Military Review

How Russia conquered Central Asia

58
How Russia conquered Central Asia
The battle of the Cossacks with the Kirghiz. A. Orlovsky

The territory of the khanate was included in the Turkestan Governor General as the Fergana region. M. D. Skobelev became the military governor of the region. Thus, Russia completed the conquest of the eastern part of Turkestan.


Southbound


The conquest of Central Asia had its own characteristics and differed from the annexation of Siberia.

Seven thousand miles from the "Stone" (Ural) to the Pacific Ocean were passed and mastered mainly by the Cossacks, explorers and industrialists. State involvement was minimal.

Siberia was, as it were, a natural continuation of the Russian Plain, climatic, natural conditions, of course, were more severe, but familiar. Endless forests, swamps and huge rivers.

In the south the situation was different.

Up the Irtysh and to the south and southeast of the Yaik (Urals) stretched boundless sultry steppes that turned into salt marshes and deserts. The steppes were inhabited not by scattered clans of small peoples of Siberia, but by numerous hordes of steppe dwellers who occupied oases. Often they were the heirs of more developed states, with trading cities and fortresses. The steppes were warlike, familiar with firearms. weapons.

Nomadic hordes were dependent on three Central Asian state centers: Khiva - in the west, Bukhara - in the middle part and Kokand - in the north and east.

When advancing from Yaik, the Russians encountered Khivans, and when moving from the Irtysh, they encountered Kokandians.

These were warlike peoples, and for a long time Russia had neither the desire nor the strength to go south in this direction. Plus natural difficulties.

Therefore, in the XVII-XVIII centuries. the Russians were mostly on the defensive.

The nest of ferocious predators, slave traders - Khiva, was, as it were, in an oasis, fenced for many hundreds of miles by terrible deserts. The steppe dwellers staged constant raids on Russian settlements in the Southern Urals, ravaging and burning them, smashing merchant caravans, and stealing people for sale into slavery.

A similar situation, but on a larger scale, previously existed at the border with the Crimean Khanate.

That is, the state formations of Central Asia had a distinct parasitic, predatory character. It is also worth remembering that the khans, feudal lords and their nukers robbed their common people, who survived in the most difficult conditions.

The attempts of the Yaik Cossacks, very brave and active, to answer were unsuccessful. The task was too difficult, and the forces were not enough. Only a few of the brave men who went to Khiva returned to their homeland. So, in 1600, Ataman Nechay went to Khiva, in 1605 - Ataman Shamai. They took and ravaged the city, but died on the way back.

Thus, at first the movement of Russians to the south was connected with the question of simple self-preservation, survival. It was necessary to pacify the ferocious predators so that there would be peace in the southern Urals and Siberia. To live fully, without fear that enemies will come, burn down their home and take their children away to be sold into slavery.

Strategic tasks arose later.


"Disappeared like Bekovich"


The case began to move forward when the state took over. When the conquest of Central Asia became a strategic task for Russia.

The first attempt ended in complete failure.

Bekovich's detachment was sent by Tsar Peter in 1717 to the south in order to persuade the Khiva Khan into citizenship and find a way to India. Bekovich also had to explore the old channel of the Amu Darya (it was believed that the Amu Darya used to flow into the Caspian), if possible, dismantle the dam and return the river to the Caspian Sea.

Bekovich defeated the enemy and reached Khiva, but was deceived.

Shergazi Khan expressed his humility and suggested that the Russians divide the detachment into several groups so that it would be easier to provide for them. Then the Khivans slaughtered or captured our units with surprise attacks. Bekovich-Cherkassky was slaughtered at a feast.

"Disappeared like Bekovich near Khiva" - they began to say since then.

For a century and a half, the dream of penetrating into Central Asia from the Caspian was forgotten. The spread of Russian statehood to the southeast was stopped for the entire XNUMXth century.

Almost simultaneously, a detachment of Buchholz was sent from Siberia up the Irtysh.

In 1714, Peter instructed the lieutenant colonel to go to the city of Erket (Yarkand in Xinjiang) and find gold there, and also build fortresses on the Irtysh.

The campaign failed due to opposition from the Dzungars. However, the Buchholz expedition began to build towns and prisons on the Irtysh, marking the beginning of the Siberian line. In 1716, the Yamyshevsky prison and the Omsk fortress were founded, in 1717, between the Omsk fortress and the Yamyshevskaya fortress, they began to build the Zhelezinskaya fortress. In 1718, Semipalatinsk, Ubinsk and Polon-Karagai fortresses appeared, in 1720 - Pavlodar and Ust-Kamenogorsk.

Thus, a line of posts and fortifications is being created along the Irtysh from Omsk to Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenegorsk to protect Russian possessions from the steppes.

Subsequently, the Siberian line was extended to the Chinese border.

The Siberian line included the Tobolsko-Ishimskaya, Irtyshskaya and Kolyvano-Kuznetskaya.

Having thus protected Siberia, the Russian authorities began to actively strengthen the Urals.

The Trans-Volga steppes were settled, the borders with Volki and Kama were moved to Yaik. The Yaik Cossacks are included in the general system of border defense. In 1735, Orenburg was founded and the construction of the Orenburg line began, which first went along the Yaik, then was moved forward to Iletsk.

Thus, two offensive bridgeheads of Russia in the south were created - Siberian and Orenburg.

Orenburg Governor-General Vasily Alekseevich Perovsky (1795–1857). He led the early attempts to conquer Central Asia - the Khiva campaign (1839-1840) and the Kokand campaign (1853). Portrait by Karl Bryullov, 1837

Fort Perovsky


The second half of the XNUMXth and the beginning of the XNUMXth centuries were spent in the arrangement of the new Russian region, which already included the clans and tribes of the Younger and Middle Zhuz. They came under the protection of the Russians under Anna Ioannovna.

It is worth noting that at that time in Russia all Kazakhs and Kyrgyz were collectively called “Kyrgyz” (“Kyrgyz-Kaisaks”).

Under Paul I, the possibility of a rapid advance to the south arose when the sovereign quarreled with the British and ordered the Don and Ural Cossack troops to go to conquer India.

It was far from India, but the Cossacks could well advance in Central Asia, especially with the support of regular troops.

However, Paul was killed by Anglophile conspirators (The murder of a Russian knight on the throne), and the new Tsar Alexander canceled the campaign.

There was a pause in the advance to the south.

It was associated with the active participation of Russia in European affairs, wars with Turkey and Persia, and a stubborn war in the Caucasus. Therefore, Petersburg could not pursue an active policy towards the Central Asian khanates.

Also, part of the Russian elite (especially dignitaries in the Ministry of Finance and the Foreign Ministry) did not want to be bound by new expenses and worries. Why Petersburg continued to put up with raids, robberies and robbery of merchant caravans.

In the 1820s–1830s, Russian posts gradually advanced 600–700 versts from the Siberian line and reached the Hungry Steppe. So they called the vast waterless spaces, only in places suitable for the life of nomads. It is located on the left bank of the Syr Darya (Uzbekistan, South Kazakhstan).

Local steppes began to pass into Russian citizenship. In the Siberian direction, the process as a whole proceeded peacefully. But on the Orenburg line in the "Small Horde" (Junior Zhuz), an uprising began under the leadership of Isatai Taimanov (1836–1838). The uprisings of the Kazakhs were supported by Khiva. In 1838, the rebels were defeated, Taimanov died.

In order to reason with the hostile nest, Emperor Nikolai Pavlovich ordered the Orenburg governor and commander of the Separate Orenburg Corps, General Vasily Perovsky, to undertake a campaign against Khiva.

In December 1839, Perovsky went on a campaign with a 6-strong detachment. The detachment reached the Aral Sea, the attacks of the Khivans were repelled, but severe frosts, snowstorms, scurvy and typhus stopped the Russians. Perovsky returned back, having lost almost half of his people, mainly due to cold and disease.

So the second significant campaign in Central Asia ended in failure.

The forward movement to the south continued.

In 1845, the Orenburg line was moved forward to the Irgiz and Turgai rivers. The small zhuz was pacified. In 1847 we reached the Aral Sea. A steamship service was established on it and the Aral Sea flotilla.

The flotilla was created in order to protect against Khiva raids, to stop their crossings through the Syr Darya and robberies, as well as to assist our troops. In addition, ships were used to develop trade. The Siberian line began to put forward Cossack villages in Semirechye.

In 1850 clashes with the Kokand people began.

The newly appointed governor-general of the Orenburg region, Count Perovsky, decided to take the Kokand fortress Ak-Mechet, which was of strategic importance - it blocked all routes to Central Asia near the Aral Sea. Also, the capture of this point made it possible to unite the Orenburg and Siberian lines.

In 1852, a small detachment of Blaramberg tried to take the fortress on the move, not unsuccessfully. We decided to repeat the trip. In May 1853, a 5 detachment (according to other sources, 2-3) of Generals Perovsky and Khrulev set out from Orenburg.

On June 20, 1853, the siege began.

Cannon fire was ineffective. The shells could not penetrate adobe walls more than 8 meters wide. Our gunners were able to smash the eastern tower, but the defenders managed to close the gap before the assault. Then the sappers under the command of Captain Orlovsky, working day and night, were able to build a mine gallery and blow up part of the wall.

On July 28, after a stubborn battle, the fortress was taken.

The fortress was renamed Perovsky Fort, which became the basis for the Syrdarya line. This line became the vanguard of the Orenburg line.

Already in August, the garrison repulsed the raid from Tashkent. And in December 1853, the Perovsk garrison, led by Lieutenant Colonel Ogaryov (over 1 people), repelled an attack by a 13-strong Kokand army.

Ogaryov knew that the fortress was not ready for a siege, and decided on a sortie. The Kokandians, seeing the small number of Russians, attacked and began to bypass from the flanks and rear. At this time, the Russians defeated the enemy center, captured the guns and the camp. At the same time, small reinforcements arrived from the fortress and hit the rear of the enemy. The enemy was utterly defeated. The people of Kokand lost up to 2 killed and wounded, 000 banners, 7 guns.

Ogaryov was promoted from lieutenant colonel to colonel for success in cases against the Kokand people and immediately to major general, received the Order of St. George of the 4th degree.

The Eastern (Crimean) War somewhat slowed down the movement of Russia to the south.

View of the Kokand fortress Ak-Mecheti after the assault on July 28, 1853. Source: Terentiev T. A. Turkestan album. Part historical. 1871–1872

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Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. alystan
    alystan 18 January 2022 05: 29
    +5
    the state formations of Central Asia had a distinct parasitic, predatory character.

    I heard that abreks did the same thing...
    1. LAlexAlex
      LAlexAlex 18 January 2022 06: 22
      +11
      state formations of Central Asia had a distinct parasitic, predatory character

      This is how you live for yourself, work, and in 200 years they will write: "The inhabitants of Russia had a distinct parasitic, predatory character" pumped oil, gas and captured Ukraine every day "
      1. yuriy55
        yuriy55 18 January 2022 07: 10
        -6
        That is, the state formations of Central Asia had a distinct parasitic, predatory character.

        Sometimes it seems that some want to return to the distant historical past. The verbs: “I want”, “wait”, “give” are increasingly slipping into the rhetoric of the leaders of this region. You have to be careful, there is a whole science here. And then some cannot ask, nor do they themselves know how to do it:
        1. Civil
          Civil 18 January 2022 08: 06
          +5
          The history of conquered nations is written by the victor.
  2. tatra
    tatra 18 January 2022 06: 36
    -1
    The "history" of their country and people among the enemies of the communists who seized the USSR is anti-Sovietism and Russophobia. The enemies of the communists who seized the national republics of the USSR is that they were first occupied and spread rot by the Russians, then the Bolsheviks again occupied and spread rot.
    1. man
      man 18 January 2022 09: 39
      +7
      In principle, I agree with you, but you forget that the Moscow liberals convinced them of this in every possible way during perestroika. At that time, having read the perestroika press, I myself became an inveterate liberal (I will never forgive myself for this!), However, like most scientists and ITR. So, even the then I was fucked up when I read in MK what nice guys the Basmachi were in civilian life.
      In general, we must pay tribute to the Asians, they held on to the Union to the last. I remember
      1. LAlexAlex
        LAlexAlex 18 January 2022 10: 56
        +6
        Confused by the definition - parasitic nature of the state, by what criterion to evaluate applicability to a particular state.

        If we take the slave trade, then it is possible to carry almost everything that was before the Middle Ages there, then go to the USA and draw a thread to the serfs of the Republic of Ingushetia.

        If attacks on trade caravans are taken as a criterion of parasitism, then almost half of the films about pirates and Vikings have been made .. piracy is still practiced, including on a regular basis, take at least the interception of cargo from honey. funds from each other in Europe at the start of the 2020 pandemic.

        The presence of colonies should also be attributed to parasitism, beneficiaries from all sorts of Suez and Panama canals, owners of patents for some kind of medicine.

        The state itself is a parasite in relation to the population.
        1. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
          Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 19 January 2022 19: 53
          +1
          Are you an opponent of the state and a supporter of Bakunin?!?
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 18 January 2022 07: 54
    -5
    In 1718 arose Semipalatinsk, Uba and Polon-Karagai fortresses, in 1720 - Pavlodar и Ust-Kamenogorsk.
    In 1847 we reached the Aral Sea. Established on it steamship communication and the Aral flotilla.

    for development trade. The Siberian line began to advance in Semirechye Cossack villages.


    Ancestors painstakingly and carefully built Russian state: cities, villages and villages, fleets and railways.

    But as a result crime against Russia in 1936, all of the above from Russia cut off depriving the Russian people of the fruits of their labor for hundreds of years.

    Under Paul I, the possibility of a rapid advance to the south arose when the sovereign quarreled with the British and ordered the Don and Ural Cossack troops to go to conquer India.

    The wild crazy order to conquer India (and take Khiva along the way) was given in the style of "Ivan Vasilyevich changes his profession", only, unlike a comedy, he doomed tens of thousands of Cossacks to inevitable real death, who had to go through thousands of kilometers of deserts, steppes , the mountain passes of the Pamirs, in a hostile environment of tribes and states. The order was given only to the ataman Donskoy troops, and the Cossacks did NOT know that they were going already ... to India (to "Bukharia" - as they assumed). Pavel's apoplexy saved their lives....
    1. Ashes of Claes
      Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 09: 58
      -1
      Quote: Olgovich
      Ancestors painstakingly and carefully built the Russian state

      but this is not colonialism, #this is another.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 18 January 2022 10: 20
        -7
        Quote: Ashes of Klaas
        but this is not colonialism, #this is another.

        Is it really Tver, Ryazan, Novgorod, etc. - ....colonialism ?! belay request
        1. Ashes of Claes
          Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 10: 47
          +2
          Quote: Olgovich
          Really Tver, Ryazan

          we are talking about S. Asia and Siberia.
          1. The comment was deleted.
          2. Olgovich
            Olgovich 18 January 2022 11: 24
            -6
            Quote: Ashes of Klaas
            we are talking about S. Asia and Siberia.

            and what is the difference? belay
            1. Ashes of Claes
              Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 11: 47
              0
              Quote: Olgovich
              and what is the difference?

              Yes, by and large, none.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 18 January 2022 12: 25
                -2
                Quote: Ashes of Klaas
                Yes by and large no.

                exactly!

                And why then:
                Quote: Ashes of Klaas
                this is not colonialism

                Quote: Ashes of Klaas
                Quote: Olgovich
                Really Tver, Ryazan

                we are talking about S. Asia and Siberia.

                ? request
                1. Ashes of Claes
                  Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 15: 17
                  0
                  Quote: Olgovich
                  ?
                  No difference. Colonialism.
                  1. Olgovich
                    Olgovich 18 January 2022 15: 19
                    -1
                    Quote: Ashes of Klaas
                    No difference. Colonialism.

                    Yeah. in Ryazan
              2. Ingvar 72
                Ingvar 72 18 January 2022 14: 44
                +3
                Quote: Ashes of Klaas
                Yes, by and large, none.

                Some Englishmen said otherwise -
                In 1853, the famous English geologist, Sir Roderick Impey Murchinson, who traveled all over Russia, speaking at a crowded rally in London's Hyde Park against Britain's entry into the Crimean War, said: "Even if Russia expands its possessions at the expense of neighboring colonies, unlike the other colonial powers, it gives more to these new acquisitions than it takes from them.. And not because she is driven by some kind of philanthropy or something like that. The initial aspirations of all empires differ little, but where a Russian man appears, everything miraculously takes on a completely different direction. The moral norms developed by the Eastern Slavs since pre-Christian times do not allow a Russian person to rape someone else's conscience and encroach on property that does not rightfully belong to him. More often, out of the indestructible feeling of compassion rooted in him, he is ready to give up his last shirt than to take it away from someone. Therefore, no matter how victorious Russian weapons are, in purely mercantile terms, Russia always remains a loser. Those who are defeated by it or taken under protection in the end usually win by keeping their way of life and spiritual institutions intact, despite their obvious insufficiency for progress, which you can easily be convinced of by getting to know them more or less thoroughly, increasing your material wealth and significantly moving forward. along the path of civilization. Estland and the Caucasus, for example, are indicative of this, for centuries despised and raped by their neighbors, but who have taken an honorable place among the peoples and achieved incomparable prosperity under the auspices of Russia, while from the acquisition of Estland and the Caucasus the position of the Russian people, that is, the indigenous population metropolis, has not improved at all. The latter seems to us a paradox, but such is the reality, the root causes of which lie, undoubtedly, in the peculiarities of Russian morality.
                1. Ashes of Claes
                  Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 15: 23
                  +2
                  Quote: Ingvar 72
                  Some Englishmen said otherwise -

                  what does it actually change?
                  1. Ingvar 72
                    Ingvar 72 18 January 2022 15: 25
                    -2
                    Quote: Ashes of Klaas
                    what does it actually change?

                    Everything. I'll draw a parallel - the killer cuts to kill, the surgeon to save. Both cut though.
                    1. Ashes of Claes
                      Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 16: 34
                      -1
                      Quote: Ingvar 72
                      I will draw a parallel - the killer cuts to kill, the surgeon to save. Both cut though.

                      Well, of course - there were surgeons on this side of the Hindu Kush, and murderers on that side. But one hell - both those and others are colonizers. I don't understand why this term irritates you so much?
                      1. Ingvar 72
                        Ingvar 72 18 January 2022 19: 37
                        -3
                        Quote: Ashes of Klaas
                        I don't understand why this term irritates you so much?

                        There is no irritation. There was expansion, it can also be called colonization. She just went the other way.
                2. karish
                  karish 18 January 2022 16: 45
                  +1
                  Quote: Ingvar 72
                  Sir Roderick Impey Murchinson

                  do you have a link to the original?
                  1. Ingvar 72
                    Ingvar 72 18 January 2022 19: 41
                    -1
                    Do you mean original? Murchinson's query about Russians will bring up many references to this text. Is there any reason to doubt?
                    1. karish
                      karish 18 January 2022 21: 16
                      +3
                      Quote: Ingvar 72
                      Do you mean original? Murchinson's query about Russians will bring up many references to this text. Is there any reason to doubt?

                      Of course, I would like to read the original, or at least a translation with a link to the source.
                      Somehow I doubt the text.
      2. Pilat2009
        Pilat2009 18 January 2022 13: 07
        +3
        Quote: Ashes of Klaas
        Quote: Olgovich
        Ancestors painstakingly and carefully built the Russian state

        but this is not colonialism, #this is another.

        Colonialism with a human face. They didn’t seem to turn anyone into slaves. In general, it was normal in those days. If you don’t develop, they will eat you. The law of evolution
        1. Ashes of Claes
          Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 15: 34
          -1
          Quote: Pilat2009
          Colonialism with a human face

          I did not give value judgments and did not stoop to sentimentality. I called colonialism colonialism. I don't care what face he had there.
          1. Pilat2009
            Pilat2009 18 January 2022 16: 35
            +3
            Quote: Ashes of Klaas
            I called colonialism colonialism

            So, by the way, there was not a single country in history that would not capture something
            1. Ashes of Claes
              Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 17: 06
              +1
              Quote: Pilat2009
              So, by the way, there was not a single country in history that would not capture something

              So why be ashamed of the term? Or what, they have colonizers, we have pioneers and concessionaires?
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 19 January 2022 09: 22
                -5
                Quote: Ashes of Klaas
                they are colonizers

                well, yes: Bavaria is a colony of Germany, Venice is a colony of Italy, and Alsace is a colony of France. Etc.
    2. man
      man 18 January 2022 14: 48
      +3
      I hesitate to ask, what kind of crime was committed against Russia in 1936?
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 18 January 2022 15: 01
        -5
        Quote: mann
        I hesitate to ask, what kind of crime was committed against Russia in 1936?

        above it says:
        But as a result of the crime against Russia in 1936, all of the above was cut off from Russia, depriving the Russian people of the fruits of their labor for hundreds of years.
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 18 January 2022 08: 37
    +12
    Local Orenburg hucksters also did their business on slaves and slaves of Khiva. So in the first half of the XIX century in Orenburg there was a very cool merchant, about whom there were rumors that he had a decent income from the supply of live goods to the harem of the Khiva Khan. However, there was no investigation, and he ended his life in glory and honor. The city officialdom was full of tears and snot at his death.
    1. Zymran
      Zymran 18 January 2022 10: 56
      +7
      Zaichikov or Diev is his surname. He allegedly hired daily workers, during the transition they stopped for the night in the steppe, where they were all knitted by Kazakhs and sold to Khiva.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 18 January 2022 17: 12
        +4
        Like Diev. We need to find material, I recently read it on the Orenburg historical site.
    2. CHEREDA73
      CHEREDA73 18 January 2022 11: 37
      -2
      I have not heard or read about the merchant ...
      In general, such human trafficking is natural (if this word is appropriate) on the border with the steppes. Let's remember the Crimean Khanate ...
      Without a constant new influx of slaves, these states cannot exist, just as a mosquito cannot exist, so as not to drink blood hi
  5. Xlor
    Xlor 18 January 2022 08: 50
    +1
    I remember that General Skobelev said after joining: "Why did we need this Central Asia" ...
    1. samosad
      samosad 18 January 2022 09: 44
      0
      You never know what the general said, although he was a good military man. His job is to fight, and why it is not for him to think.
      1. Ashes of Claes
        Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 09: 56
        0
        Quote: samosad
        You never know what the general said, although he was a good military man. His job is to fight, and why it is not for him to think.

        whether it's the case now - the Minister of Defense is pushing projects for the development of Siberia. Million-plus cities, "aluminum valleys"...
      2. Xlor
        Xlor 18 January 2022 10: 55
        +6
        His business is to fight, and why it is not for him to think

        Just fighting is for officers. The general must already think. And look ahead...
        1. samosad
          samosad 18 January 2022 16: 58
          0
          The fact that when fighting you need to think for everyone - from a soldier to a general, is clear to everyone. I mean, he needs to think in a military plane, but not a political one, if he does not become a governor.
        2. evgen1221
          evgen1221 18 January 2022 17: 01
          +3
          And where does the general learn to think from? If he is only obliged to fulfill all the previous steps in the service without any hesitation. However, a paradox.
          1. samosad
            samosad 19 January 2022 08: 14
            0
            Yes, there are no paradoxes. In order for the general to fulfill any order, one must also think about how to fulfill it. But other people will think about the political consequences.
            1. evgen1221
              evgen1221 19 January 2022 13: 58
              0
              And here the troubles begin and the root of the division into a talented, successful, successful but obstinate system or acting in a stereotyped way but in the clip and in good standing with his leadership, because he has zero ideas.
              1. samosad
                samosad 19 January 2022 14: 51
                -1
                Nonsense. There is a charter. He defines everything.
                1. evgen1221
                  evgen1221 19 January 2022 15: 23
                  0
                  I know, I know, to follow the order without discussing. And then we write about the beginning of the Second World War about the lack of initiative personnel on earth and in the same spirit. I'm not talking about denying the execution of orders in principle, but about the ability to think and take initiative within the framework of the task. And we don’t like it, we even have an idiom to justify this - why are you the smartest thing? We often get rid of this. (((
    2. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
      Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 19 January 2022 20: 13
      0
      In 2005-2006, while working in Turkmenistan, I visited Ashgabat (the new name of Ashgabat) at the National Historical Museum. It is interesting that the battle at Geok-Tepe (1881) was not considered an act of tragedy and the attitude of the Russian troops towards the expedition was calm. Moreover, it was said in passing that the Republic of Ingushetia brought peace to those places, since the semi-sedentary tribes of the southern Turkmens and northern Iranians always terrorized those places, being in fact the "forerunners" of the Basmachi of the 1920s-1930s. And it was hinted that behind them was Great Britain with its interests in that region.
  6. Million
    Million 18 January 2022 09: 09
    0
    They could before, not like the current ones ...
    1. Ashes of Claes
      Ashes of Claes 18 January 2022 10: 01
      -3
      Quote: Million
      They could before, not like the current ones ...

      what exactly could?
  7. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 18 January 2022 09: 38
    +2
    That is, the state formations of Central Asia had a distinct parasitic, predatory character.
    ... If instead of the state formations of Central Asia, substitute the state formations of Mesoamerica, or Africa, a complete justification for the colonial policy of the West ... And for example, the Cossacks of S. Razin, for example, went for zipuns to Persia on tourist packages, All inclusive. Not only they and not once..
  8. Hantengri
    Hantengri 18 January 2022 11: 21
    +7
    That is, the state formations of Central Asia had a distinct parasitic, predatory character.

    That is, when we set up fortresses on their territory, it is we, the fluffy whites, who simply expand our borders. But, when they, such bastards, try to take these territories back, or at least spoil, to the best of their ability, out of revenge, they show their clearly parasitic and predatory character. What a typical #thisother! )))
    Mr. Samsonov, apparently, is unaware that "herbivorous" states do not exist in nature, because they are quickly running out. And RI, as a normal, for its time, large predator, devoured all the smaller carnivores that it could cope with without fanfare. And there is nothing to be ashamed of, because the basic law of the jungle says: "If you do not eat the weak today, then tomorrow the strong will eat you."
    It is also worth remembering that the khans, feudal lords and their nukers robbed their common people, who survived in the most difficult conditions.

    What cynical exploiters! Not only did they trade in slaves, they also rotted their own. It is understandable that when our landlords exchanged their serfs for greyhound puppies, they acted like civilized white people, not like these sheep-lovers in stinking chapans!
    1. samosad
      samosad 19 January 2022 08: 18
      +1
      The stump is clear that in the Great Game the "bloodthirstiness" of the natives was a pretext for conquering new territories. That's what it was... The Great Game.
  9. BAI
    BAI 18 January 2022 13: 43
    +4
    adobe walls more than 8 meters wide.

    8 meters thick.
  10. Looking for
    Looking for 18 January 2022 17: 35
    0
    The article is interesting. But a small "but" MFA
  11. Zymran
    Zymran 18 January 2022 17: 59
    +1
    Quote: Aviator_
    Like Diev. We need to find material, I recently read it on the Orenburg historical site.


    Both names are mentioned. Then he changed his surname and also lived under the new one in Orenburg.
  12. Diviz
    Diviz 19 January 2022 15: 25
    0
    Disappeared as Bekovich. The wormhole sucked him in. Wormhole as a symbol of empire. Now, by the way, in fashion in the films of Pushkin's grandfather.
  13. ViacheslavS
    ViacheslavS 21 January 2022 11: 09
    0
    Under Paul I, the possibility of a rapid advance to the south arose when the sovereign quarreled with the British and ordered the Don and Ural Cossack troops to go to conquer India.


    It's funny, the maximum how this epic ended with the death of the Cossacks and the sale of the survivors into slavery. And this is not yet reaching India.
  14. Timofey Charuta
    Timofey Charuta 18 March 2022 09: 42
    0
    During all these campaigns against the slave traders of Central Asia in Russia itself until 1861, serfdom flourished and was fragrant with the purchase and sale of people, entire Orthodox families. Buy and sell advertisements of this kind were even published in newspapers. For the disobedience of the serfs, they were flogged in full in the stables (see Turgenev). They were forced to work for free for a landowner-slave owner. The gentlemen served the master only for food and a bed.
    It would be better if they organized a kind of campaign against their feudal lords to liberate their own fellow countrymen, and then you can take on the eastern emirs, go to hell knows where ... Where is it ...