Military Review

Marshal Bessieres. From the triumph of Austerlitz to death near Rippach

97
Marshal Bessieres. From the triumph of Austerlitz to death near Rippach
Statue of Marshal Bessières on Rue Rivoli, facade of the Louvre


В previous article we talked about the youth of Jean-Baptiste Bessières, his family, the military service of the French Republic, thanks to which he became one of the first marshals of Bonaparte. Today we will continue and finish this story.

Combat campaigns 1805-1807


During the War III of the Coalition, Bessier's Guards Cavalry participated in the operation to encircle the Austrian troops near Ulm. In the Battle of Austerlitz, Bessieres' cavalry and General d'Hautpoule's cuirassiers fought the Russian guards.

At first, the Life Guards Horse and Hussar regiments of the Russian army, reinforced with horse guard batteries, counterattacked the French and achieved some success. But then 2 squadrons of rangers of the cavalry guards and a company of Mamelukes under the command of General Rapp overturned them, and then they cut into the square of the battalion of the Semenovsky regiment, capturing an artillery battery. The rest of this regiment, as well as Preobrazhensky, began to retreat. After that, the elite Cavalier Guard Regiment entered the battle, in which the children of aristocrats and the Cossack Guards Regiment served. The cavalry guards, which L. Tolstoy in the novel "War and Peace" called "rich handsome men on thousandth horses”, until then they had never been in battle, and the French clearly showed them how easy and pleasant service at court differs from the real military one. At first, they were attacked by two squadrons of horse rangers and a squadron of horse grenadiers, and then they were hit by 4 squadrons under the command of Marshal Bessieres himself. The surviving cavalry guards later recalled with horror their battle cry for a long time (they knew French better than Russian, and understood everything perfectly):

"Let's make the St. Petersburg ladies cry!"

The attitude of Russian aristocrats to this campaign is evidenced by the fact that the wives of many of them were ... in the army train - such a pleasure trip to the war with the "Antichrist-Bonaparte". The wife of Prince Nikolai Repnin, commander of the 4th squadron of cavalry guards, who was captured, was among these "tourists". She soon arrived at Melk Abbey, where her wounded husband was comfortably accommodated. The wounded rank and file of the Russian army, of course, did not even dream of such treatment by the victors.

In the fleeting campaign against Prussia in 1806, Bessieres led the II Corps of the reserve cavalry, took part in the battles of Jena and Helsberg.


In a painting by Patrick Courcelle and Jacques Girbal, we see Marshal Bessieres meeting Napoleon in Berlin

In 1807, Bessières distinguished himself at the Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, where, together with Murat, he took part in a brilliant cavalry attack on the center of the Russian positions, which saved the French from defeat. In this battle near Bessieres, two horses were killed.


E. Meissonier. Equestrian portrait of Marshal Bessières

Bessieres also participated in the decisive battle at Friedland.

Bessieres in Spain


After the conclusion of the Tilsit Peace, Napoleon unexpectedly sent Bessieres as an ambassador to Württemberg in August 1807. However, the marshal did not stay in diplomatic work. Already in 1808, Bessieres was sent to Spain, where soon he, at the head of the II Corps numbering 12 thousand people, managed to defeat the 24 thousandth Spanish army of General Cuesta (battle of Medina del Rio Seco). Satisfied Bonaparte wrote about this victory, which opened the way to Madrid:

"Bessières elevated my brother Joseph to the throne of Spain."

In May 1809, Bessières received the title of Duke of Istria.

However, the victory at Medina del Rio Seco was the only success of Marshal Bessieres in Spain. In early 1809, he was removed from office by the emperor. He handed over his corps to Soult, and he himself became commander of the reserve cavalry of the French army.

War with Austria


The cruel and bloody Pyrenean War forced Napoleon to constantly keep significant forces in Spain. Contemporaries even said that Bonaparte now "can only fight with one hand". The Austrians decided to take advantage of this circumstance, who counted on the fact that their first successes would cause an uprising in the German regions controlled by Napoleon. They also counted on a solid monetary subsidy from England and tried to drag Russia into this war. In France, this activity did not go unnoticed. In January 1809, Napoleon arrived from Spain in Paris and also began preparations for a possible war. In relation to Russia, he traditionally demonstrated peacefulness, trying in every possible way to explain to Alexander I that there were no deep contradictions between their empires, just as there was no reason for a new war. He took a completely different position in relation to Austria:

“She wants a slap; I will give her two - one on each cheek, and you will see how she will thank me and ask me for further orders.

According to the 10th paragraph of the agreement concluded in Erfurt, Russia was obliged to support France in her war with Austria. However, trying to maintain good relations with Alexander I, Napoleon did not put pressure on him and did not demand decisive action. He agreed to any, even symbolic, help, leaving the Russian emperor the right to choose military means - if only Russia would not get into a fight with him again - for English money and Austrian interests. Alexander hesitated and acted in his own style, which Pushkin wrote about, calling this emperor "weak and cunning". The tsar assured the French ambassador Caulaincourt of Russia's readiness to fulfill allied obligations. He promised the Austrian envoy Schwarzenberg "take all measures to ensure that Austria is not struck" (this general will return to military service 2 days before the Battle of Wagram).

Napoleon prepared for a new war very seriously. The cavalry units of Generals Montbrun and Lassalle, as well as Lannes and Lefebvre, who spoke German well, were withdrawn from Spain. Davout was supposed to assemble a 45-strong army from the French units quartered in Germany and bring it to Bamberg. The disgraced General MacDonald was sent to Italy to Eugene Beauharnais, who took on the role of the guardian of Bonaparte's stepson. Massena went to Augsburg, where Oudinot's corps was supposed to connect with the Badens. Bernadotte, who led the Saxon troops, was located near the borders of Bohemia. The Polish troops of Jozef Poniatowski (about 18 thousand people) were concentrated near Galicia. But Bonaparte, in his absence, entrusted the supreme command to his chief of staff - Berthier, who had no experience in commanding large armies, and did not at all seek such experience. The great general staff officer made a number of mistakes and quarreled with Marshal Davout, who was trying to correct them, for which he later received a reprimand from the emperor.

The Austrians fielded three armies totaling 310 men. The German army (the largest of the three) was commanded by Archduke Karl. The Italian was led by Archduke John, this army was divided into two parts: the first, under the leadership of Elachich, took up positions in Tyrol, the second, commanded by Giulai, operated in Dalmatia. Archduke Ferdinand became the commander of the smallest - the Galician army. Military operations were started by the German army, which entered Bavaria on April 10, 1809 - and was defeated in the so-called Five-Day Campaign, which included battles at Tengen, Abensberg, Landsgut, Eckmuhl and Regensburg. Interestingly, in the battle for Regensburg, Bonaparte himself was wounded in the leg, and generals Marbo and Labedwier, who personally led the assault, were among the first to climb the walls of the fortress. Having lost 40 thousand people, Archduke Karl still managed to retreat in an organized manner, saving his army, but Bessière's cavalrymen rushed to Vienna. They approached her on May 10, 1809, on May 13 the city capitulated.


Storming of Vienna 10 May 1809, XNUMXth-century French colorized engraving National Library, Paris

Only three days later, the army of Archduke Karl came to the capital.

This was followed by the tragic battle of Essling-Aspern, in which Massena and Lanna, who had crossed to the other side of the corps, were left alone in the face of the entire Austrian army as a result of the collapse of the pontoon bridge. Here Marshal Lannes was mortally wounded, and again Massena showed himself from the best side. This has been covered in previous articles. I will only add that at that time hostility between Bessières and Lannes was clearly manifested, and it almost came to a duel between them. The instigator of the quarrel was Lannes, who hated Bessieres (after his report to Bonaparte about the shortage of guard units in the box office), who, according to Marbo, wanting to provoke his opponent, sent an adjutant to him with the order:

"Tell Marshal Bessières that I order him to attack decisively!"

Bessières was indignant and took out his anger on the innocent envoy.

Then Lannes, at a meeting with Bessières, rudely declared:

"I find it too bold of you to chastise one of my adjutants!"

Further, according to Marbo, the following dialogue took place:

“Know,” cried Lannes, “that in the army they do not listen, but follow orders!” If the idea came to the emperor to make you my commander, I would immediately resign, but as long as I am your commander, I will give you orders, and you will carry them out. Otherwise, I will remove you from command of the troops. As for a decisive attack, I gave you this order because you did not do it - since the morning you have been prancing in front of the enemy, and not really attacking!
"But that's an insult!" Bessieres exclaimed angrily, “you will answer me for this!”
“Right now, if you like,” Lannes replied, taking up his sword.

Massena had to separate the marshals.

During this battle, Bessières and his adjutant were surrounded by Austrian lancers, but they were rescued by Lassalle's cavalrymen.

Meanwhile, MacDonald and Eugene Beauharnais approached Vienna with fighting. Here MacDonald will receive a marshal's baton - immediately after the Battle of Wagram. During this battle, another scandal occurred due to the refusal of General Walter, subordinate to Bessieres, to support the attack of General MacDonald's corps. Walter motivated his refusal by the lack of orders from Bessieres, who at that time was shell-shocked. It is said that many of Bessier's subordinates then wept, thinking that the marshal had died. Napoleon then said about this:

"Here is the core that made my guard cry."


Horace Vernet. Napoleon a Wagram. Here we see a shell-shocked Bessière - lying behind Napoleon (he can be immediately recognized by his powdered hair)

The army of Archduke Ferdinand at that time entered Poland and occupied Warsaw. Jozef Poniatowski retreated, but not to the west, but to the east - to Galicia, where the anti-Austrian uprising began. The Russian army of General S. F. Golitsyn, allied to Napoleon and, consequently, to Poniatowski, also acted against the Austrians.


S. F. Golitsyn in a portrait by an unknown artist, 1791, Museum-Reserve "Dmitrovsky Kremlin"

Golitsyn got along well with the Austrians, who retreated as soon as they saw the Russian troops in front of them. During the entire campaign, the Russians lost three people killed, five wounded, three people were captured (this military clash happened by mistake, when at night the Austrians, without understanding, mistook the Russians for the Poles). 41 Austrians ended up in Russian captivity. But with the Polish allies, relations with Golitsyn's subordinates, on the contrary, were extremely tense, and several times it almost came to hand-to-hand combat. In addition, the Poles captured the courier Golitsyn (I wonder on what basis?), who found a very kind and even friendly letter to the Austrian commander. The letter was sent to Bonaparte, who received further proof of Alexander's insincerity and unreliability as an ally.

In the end, the Austrians were forced to withdraw from Poland. And Russia, without making practically any effort for this, only thanks to an alliance with Napoleon, received the Tarnopol district with a population of 400 thousand people: until then, our country had never acquired territories with such minimal effort. Most of the population here at that time was hostile to both the Austrians and the Poles, and was distinguished by pro-Moscow views. Later, Alexander I, it is not clear why, exchanged these lands for Polish ones alien to Russia.

Return to the Pyrenees


In January 1811, Bessières was appointed commander of the Army of Northern Spain, which operated from Asturias to Navarre, and was also supposed to support Massena's Portuguese army.

On May 5, 1811, Massena at Fuentes de Onoro entered the battle with Wellington's troops and greatly pressed them. Victory was close when he ordered a decisive blow to Bessieres's subordinate, General Lepic. You can learn about what happened next from the memoirs of Massena's adjutant - A. Marbo (who will become a marshal in 1831 - under Louis Philippe):

“At this time, Massena, wanting to consolidate the victory, sent an adjutant to General Lepic, who was in reserve with the guards cavalry, with the order to attack. But the brave Lepic, biting the blade of his saber in despair, answered with pain that his immediate superior, Marshal Bessieres, had categorically forbidden him to let his units go into battle without his own order ... Immediately ten adjutants were sent in different directions in search of Bessieres, but he , who for several days relentlessly followed Massena, disappeared, of course, not out of cowardice - he was a very brave man - but out of calculation or envy of his comrade. Without thinking at all about the highest interests of France, he did not want to send a single one of his soldiers to ensure a victory, the glory of which would go to Massena.

«To win, I need more troops and fewer Bessiers", - Massena himself bitterly commented on this situation, for whom this battle was the last in his life.

1812 Campaign


In 1812, Bessières commanded the cavalry of the Guards. He offered Napoleon to stop at Smolensk. In the battle of Borodino, Ney, Davout and Murat begged the emperor to send the guards into battle, vouching that the Russian front would be broken through. There are different versions of the phrase that Bessières said then to Bonaparte, including this one:

“The whole of Europe stretches between us and France, it is necessary to save at least this handful of soldiers that can be counted on.”

Many participants in the Battle of Borodino from the French side did not forgive Bessieres for these words. But most modern historians, on the contrary, consider this advice reasonable and say that he may have saved the emperor during his retreat from Russia. R. Delderfield, for example, writes:

“If there was no guard that could unite everyone else around itself, no one would have returned from Russia. Napoleon's career and Imperial France would have died out like a candle at the end of December 1812."

After the Battle of Maloyaroslavets, Murat asked for guards units, promising to open the road to Kaluga for the Great Army. Bessières answered him:

“For such an enterprise, the army, even the guards, will not have the courage ... We have just become convinced of the insufficiency of our forces. What enemy will we have to fight? Didn’t we see the field of the last battle, didn’t we notice the fury with which the Russian militias, barely armed and uniformed, went to certain death?

Segur writes that Bessieres advocated a retreat - and was the first to utter this word. And Napoleon's offer to Bessieresas if approved by his silence».

The death of Bessieres


In 1813 Bessières was haunted by bad premonitions. On May 1, his troops were preparing for the battle at Weissenfels. Marshal was in a gloomy mood. He burned his wife's letters, which he had carefully kept until then, had breakfast reluctantly, saying to the adjutants:

"If the core is to take my life this morning, I don't want it to happen on an empty stomach."

It was the core that he was killed a few hours later. It happened during a reconnaissance near the village of Rippah.


Jan Zhelinsky. Marshal Bessières with escort officers, 1813

A random core tore off the marshal's left arm and pierced the torso.


Memorial sign at the place of death of Marshal Bessieres

Bessières became the second marshal to die on the battlefield, and his death made a depressing impression on all the soldiers and officers of the French army. At the same time, Marbo claims that Bonaparte was saddened most of all, who, having learned about the death of his marshal, said:

"Bessières lived like Bayard and died like Turenne."

He wrote to his widow:

“My cousin, your husband died on the field of honor. The loss that has befallen you and your child is undoubtedly enormous, but for me it is even more irreparable. The Duke of Istria died a beautiful death and without torment. He left an unsullied reputation and this is the best legacy that he bequeathed to his son. I take him under my protection. My affection, which I felt for his father, will also pass to him. Try to find comfort in these assurances of mine and never doubt my good feelings towards you.

Michel Ney, saying goodbye to the body of Bessieres, said:

“This is our destiny. It's a beautiful death."

Alas, he himself was not destined to die in his last battle at Waterloo - even though he was looking for death in him.

As we already know, Bonaparte paid Bessières' debts. Later, the Emperor of Austria Franz I appointed the marshal's widow an annual annuity of 20 thousand francs as compensation for the duchy of Istria lost to her (and ceded to the House of Habsburg).

Bessières' body was buried in the Les Invalides in Paris, and his heart was buried in his hometown of Pressac, where a monument to his fellow countryman was erected by the townspeople.


Prayssac. Monument au marechal d'Empire Jean-Baptiste Bessieres, duc d'Istrie
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  1. Catfish
    Catfish 25 January 2022 06: 38
    +7
    The cavalry guards ... and the French clearly showed them how easy and pleasant service at court differs from the real military one.


    That's for sure, just like in the song it is sung - "The age of the cavalry guard is short,,," (c)
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 25 January 2022 07: 25
    +9
    In the Battle of Austerlitz, Bessieres' cavalry and General d'Hautpoule's cuirassiers fought the Russian guards.

    The cavalry guards, whom L. Tolstoy in the novel “War and Peace” called “rich handsome men on thousands of horses”, had never been in battle until then, and the French clearly showed them how easy and pleasant service at court differs from the real military one. At first, they were attacked by two squadrons of horse rangers and a squadron of horse grenadiers, and then they were hit by 4 squadrons under the command of Marshal Bessieres himself. The surviving cavalry guards then for a long time horror remembered their battle cry
    What an undeserved and false insult heroes: here is the assessment of Napoleon himself after the battle, which he said to the wounded squadron commander Repnin:
    The Emperor noted the heroism with which the regiment foughtto which Repnin replied:

    - The praise of a great commander is the best reward for a soldier

    - I'm happy to give it to you!
    The cavalry guards were brought into battle at the most disadvantageous moment for them, when the defeat of the Russian column, in fact, already took place and the vaunted Semenov and Preobrazhensky regiments were simply cut out by the French and, in fact, the Narva version remained for them.

    It was the attack of the cavalry guards who rushed to rescue their comrades that saved them:
    The first three squadrons of cavalry guards, led by the commander of the regiment, Major General Depreradovich 2nd, crossed the stream on the move and rushed to the aid of their comrades. The arrows of the 94th and 95th line regiments were the first to be hit by the cavalrymen, who fired accurately at the Russian ranks. The French were swept away and scattered under the hooves of the cavalry guard horses, which allowed the Preobrazhensky to cross to the left bank of the stream in relative order.

    As the French general Philippe-Paul de Segur later wrote:
    "Two Vandamme battalions were overturned instantly. One of them, having lost his standard with an eagle and most of his weapons, could only run away at full speed. This battalion, belonging to the 4th linear regiment, rushed past us and Napoleon himself - our attempts to stop them were in vain. The unfortunate guys were beside themselves with fear and did not hear anything; in response to our reproaches that they were abandoning the battlefield and their emperor, they only mechanically shouted: "Long live the emperor!" and fled even faster "

    However, the Semyonovsky regiment was threatened with complete defeat.

    At that moment, the remaining two squadrons of cavalry guards crossed the stream and approached the Semyonovites at a trot. The horsemen rushed at the French, who were determined to take the banners of one of the oldest regiments of the Russian army! A skirmish began, in which the Russian cavalrymen began to gain the upper hand - the enemy was tired of the fight and disorganized, but the guards horse rangers and horse grenadiers rushed to the rescue - French cavalry elite led by the famous Marshal Bessieres. Now already seven squadrons of the French fell on two cavalry guards, to whose aid two more rushed to help the Preobrazhenians. The French forces were much larger and Repnin's squadron was almost completely killed, but the Russian task fulfilled: Preobrazhensky and Semenovsky regiments were saved and, retreating, took up new positions (c)

    The cavalry guards covered themselves with glory. And the lower ranks there were not at all the husbands of St. Petersburg ladies ....
    1. VLR
      25 January 2022 07: 44
      +10
      I represent the sources of these quotes, but they belong to Russian authors, who, naturally, tried to somehow smooth out the bitterness of a terrible defeat and find at least something positive in the actions of the Russian army. But even there there are thoughts about the St. Petersburg Guards as a "colossus with feet of clay" and conclusions about the poor preparation of the cavalry guards units, and at all levels - both commanders and privates. It’s also to Paul I that I need to say thanks that he “pulled up” these “rich men on thousands of horses”, who, instead of serving at balls and secular receptions, at least a little bit militarily. But under Alexander, who came to power under the slogan "everything will be like under my grandmother," they blabbed again. A whole era of the Napoleonic wars was needed for Alexander to understand: you can’t win big wars with such a guard. And it is necessary, indeed, to force its soldiers and officers, even though they are the sons of the "best families of Russia", to really serve.
      1. sivuch
        sivuch 25 January 2022 09: 55
        +5
        I present the sources of these quotes, but they belong to Russian authors,
        As the French general Philippe-Paul de Segur later wrote:
        That is, Segur is a Russian author?
        1. VLR
          25 January 2022 10: 06
          +7
          Russian authors chose the quotations they needed and omitted the unnecessary ones. Just as they did and do to justify their point of view, English, French, German, etc. authors.
          1. Dart2027
            Dart2027 25 January 2022 19: 25
            -2
            Quote: VlR
            Russian authors chose the quotations they needed and omitted the unnecessary ones.

            Then bring, please, "these" unnecessary ". Even from what is written in the article, it is clear that they fought with significantly superior forces.
          2. burigaz2010
            burigaz2010 25 January 2022 22: 01
            0
            That is, you can not answer! Colleague at the top wrote better
            Valery, well
            1. VLR
              26 January 2022 09: 34
              +3
              But for some reason the French do not write about their numerical superiority. On the contrary, they argue that each of the two waves of attacks by the French cavalry (first, horse rangers and Mamelukes against 10 Russian squadrons, then Bessières' horse grenadiers) was carried out in the minority (there were more French in total). Coignet, a participant in the battle, calls the Russian cavalry guards "giants who showed determination in battle." And Napoleon says of them that he had never seen "such a beautiful and senseless attack." Even many Russian memoirists called the attack of the cavalry guards suicidal. Nobody denies their courage, including the French. But the attack was organized and carried out ugly. The guards hussars were criticized for going forward alone, without support, and, as they say, "some into the forest, some for firewood" - disorganized. They themselves climbed into the "fire bag" and were easily dispersed. And the Life Guards Cavalry Regiment met the attack of the horse rangers, inferior to it in numbers, standing still - and was literally dispersed by them.
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 25 January 2022 10: 05
        0
        Quote: VlR
        I present the sources of these quotes, but they belong to Russian authors

        Segur is already ... a Russian author? belay

        Then the bottom line: the horse guards, having entered into an already lost battle, completed the task (rescued the Preobrazhenians and Semenovites), inflicting losses on the French comparable to their own.

        Which was confirmed by the awarding of the cavalry guards with St. George's crosses, golden weapons for bravery and other orders.
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 25 January 2022 10: 22
      +3
      Olgovich, now I agree with you. I doubt that an aristocrat would be an ordinary in a cavalry guard regiment.
      Although, at the very beginning, when Peter 1 formed a squadron for the honorary escort of Martha Skavronskaya, there could be aristocrats
      1. VLR
        25 January 2022 10: 36
        +10
        Until 1800, all cavalry guards were noblemen. Under Elizabeth, ordinary cavalry guards had army ranks from lieutenant to second major. Then - from ensign to lieutenant. Moreover, these ordinary lieutenants, who carried guards in the interior of the palace under Catherine II, were by no means small-scale nobles - the same undersized aristocratic families, whose parents came here for bribes or "through connections"
        attached. Since 1804, the most "impressive" and representative non-commissioned officers began to be taken to the rank and file. In 1805, the personnel were mainly aristocratic.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 11: 48
          +4
          Until 1800, all cavalry guards were noblemen.

          Valery, a question about the then officers. EMNIP, did receiving an officer's rank already give personal nobility? hi
          But here is what the authors write in the book "To the glory of the Russian Fatherland", 1984, "Thought".
          Link to this page:
          http://bibliotekar.ru/otechestvo-1/3.htm

          In his well-known note “Thought”, P. A. Rumyantsev, referring to the question of the right of officers to resign, quite definitely writes about persons “who have received the ranks of chief and non-commissioned officers from the recruit”, that “these are subject to the general definition of the resignation of commoners” . Obviously, Rumyantsev would not mention the "common people" who have senior officer ranks, if their percentage was very small. In 1798, Paul I dismissed all officers of non-noble origin from the army and categorically forbade the chiefs of regiments to submit non-commissioned officers not from the nobility for production as officers. Only after this did the officer corps become purely noble.

          Was it later cancelled? I mean, non-commissioned officers could also earn rank again?
          Also - pay attention to the opinion of Rumyantsev (indicated in the Soviet book! So that later no one would accuse me of slander). Despite all the talent and merit, and the commander’s thinking was: "Nobles - separately, commoners - separately." Even retired! stop
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. VLR
            25 January 2022 12: 12
            +6
            As far as I remember, Pavel wanted to limit the production of non-commissioned officers who had served their term. He probably thought that he needed more compelling reasons. The assignment of an officer's rank gave the right at first to personal nobility, and upon reaching the rank, first a major, and then a colonel - hereditary.
            1. know
              know 25 January 2022 12: 22
              +4
              I did not want to answer before the author. In the painting "Major's Matchmaking", this is exactly what contemporaries perceived as a satire on conceited merchants who want to intermarry with a newly-made hereditary nobleman, and a greedy officer who marries a merchant's daughter only because of a dowry. And marriages with captains and lieutenants who had only personal nobility were not "quoted" among the merchants. Real aristocratic nobles, after all, were not related to merchants - "damage to honor." Even with the first generation of those merchant families that themselves received the nobility. Only - with the second or third generation, and even then, they believed that they had done good for the coffin of life.
            2. Sertorius
              Sertorius 26 January 2022 14: 45
              0
              "The assignment of an officer's rank gave the right at first to personal nobility, and upon reaching the rank, first a major, and then a colonel - hereditary"
              Valery! Well, what are you!
              Nicholas I made these changes to the Table of Ranks. Under Alexander, the officer rank gave the rights of hereditary nobility!
          3. Ryazan87
            Ryazan87 25 January 2022 12: 24
            +2
            Yes.
            "... Of the lower ranks, only junkers who had served for three years had the right to be promoted to officers of the guard, and non-commissioned officers and not from the nobility, but who had served as non-commissioned officers for 12 years and were known for good abilities and exemplary behavior, had the right to be promoted to army officers ."
            1. know
              know 25 January 2022 13: 00
              +3
              It suddenly came to mind:
              What an interesting analogy:
              in May 1783, an edict was issued in France prohibiting the production of non-nobles as officers. It seems that Massena suffered because of him. I wonder how many French sergeant majors, because of this order, after the revolution, joined the new army and received officer ranks in it?
          4. vladcub
            vladcub 25 January 2022 12: 25
            +3
            "dismissed all officers of non-noble origin from the army" Valery will say that the Catherine's nobles fooled Pavel. Pavel himself is a good boy. Shutka
            Seriously, Pavel was smart and it was not very easy to fool him
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 13: 11
              +3
              Pavel himself is a good boy. Shutka
              Seriously, Pavel was smart and it was not very easy to fool him

              Even if Rumyantsev wanted to remove non-nobles from the officer corps, then this meant something, and by no means class prejudices ... what
              Although they also had a place to be. Let me explain.
              Upon Paul's accession to the throne, he poured his Gatchina army into the guards.

              The reaction to this step is a relatively truthful person, Nikolai Sablukov. He at that time served in the Horse Guards, and wrote the following in his memoirs: “We all returned home, having received strict orders not to leave our barracks, and soon after the new arrivals from the Gatchina garrison were introduced to us. But what kind of officers were they! What strange faces! What manners! And how strangely they spoke! They were mostly Little Russians. It is easy to imagine the impression that these rude Bourbons made on a society of one hundred and thirty-two officers, belonging to the best families of the Russian nobility».
              Namely, at the end of 1796, 3 staff officers, 20 chief officers and 119 lower ranks entered the Horse Guards from the Gendarme and Dragoon regiments of the Gatchina troops.
              As we can see, Catherine’s nobility (who not only served but wandered around balls and theaters in civilian clothes) did not consider small local Little Russians and Serbs to be equals! request
              1. vladcub
                vladcub 25 January 2022 14: 56
                +2
                Recall: "The Captain's Daughter": Grinev was enrolled in the guard from birth when his dad "put a pig" on him
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 14: 59
                  +1
                  Grinev was enlisted in the guard from birth when his father "put a pig" on him

                  Svyatoslav, EMNIP, Grinev was a sergeant? But he no longer relied on a halberd!
                  In 1732, the halberds for fourier and sergeants became uniform, and officers were ordered to replace the espantons with rifles. But already in 1734 non-commissioned officer halberds were canceled altogether.
                  Status weapons are another interesting topic for me. Well, you know.

                  Colleagues, explain to me the following - what did Potemkin manage to do in our army (in terms of uniforms)? A new uniform and the abolition of letters? hi
                  1. vladcub
                    vladcub 25 January 2022 17: 21
                    +2
                    Let's ask V. Oh, let him tell you out of turn
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 17: 30
                      0
                      Let's ask V. Oh, let him tell you out of turn

                      Or we will leaf through Viskovatov! By the way, on the "universe" I downloaded a file of his "Descriptions ..." of the late 19th - early 20th century.
                      1. vladcub
                        vladcub 25 January 2022 17: 38
                        +2
                        Also an option. Got clear pictures
                      2. Pane Kohanku
                        Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 17: 45
                        +1
                        Also an option. Got clear pictures

                        Look at the site of the reenactors - "reenactor.ru"
                        http://reenactor.ru/

                        Come in. Click "forum".
                        http://www.reenactor.ru/index.php?s=9bbb1cdfb7e8bc4cb06c5e2e9a76aa68&act=idx

                        Scroll down to the "Archive" section.
                        And then there is literature. Which can be freely downloaded. Books and magazines. Klondike! yes
                        For example, these paintings by Mettenleiter, depicting the Pavlovian troops, I could find right there!






                        I was very pleased with the materials of scientific conferences of the Artillery Museum. Once again - Klondike! drinks
                      3. vladcub
                        vladcub 26 January 2022 07: 29
                        +1
                        I need to visit
        2. Ryazan87
          Ryazan87 25 January 2022 12: 23
          +2
          Since 1804, the most "impressive" and representative non-commissioned officers began to be taken to the rank and file. In 1805, the personnel were mainly aristocratic.

          This is not true. Do not confuse the cavalry guard corps and the cavalry guard regiment (since 1800). In essence, it became an ordinary guards cavalry regiment. Yes, excellent army soldiers were selected, but this applied to the entire guard. The only difference is the superstaff of junkers.
          "... more than half of the Cavalier Guard Regiment were officers and lower ranks of the Horse Guards. The rest of the lower ranks were replenished by the transfer of people from the army cuirassier regiments. The sovereign personally examined those sent for staffing. By April 1800, the regiment was completely formed and completed ... "
          Of course, the lower ranks for the most part were no longer nobles, and in 1800
          And further:
          "... The recruitment of cavalry guards by the lower ranks of the army under Alexander I usually happened like this: the highest command was announced to the army regimental commanders to send a certain number of privates to staff the Cavalry Guards Regiment. These people had to be" from the best people, not old, slender, quick and good behavior ... (growth) from 2 arshins 10 vershoks, but not less than 8, but perhaps out of necessity 7. The choice of people was sometimes provided to the chiefs of the regiments, but sometimes the privates who needed to be sent were directly named in the command.
          1. VLR
            25 January 2022 12: 30
            +4
            Well, I wrote: before 1800, the rank and file were nobles. In 1800, the requirement to be a noble for privates was removed. In general, several times the cavalry guard units were formed and disbanded, and each emperor or empress looked at them in his own way. Under Paul, they managed to disband twice and re-form twice, among the last cavalry guards of Paul there were many Maltese cavaliers.
            1. Ryazan87
              Ryazan87 25 January 2022 12: 47
              +5
              You wrote: "In 1805, the personnel were mainly aristocratic."
              This is not true. At the time of the battle of Austerlitz, the lower ranks - the cavalry guards were selected army soldiers of the most common origin, mostly peasant. And what the French were shouting there, they clearly could not understand.
              Well, the destruction of the 4th squadron of the Repnin-Volkonsky regiment and Albrecht's platoon is described by you somewhat incorrectly, frankly. The French showed them, of course, only they were 7 squadrons.
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 12: 59
                +2
                Do not confuse the cavalry guard corps and the cavalry guard regiment (since 1800).

                An interesting dispute. Only one thing can be said - even in the history of our guard, the devil himself will break his leg.
                I myself do not even understand the name of the Horse Guards for 1800. As far as I understand from Wikipedia, at that time it was called the Horse Guards. The name "Life Guards Cavalry Regiment" came already under Alexander.
                But many authors of the articles that I have read refer to him as such even in the pre-Pavlovian period.
                1. Ryazan87
                  Ryazan87 25 January 2022 13: 49
                  +3
                  If you are interested in a detailed history of the Horse Guards, then I recommend:
                  "History of the Life Guards Horse Regiment 1731-1848" I.V. Annenkov. Available in electronic form on the website runivers.ru
                  The names Horse Guards and Life Guards Cavalry Regiment occur in parallel. The official birth of the regiment itself (before that there was the Life-Regiment) - Decree on the military department of January 4, 1731 (according to the old style). And already in the regimental order of 1733 - "L. Guards. Horse Regiment."
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 13: 58
                    +2
                    Nikita, my huge gratitude! drinks I copy all links on the 18th century into a separate folder - for the "library". From the "universe" I am now reading "Information about the Gatchina troops", 19th century. yes
              2. vladcub
                vladcub 25 January 2022 17: 27
                +2
                Nothing special: 7 on 1. Here, even the most trained will not do much.
                French cuirassiers were canceled grunts
                1. Ryazan87
                  Ryazan87 25 January 2022 18: 31
                  +2
                  It’s just impossible to understand the picture of the battle of the cavalry guards at Austerlitz from the article (it’s understandable, the story is about Marshal Bessieres). Moreover, this cannot be understood from Tolstoy's novel, which in many respects has given rise to the still pop-up statement about the almost complete extermination of the regiment in battle. Here is the passage:
                  "... Rostov was terrified to hear later that out of all this mass of huge handsome people, out of all these brilliant, on thousands of horses, rich people, young men, officers and cadets who galloped past him, only eighteen people remained after the attack."
                  This is, of course, an artistic whistle.
                  The 4th squadron of the regiment was indeed surrounded and practically exterminated. Of it, only 18 people actually survived. But this seemed not enough to Lev Nikolaevich and he decided to "kill" the entire regiment, turning it without exception into young rich aristocrats. By the way, it is very similar to the myth about the attack of the British Light Brigade.
                  The truth is somewhat more prosaic.
                  The cavalry guard regiment before the battle consisted of 828 people, including 30 officers, 87 non-commissioned officers, 633 lower ranks (others - musicians and non-combatants).
                  Losses:
                  13 officers, 154 lower ranks killed, wounded and captured. Almost all of the prisoners were wounded.
                  Combat losses of the regiment - 20% of the personnel.
                  As for the officers, 2 officers of the regiment were killed on the battlefield:
                  captain Levenvolde and cornet Lunin.
                  Injured
                  - Staff Captain Kablukov 2nd (later a participant in all the Napoleonic wars and the Polish campaign, Lieutenant General);
                  - Lieutenant Vladimir Ivanovich Belavin 2nd;
                  - Lieutenant Alexander Fedorovich Steel 3rd (later Major General);
                  - Lieutenant Dmitry Nikolaevich Plokhovo (later Major General)
                  Wounded and captured:
                  - Colonel Prince Nikolai Grigoryevich Repnin-Volkonsky (later General of the Cavalry and Governor-General of Little Russia);
                  - Captain Ivan Dmitrievich Dmitriev (will become a colonel);
                  - Staff Captain Prince Ivan Alekseevich Kropotkin;
                  - Platon Ivanovich Kablukov 1st (later Lieutenant General);
                  - Evdokim Vasilyevich Davydov 3rd (brother of the famous partisan of 1812,) I will tell you more about him:
                  "... At Austerlitz, having received five wounds with a saber, one with a bayonet and one bullet, Davydov was left dead on the battlefield. After lying until night, he came to his senses and somehow made his way to the nearest village occupied by our wounded. Three days later two wounded cavalry guards persuaded Davydov to follow the retreating Russian army; on the way they were overtaken by a squadron of French horse grenadiers, detached to collect the wounded, and were taken prisoner.
                  - cornet Pavel Petrovich Sukhtelen (to become adjutant general and Orenburg governor);
                  - cornet Alexander Ivanovich Albrecht (lieutenant general).
                  "... Cornet Albrecht survived only due to the fact that he fell on a cut arm and pressed it tightly to the ground with his weight, which made it possible to avoid severe blood loss. Already in the dark, some French marauder stumbled upon him. Deciding that the officer was dead, he decided to profit from the contents of his pockets and, in order to turn him over, stuck a bayonet in his thigh. A new wound brought Albrecht to his senses. Surprised that a man with such serious wounds was alive, the marauder decided not to finish him off, but to call his comrades and take the cornet to the nearest infirmary, where he was quickly identified as a cavalry guard."
                  Yes, the cavalry guards fought mainly with mounted grenadiers and mounted rangers of the French.
                  1. CHEREDA73
                    CHEREDA73 25 January 2022 22: 39
                    +1
                    Evdokim Vasilyevich Davydov 3rd
                    If I'm not mistaken, this is the same Davydov, whom the artist Orest Kiprensky captured in his painting "Portrait of Davydov in a hussar uniform". The curiosity is that there is a legend that the portrait depicts the hero of 1812, partisan and poet Denis Davydov...
                    1. vladcub
                      vladcub 26 January 2022 07: 26
                      +1
                      Quite right. There was good material on this topic on the site.
                  2. vladcub
                    vladcub 26 January 2022 07: 24
                    0
                    Thanks for the nice and detailed comment.
        3. Sertorius
          Sertorius 26 January 2022 15: 41
          0
          In 1805, the personnel were mainly aristocratic.

          Pavel reformed the cavalry guards several times. Toward the close of his reign, it was an ordinary guard formation, recruited for the same reasons as other regiments of the guard. So there were no more aristocrats than in the same horse guard regiment, where Sablukov indicated the figure of 132 officers for the entire regiment at the beginning of Paul's reign. If we take into account that there were 67 officer positions in the Horse Guards, then, according to N. Eidelman, Sablukov included Estandard Junkers and non-commissioned officers from the nobility in 132 officers. It seems that the nobles in the no less "aristocratic" horse guard regiment of nobles were about 15% of the personnel.
  3. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 25 January 2022 07: 54
    +3
    A random core tore off the marshal's left arm and pierced the torso.
    "Here the bullet flew by, hit me in the chest" (c) in the sense of the core ..
  4. astra wild2
    astra wild2 25 January 2022 08: 30
    0
    Good morning. Valery, please do not be offended that you will have few visits. The villains put you and Vyacheslav Olegovich together.
    If I could, I would bite these loafers' noses!
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 25 January 2022 19: 14
      +2
      "nose bitten!"

      What for? laughing
      1. depressant
        depressant 25 January 2022 21: 49
        +3
        And according to the habit of his breed. There are some who grab by the legs, some cling to the throat. But, apparently, there are also those who jump up and - grab the nose! wassat )))
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 26 January 2022 06: 41
          +2
          It's getting scary for the moderators. laughing

          Good morning Lyudmila Yakovlevna! hi
          1. depressant
            depressant 26 January 2022 08: 19
            +2
            Good morning, Sergey Vladimirovich! )))
            I fell asleep at 4 am at night! Life rushed about in shallow water, she had nowhere to drown! Almost according to Polyakov wassat )))
        2. astra wild2
          astra wild2 28 January 2022 16: 39
          0
          Are you saying I'm a dog?
      2. astra wild2
        astra wild2 28 January 2022 16: 36
        0
        For you to ask
    2. know
      know 26 January 2022 09: 51
      +2
      It looks like you, a stranger Astra, made a mistake in the forecast: this article is ahead of the "parallel" in views winked
  5. know
    know 25 January 2022 08: 49
    +4
    Thinking about the words:
    “Michel Ney, saying goodbye to the body of Bessieres, said:
    “This is our destiny. It's a beautiful death."
    Alas, he himself was not destined to die in his last battle at Waterloo - although he looked for death in him.

    But, after all, if it were not for the execution of this marshal, who, as they say, was not a very strong commander, he might not have become a legend in France. Would have stayed with others.
    The same can probably be said about V. Tsoi, who became a cult figure after his tragic death. And about V. Kharlamov, although in the “red car” of those years he was a bright figure, a star, but not an undisputed leader. Mikhailov, Yakushkev, Maltsev were no less bright.
    As Vysotsky wrote:
    "Whoever ends his life tragically is the true poet."
    1. know
      know 25 January 2022 11: 00
      +5
      The topic "does not let go", sorry:
      A very strange case of "the positive impact of tragedy on the cult of personality" is the story of Streltsov, who is already being declared almost more important and better than Pele himself. Meanwhile, dry facts suggest that it was an arrogant "major" who, due to a sharp change in status, "blew the roof off" - Kokorin and Mamaev in one bottle. And they condemned him, most likely, justly. But, here you go, how we love "sufferers".
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 25 January 2022 12: 36
        +4
        "how we" love "sufferers" there is such a thing. I see 2 explanations for this: 1) Russian mentality: relentless towards enemies, but kind to the weak
        2) Streltsov was bright, but not a super star. The trial of him was remembered because he was famous, and from here one step to glorification
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 25 January 2022 19: 40
        +2
        Just a dark story. In the end, the boy was only 21 at that time, the girl was 20. And that she didn’t know where she was going? You can remember Mike Tyson and the girl who decided to drink coffee with him in the room. A famous person is always a kind of "target ".
        hi
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 25 January 2022 19: 35
      +4
      Greetings! And let's give the floor to the participant of those events?
      hi
  6. vladcub
    vladcub 25 January 2022 09: 44
    +4
    "Privates of the Russian army" Valery, out of harm, did the privates of the French army in Russian captivity live better than the generals?
    From the creation of the world, division into: privates and generals and treatment, respectively
    1. VLR
      25 January 2022 10: 08
      +6
      Yeah, as they would say in the USSR - "class solidarity".
      smile
      However, Paulus in Soviet captivity lived better than any private in his army.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 25 January 2022 12: 10
        +3
        Valery, what are we talking about
  7. depressant
    depressant 25 January 2022 10: 29
    +6
    This episode...
    This quarrel between Lannes and Bessieres, caused by Lannes biased assessment of the actions of Bessieres - and this despite the courage and determination shown by Bessieres in the battle near Esling ... In fact, a squabble, which almost resulted in a duel, but could become - no the attempts of the surrounding officers would not have prevented it, was prevented by Marshal Massena, who at that time was the head of both Lannes and Bessières. He appeared suddenly, instantly understood what was happening, and yelled: "Weapons - in the sheath, and immediately! You are in my camp, and I will not allow my soldiers to watch two marshals poke each other with sabers in front of the enemies!"
    It was, according to his idea, that Napoleon called Lannes and Bessieres to him and reprimanded both.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 11: 05
      +6
      In fact, the squabble, which almost resulted in a duel, but could have become - no attempts by the surrounding officers would have prevented it, was prevented by Marshal Massena, who at that time was the head of both Lannes and Bessieres.

      Pikul described a funny incident after Marengo (what was discussed last time). It is clear that this should be treated as a work of art ... hi

      Bonaparte had already begun to charm von Zach:
      Are you a professor of mathematics? Oh, how I envy you, I love algebra... Don't you think that today we did not do the right thing? But I'm happy to see you, colleague...
      He and Berthier were discussing the text of the victory bulletin when their conversation was interrupted by the cry of Lefebvre's adjutant:
      “Help, Murat is fighting Kellerman there!”
      Berthier arrived in time: the fiery Murat in the crimson burnous of an Arab had already put the point of his saber to Kellermann's throat:
      - It was my cavalry who did everything, it was I who won!
      Kellerman pushed the weapon away from him with his hand:
      “Didn’t I ruin the column, which Bude began to disembowel? If I didn't win, Bude won...
      Bonaparte asked the returned Berthier:
      What were those roosters arguing about?
      — Could not share the glory.
      “I will share the glory,” said Bonaparte.stop
      He paid tribute to the dead Desaix, the bulletin for Paris was drawn up in such terms that no one would doubt the personal victory of the consul.

      (V.S. Pikul, "To Each His Own"). drinks
      1. Daniil Konovalenko
        Daniil Konovalenko 25 January 2022 12: 09
        +3
        the bulletin for Paris was drawn up in such terms that no one would have doubted the personal victory of the consul.
        Like all victory ballots, however, Napoleon turned defeats in ballots into victory.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 25 January 2022 12: 15
        +2
        Nikolai, in principle, V.S. is right: Napoleon decided "who is glory and who is dishonor" (c)
      3. depressant
        depressant 25 January 2022 12: 22
        +5
        Pikul described a funny incident

        I read with pleasure an excerpt from Pikul. This writer was especially loved by my mother. How many books are left in the house from a past life! This is how you remember...
        And in my comment, to which you, Nikolai, wrote a comment, I found a grammatical error wassat )))
      4. CHEREDA73
        CHEREDA73 25 January 2022 22: 44
        +2
        Hello, Nikolay!
        If they post pictures of artists on the topic of discussion, then why not post an excerpt from the novel. Especially since it's well written. good
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 26 January 2022 10: 13
          +2
          Eugene, welcome! I think this passage conveys the spirit of the times well!
          1. CHEREDA73
            CHEREDA73 26 January 2022 10: 30
            +2
            Absolutely agree. The main thing, in my opinion, for readers is not to try to look for absolute analogies there to how it was in reality. Pikul artistically painted the scene, the characters and the intensity of passions. drinks
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 26 January 2022 10: 34
              +1
              I think so! yes drinks
  8. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 11: 01
    +4
    Most of the population here at that time was hostile to both the Austrians and the Poles, and was distinguished by pro-Moscow views. Later, Alexander I, it is not clear why, exchanged these lands for Polish ones alien to Russia.

    Hmm ... If he hadn't done this, then perhaps they would have killed several birds with one stone in the future ... The Germans would have "digested the Polish ambition" for a very long time (they would not have had time for expansion), and then we would not have got some foreign nationalist movements banned in Russia... what
    (Colleagues, if you hurt someone - no offense!)
    If there were no guards that could unite everyone else around them, no one would have returned from Russia. Napoleon's career and imperial France would have died out like a candle at the end of December 1812

    EMNIP, under Red Napoleon, what exactly did he follow, surrounded by his guard? hi
    1. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 25 January 2022 12: 19
      +3
      under the Red, what exactly did Napoleon follow, surrounded by his guard?
      "I've been emperor enough already; it's time to be a general again," Napoleon announced, marching ahead of the Old Guard, which was a surprise.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 13: 44
        +2
        "I've been emperor enough already; it's time to be a general again," Napoleon announced, marching ahead of the Old Guard, which was a surprise.

        The phrase is well known. yes drinks
        Pikul paraphrased it:
        Napoleon left Weimar to the army with the words:
        - Napoleon is gone - I'm General Bonaparte again!
        1. Daniil Konovalenko
          Daniil Konovalenko 25 January 2022 13: 53
          +2
          But they say that he said this phrase at the Red wink
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 13: 59
            +2
            But they say that he said this phrase at the Red

            I readily believe! yes
    2. depressant
      depressant 25 January 2022 12: 27
      +3
      No, I'm not offended! wassat wassat )))
      I just have nothing to do)))
    3. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 25 January 2022 15: 20
      +4
      Later, Alexander I, for no clear reason, exchanged these lands for Polish ones alien to Russia.
      Hmm ... If he had not done this, then, perhaps, they would have killed several birds with one stone in the future ...
      It seems that not only V.I. Lenin laid down "atomic bombs" .. But also ... Only shhh! God forbid, say out loud...
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 15: 34
        +2
        God forbid, say out loud...

        Remember how the verdict Avvakum associates? wink "For the great blasphemy against the royal house..." fellow
        It seems that not only V.I. Lenin laid "atomic bombs" ..

        A good topic for an article by Mr. A. Samsonov is "How Alexander the First planted a pig in Russia." Straight canon! good
        1. Daniil Konovalenko
          Daniil Konovalenko 25 January 2022 16: 09
          +2
          "How Alexander the First planted a pig in Russia."
          He served as Gavrila, a miner, Gavrila, planted a bonbu laughing
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 16: 39
            +2
            He served as Gavrila, a miner, Gavrila, planted a bonbu

            Yes. Gavrila served as a bonbomet, he shot a bonbu into the king ... yes
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 25 January 2022 17: 36
        +2
        "to say out loud", otherwise some exalted creatures, we have such ones, will shower with minuses!
  9. depressant
    depressant 25 January 2022 11: 40
    +4
    Features of the character of Bessieres ...
    They would not exist if it were not for the hostility towards Bessières on the part of the main part of the senior officers of the French army. They could come to terms with the fact that one of them is a former hooligan from the outskirts of Paris and, perhaps, find something romantic in this. But they did not smile at all to see an equal in the former "barber" Bessieres. Not comme il faut, you see, servants! And they received reciprocal arrogance from the side of the "servants" as a way of self-defense, - "servants", who, naively, adopted the slogan "Freedom, equality, fraternity!" at face value.
    And Napoleon, contrary to the general mood, especially brought Bessieres closer to himself, which further increased the hostility towards Bessieres ...
    And if in terms of self-dislike Bessieres could be compared with Davout, then in addition, as historians say, “if the latter found himself at the center of scandals because of his quarrelsome and suspicious character, then Bessieres was not favored as an imperial favorite, commander of privileged troops and not who wanted to help army units in the war."
  10. depressant
    depressant 25 January 2022 12: 48
    +3
    Actually, Valery turned out a sad article ... Sad.
    For some reason, the historical past always looks like this. There were two friends, Lannes and Bessières. They quarreled, almost got into a duel. But despite the unfavorable situation in which the French found themselves at Aspern-Esling, despite the mutual, now persistent hostility, Bessre had the nobility to escape from the circle of urgent matters and come to say goodbye to the mortally wounded Lannes. Dr. Larrey had just amputated Lann's leg, Lunn was dying.
    And in the face of his inevitable death, as if in a sign of a request for reconciliation and forgiveness, Bessières shook his hand.
  11. depressant
    depressant 25 January 2022 13: 17
    +2
    But the guards adored Bessières!
    He fraternally cared for each of his soldiers. Perhaps because the guardsmen were class close to him. Any of them could come to him with their needs and requests at any time, and the marshal did everything in his power for the one who asked. He said: "I came out of their ranks and should never forget about it."
    Having modest republican needs, Bessières shared with his soldiers all their hardships, often content with a meager camp meal - bread and garlic.
    But Bessières never crossed the line beyond which familiarity began on the part of the soldiers and respect for the commander was lost. For this, some distance from subordinates was necessary, and Bessières subtly kept the line - both with subordinates and with equals. Even for a meal in the form of the same crust of bread rubbed with garlic, he sat at the table alone, without inviting adjutants for him. Instead, he gave each of them 10 francs a day for "pocket expenses".
  12. Mitya2424
    Mitya2424 25 January 2022 13: 31
    +1
    You can treat the cavalry guards differently, one thing is obvious - they saved the honor of the Russian guard! We thank them for the fact that the banner of the oldest regiment of the Russian army does not hang in the nursing home.
    1. VLR
      25 January 2022 13: 39
      +4
      It wouldn't hang there! Because Marshal Serurier, who will be discussed in the next article, on March 30, 1814, ordered about 1500 banners taken in battle since the time of Louis XIV to be burned in the courtyard of the Les Invalides. And the ashes were thrown into the Seine
  13. depressant
    depressant 25 January 2022 15: 36
    +2
    There is an interesting version of the death of Marshal Bessieres.
    It was 1813. Bessières is in command of the reserve of the entire French cavalry. On the eve of the Battle of Lutzen near Weissenfels, Bessieres, accompanied by a group of officers, left at the end of the day to inspect the positions. And then, on our side, the future Decembrist Grabe-Gorsky made a bet with General Lansky, they say, I’ll get into a group from a cannon, and fired. The core hit the marshal exactly in the chest, killing him on the spot.
    Well, as we know, not exactly in the chest. The left arm and part of the chest were torn off - a wound incompatible with life. But it was decided to hide the death of the popular marshal from the French troops until the very end of the battle, so as not to demoralize the soldiers and officers.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 15: 41
      +2
      And then, on our side, the future Decembrist Grabe-Gorsky made a bet with General Lansky, they say, I’ll get into a group from a cannon, and fired. The core hit the marshal exactly in the chest, killing him on the spot.

      The feeling that then the same bike was invented about Napoleon and Moreau. Like, seeing the "traitor", Bonaparte personally pointed a gun at him ... hi
      1. depressant
        depressant 25 January 2022 16: 04
        +2
        I suppose there are a lot of tales in wartime. In any war. Indeed, most often the listener is not a participant in hostilities, did not lie in a trench, did not sniff gunpowder, and therefore does not understand how scary it is, how one has to overcome oneself in order to rise and go on the attack. Tell him this, he will wave his hands in fright - "Oh, don't!". Either he will become sad and ... he will not want to listen either. Like, enough of their sorrows. And a participant in hostilities wants to talk about the war. So that they know that he is a participant, in order to at least partially unload psychologically. And then stories are written.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 25 January 2022 16: 38
          +2
          And a participant in hostilities wants to talk about the war.

          Not always. Grandma never talked about the war at all, although she was in the partisans for two and a half years ...
          1. depressant
            depressant 25 January 2022 16: 45
            +2
            Well, you see, what's the matter. Many participants are psychologically traumatized. So much so that they want to oust the memories from memory. They remember, but they don't want to remember. There was no joy in it. Tales are told by those who managed to avoid psychological trauma. People who are active in life.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 25 January 2022 18: 27
              +3
              True, I have not yet met a single front-line soldier who would tell about his exploits in the war in colors and colors.
              1. depressant
                depressant 25 January 2022 19: 01
                +2
                One such elderly person came to our house. As soon as he had a drink, he began to cry and talk about the war. I don't remember anything from his stories. I remember only one thing, that they were tragic, these stories, and the old warrior was choking with tears. And, remembering it now, I understand what a horror war is. She takes people, she kills those she befriends, they leave like bloody shadows, and you stay to wait your turn.
            2. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 25 January 2022 23: 00
              +2
              They remember, but they don't want to remember. There was no joy in it. Tales are told by those who managed to avoid psychological trauma. People who are active in life.
              They remember, but selectively. Again, it depends on age. They try not to tell terrible things at all, or very briefly. Funny or curious things - regularly and with pleasure. I understood this on the example of the front-line stories of my father, an aircraft navigator (Pe-2, R-5, Po-2). In the 90s, he generally stopped talking about a number of episodes, and earlier, in the 60s, he talked.
  14. depressant
    depressant 25 January 2022 15: 53
    +4
    In general, oddly enough, there are several versions of the death of Marshal Bessieres. I mentioned one above. According to another version, the core first hit the wall, then ricocheted into the marshal. According to the third, the marshal went around the positions along with Napoleon, and when the core approached Bessières with a whistle, and there was no time left to dodge, Napoleon allegedly exclaimed: "Death is approaching us!"
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 25 January 2022 18: 25
      +3
      Napoleon allegedly exclaimed: "Death is approaching us!"


      Even with the relatively low initial speed with which the cannonball was "spit out" from the cannon of that period, Napoleon still did not have time to utter this "historical phrase".
      And in general, we hear the whistle of a bullet that has already flown by, no one will ever hear "their own".
      1. depressant
        depressant 25 January 2022 18: 49
        +1
        Kostya, well, who would have doubted! )))
        It's like something out of Corneille's bombastic dramas, but not real action. If Napoleon was there, he rather recoiled and ducked, and then, straightening up and seeing what the core had done, cursed dirty.
        But the "tilligence" of that time, having seen enough of Corneille, believed that the plot should be presented in this way. In those days there was a lot of pathos.
  15. Basarev
    Basarev 25 January 2022 16: 19
    +1
    He died very timely. It happens in life that it is better to die, but remain undefeated in memory, than to live as a loser commander. And so Bessières was lucky to die and not tarnish his honor to smithereens with a lost war.
    1. depressant
      depressant 25 January 2022 16: 53
      +3
      So he gave reasonable advice to Napoleon. It was he who said that after Maloyaroslavets it was necessary to leave Russia. Leave completely. That would save the army. Bessières was the only one who said the word "retreat". For which he was ostracized by senior officers who did not appreciate the advice. And subsequent historians say that Napoleon should have listened to Bessières. Maybe then he remained emperor for a long time. There is no prophet not only in his own country, but also in his time.
      1. CHEREDA73
        CHEREDA73 26 January 2022 13: 55
        +3
        Maybe then he remained emperor for a long time.

        I agree. In 1813, there was also a chance, after the victorious Lutzen and Bautzen, during the two-month negotiations, Napoleon should have been more flexible and it was real to make peace. Napoleon would be left with France approximately as after the victorious Peace of Luneville in 1801. But, Napoleon did not want to sacrifice anything.
  16. CHEREDA73
    CHEREDA73 25 January 2022 22: 51
    +1
    Most of the population here at that time was hostile to both the Austrians and the Poles, and was distinguished by pro-Moscow views.

    As for the Austrians and Poles - fair enough.
    Regarding the pro-Moscow views - it is not true. They were never there. The single Orthodox faith, yes, was ... hi
  17. Sertorius
    Sertorius 26 January 2022 14: 31
    +1
    Random core...

    Under Weissenfels Bessieres, soon under Bautzen - Duroc. And also a direct hit with a cannonball. In both cases, Napoleon was next to the dead. Coincidence? what I don’t think ....
    The artillery near Weissenfels was commanded by the best artillery chief of the Russian army, Major General Alexei Petrovich Nikitin.
    Not. These cores are no accident!
  18. Elturisto
    Elturisto 27 January 2022 12: 25
    +1
    Thanks to the author for the most interesting series of articles about the French marshals of the Napoleonic era. Coming from the people, they showed the snickering European aristocrat how to fight.