6
    Thanks to the author for an informative article. The data is little known. There is some literature about armored trains, but there is absolutely not enough information about traction.
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 22 January 2022 06: 57
    +8
    And also toy railways, and even with a train, the dream of children probably almost all over the world. Steam locomotives are certainly a confusing thing. The cruising range is approximately 50-80 km with a full refueling. Coal 10-30 tons depending on the model, and water 10-30 tons. The locomotive was not turned off, there is always a fire in the furnace, it takes 6-10 hours to fire up the locomotive. Silenced only during scheduled maintenance, once a month. moreover, coal was often loaded into the steam locomotive manually, a flyover was made and coal was dragged into the tender in wheelbarrows or bags. I didn't want to be a railroad worker at that time.
    1. Serg koma
      Serg koma 22 January 2022 23: 19
      +3
      Quote: Free Wind
      I would not like to be a railroad worker at that time

      At first my father was a stoker, then an assistant driver on Ov, somehow he didn’t remember the difficulties, but he always spoke about the Sheep with warmth.
      Original oilers are used in the design of this locomotive. If the driver's assistant forgot to close them, then when the regulator was opened, that is, when steam was supplied to the machine, the oil from them was knocked out with terrible force right into the booth of the locomotive crew! And the one in the full composition of 3 people: the driver, assistant and the stoker became similar to Black Negreat.
  5. sergo1914
    sergo1914 22 January 2022 08: 59
    +5
    Losses of armored trains were large due to inability. After 43 they were used for counter-battery combat and patrolling. Losses dropped sharply. And before that, they rolled out to the position and fired until the appearance of German aviation.
    1. faiver
      faiver 22 January 2022 09: 15
      +4
      The losses of armored trains were large due to the inability
      - so not only armored trains, but all types of troops ...
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 22 January 2022 21: 00
        0
        "of all types of troops", to be sure - "study" is rewarded with a high price. How much extra blood was shed, but the "lesson" was learned at 5. Berlin 1945 is evidence of this
    2. Vovk
      Vovk 22 January 2022 11: 30
      +6
      Losses of armored trains were large due to inability. After 43 they were used for counter-battery combat and patrolling.

      Here on the site there were a number of articles about armored trains and they always indicated that after 1943 armored trains were in most cases used as mobile air defense platforms to cover large railway junctions.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 22 January 2022 11: 32
    +8
    He went down in history under the beloved name "Sheep" - a derivative of the sub-series "Ov".

    "Joyki" (Od) were offended.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 22 January 2022 16: 54
      +4
      Victor, did you mean these?
      STEAM LOCOMOTIVES WITH JOY'S STEAM DISTRIBUTION MECHANISM
      STEAM LOCOMOTIVES OF TYPES 39 AND 40 OF THE KOLOMENSKOYE PLANT
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 22 January 2022 18: 56
        +5
        The Type 39 and Type 40 steam locomotives are from 1890. Aude steam locomotives, which were nicknamed "joyks" - this is 1897. But the name Od and the nickname "Joyka" he received in 1912. All the steam locomotives mentioned had Joy's rocker mechanism.
  7. Yurahip
    Yurahip 22 January 2022 18: 35
    +2
    I still don't understand what the article is about. Like about Ov.
  8. vladcub
    vladcub 22 January 2022 20: 41
    0
    "Armored train Ganja" I don't remember this at all
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      22 January 2022 23: 22
      +4
      "Detlit", if I'm not mistaken. There is little historical value, but it was interesting for a teenager to read.
      1. Freeman
        Freeman 23 January 2022 12: 25
        +2
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        "Detlit", if I'm not mistaken. There is little historical value, but it was interesting for a teenager to read.

        Here is another one by the same author. About the armored train "Red Warrior".
        But this book is for younger students.
  9. vladcub
    vladcub 22 January 2022 21: 13
    +1
    Comrades, the "leader" did not push me to the question: where did the Germans have so many steam locomotives? During the retreat, all rolling stock was destroyed or driven to the rear.
    I see only one option: they used a captured steam locomotive from Europe, they rearranged their wheelset and forward
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      22 January 2022 23: 21
      +2
      I will try in the next article (with my broken computer) to tell in the next article.
      1. Avior
        Avior 23 January 2022 02: 17
        +4
        If one or two buttons are broken, if necessary, you can
        1. copy-paste from another text
        2. Put it on a spell checker - it will correct mistakes.
        Looking forward to more articles! :)
  10. RoTTor
    RoTTor 23 January 2022 01: 09
    +3
    It turned out that in our time, armored trains came in handy.
    What is the locomotive in the Russian armored trains that are in service?

    Are there any prospects for the use of armored trains to cover, including air defense, combat missile railway systems, which, most likely, will be revived again after their useless liquidation in the 90s?
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      23 January 2022 11: 06
      +2
      The last time I heard about an armored train was in 2014. The media described a "self-made" armored train converted from boxcars. It, if I am not mistaken, was bombed by the aircraft of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
      Before that, I was surprised by the story of a work colleague - he served as a tanker in the Far East and participated in the depreservation of an armored train for transfer to internal troops in Karabakh (this was somewhere at the turn of the 80-90s).
      And there, and there were already involved diesel locomotives.
    2. Aag
      Aag 23 January 2022 14: 12
      +3
      Quote: RoTTor
      It turned out that in our time, armored trains came in handy.
      What is the locomotive in the Russian armored trains that are in service?

      Are there any prospects for the use of armored trains to cover, including air defense, combat missile railway systems, which, most likely, will be revived again after their useless liquidation in the 90s?

      I heard the last mention of armored trains from a friend of mine - he from Chita to the Caucasus, two pieces, from storage, were distilled to the Chechen ...