Military Review

Last obstacle

History create

With the growth of the power of anti-tank weapons (PTS), it became clear that using passive methods to ensure the protection of armored vehicles is almost impossible. Therefore, for this purpose it is necessary to use external sources of energy. Such sources can serve as explosives (explosives), electrical energy, energy produced during the reactions of chemically active substances. There are many different types of devices that implement the principle of dynamic effects on the PTS, differing in the versions used, the energy sources used and the methods of implementation.

For the first time in the world, the use of dynamic protection was proposed in the USSR. The possibility of the destructive effect of the products of an explosive charge explosion on a cumulative jet leading to a decrease in the penetration of a cumulative jet into an obstacle was discovered back in the years of World War II, when there were cases of non-defeat tanks cumulative PTS in case of contact with ammunition or explosives transported on their armor. A number of research and testing in this area has been conducted.

However, a significant reduction in the depth of penetration of the cumulative jet into the barrier requires a significant amount of explosives, which leads to significant problems due to the impact on the protected object. For this reason, the first samples of protective devices that implement this principle did not have support at the military highs. Research in this direction continued when, at the end of 50-s, more effective methods of influencing the PTS with the help of metal plates were substantiated, in this variant the explosive charge played not the main but the auxiliary role of the energy source for the plates that directly affected the cumulative jet.

The first samples of the universal (built-in) DZ were also developed during the mid-60-s, however, this is a story that has yet to be told.

In parallel, the development was carried out in Germany by Professor M. Held, where by the end of 60 the first samples had also appeared that had successfully passed field testing.

Complex mounted DZ
“Contact” (EHL 4C20)

The complex of the first generation "Contact-1" was implemented in the mounted version. The ZUDT installation was carried out according to a two-row, directional design, so as to achieve large angles at which the interaction of the plates with the cumulative jet will be most effective. This is explained by the fact that the effectiveness of the impact on the cumulative jet of an LSDT with the use of missile platinum depends on the angle of impact of the cumulative jet with them. At meeting angles (the angle is measured from the normal to the surface of the container) 50-70 degrees. the greatest effect of the movement of the metal plates of the container on the cumulative jet is achieved. When meeting angles around 30-45 hail. the impact of the reactive container still noticeably reduces the armor piercing ability of the cumulative jet, although it is reduced by 60 and more percent from the optimal one. At meeting angles close to the normal to the surface of the container, the device loses most of its effectiveness and, as a rule, cannot protect the main armor barrier from the cumulative jet.

When a DZ element breaks through with a cumulative jet, the explosive located in it detonates, and the metal plates of the EHL body begin to fly apart in opposite directions. At the same time they cross the trajectory of the jet, constantly acting on it. Part of the jet is spent on breaking these plates, and the side impulse from the collision destabilizes the jet.

As a result of DZ exposure, armor-piercing characteristics of cumulative agents can be reduced by 50-80%. The decrease in the armor-piercing characteristics of the armor-piercing sub-caliber DZ shells of the “Contact” type has little effect.

Last obstacle

Containers of DZ systems of mounted type "Contact-1"

KDNZ "Kontakt-1" provides:

The complex provides a weight gain of 10 ... 20 times (compared to rolled steel armor) while protecting against cumulative anti-tank weapons. Installation and maintenance are carried out only by the crew, the installation time on the prepared tank by the crew’s forces is (on average) 2 hours.

Failure of EDS during firing from small arms weapons, exposure to napalm and flammable liquids. Maintainability, incl. using electrical and gas welding.

Warranty period - 10 years.

The weight of the KNDZ container equipped with two elements 4С20 - kg 5,3 (without fasteners). The mass of the complex differs from the number of containers installed on the tank (for example, 165 on T-72C, 227 on T-72B and 265 on T-64BV). On average, about 1200-1500 kg.

The Contact-1 complex is installed on OBT T-64BV, T-64AB, T-72B, T-72AB, T-80BB medium tanks T-55АМВ, T-62МВ and a number of others.

When installing KDNZ "Contact-1" to the index of the base modification of the upgraded tank was added the designation "B". For tanks, the installation of DZ on which it was originally intended (T-72B, the first series of T-80UD and T-80U, etc.) did not apply any additional designations.

When installing, 3 type containers were used, all of them were equipped with two EHR 2C20 and differed only in form.

The installation of EHR 4C20 (and others, for example, 4C24) is also possible in special flexible protective screens installed on the on-board projections of the tank in case of the threat of using a melee PTS. The screen consists of a fabric cover with pockets, which are inserted into the EHD. With the help of belts, the protective module is attached to the mountings on the protected projection of the tank.

The module provides protection against the cumulative means of steel when firing in the normal to the board. The use of modules is advisable in the case of tank operations in urban areas. Installation of screens is included in the standard protection kit BMPT "Frame-99", and can also be installed on any other tanks.

Installation of flexible protective screens on BMPT "Frame-99". Tank T-55AM with flexible protective screens.
Demonstration of the characteristics of flexible protective screens on the T-72B tank, in the photo before and after the shelling.

Complex universal built DZ

This complex provides protection against both cumulative means (CS) and against armor-piercing sub-caliber shells (BPS). The cover of the DZ block of thick high-strength steel, when struck into it, BPS generates a stream of high-speed fragments, which detonate the EHD. The impact of a moving thick cover and EDS plates is sufficient to reduce the armor-piercing characteristics of both cumulative means and BPS.

The serial complex of the universal remote control "Contact-V" was adopted in the middle of the 80-s. This complex was equipped with T-72B tanks of the later series, tank T-80U and T-80UD, later T-90.

Considering a specific variant of the installation of the “Contact-5” complex - the T-72Б / 90 tank, it is clear that the tower of the T-90 tank has 7 blocks and one dynamic protection container (8 blocks on T-72B) that overlap approximately 50% frontal projection towers at course corners 0 °, in blocks up to six EHDs of type 4С22, placed in two rows, are placed.

On the upper frontal part (VLD) of the hull of the T-90 tank, there are sections in which are placed EDZ (four and six 4-22 devices installed in two rows).

The total mass of the complex DZ - 1,5 t. (Of which the weight of the ELS is less than 500 kg.)
The total number of sections DZ - 26 pcs.
The total number of EHL 4C22 - 360 pcs.
The number of sections on the main parts of the tank:
on the tower - 8 pcs;
on VLD-12;
on-board screens - 6 pcs.
The area of ​​the frontal projection of the tank, covered by the DZ complex:
at a course angle of 0 °> 55%;
at heading angles ± 20 ° (body)> 45%;
at heading angles ± 35 ° (tower)> 45%.
Enhance tank protection:
from PCB to 1,9 ... 2,0 times;
from BPS to 1,2 times.

EHD does not detonate when 7,62 mm and 12,7 mm bullets, shrapnels and 30-mm projectiles hit. VDZ has a higher resistance to high-explosive exposure, compared with KDZ.
The detonation of elements DZ when exposed to fire mixtures like "Napalm".
Weight EHD 4C22 - kg 1,37, overall dimensions 251,9 х131,9 х13 mm.
Thus, the total mass of the EDS in this version of the complex is 493 kg. The remaining mass is the construction of sections and blocks for the placement of elements.

Regarding the length of the elements of the DZ, it is worth noting that, indeed, domestic ELDs are 251,9 mm long. But they are stacked in several pieces in one container.
Two 4С22 form the very same 500 mm, which are mentioned more than once in critical articles of M. Rastopshin.
On the left - a variant of placement of EDS in the sections on the VLD of the tank body. UDZ 4С22 installed in sections forming a working surface with a length of 500 mm in height.

In the picture: 1 is a DZ section equipped with a removable cover (2) for installing an EDS.
The built-in dynamic protection with EDS 4C22 is installed on the following serial tanks - T-80U, T-80UD, T-72B (starting from 1988 year), T-90.

Installation of universal VDZ "Kontakt-V" on the tower and VLD T-80U case.

In the photo - cassettes for the ELD of tower blocks, section VDZ on the VLD of the case.

The frontal armor of the T-80U and T-72B tanks was for a long time unaffected by their modern BPS and ATGM, and can be controlled only by the newest BPS and ATGM that has appeared in recent years.
In the event that modern models of dynamic protection are installed on these tanks, they will be able to ensure superiority over the most modern anti-tank weapons.

In the photo - T-80UD after shelling the sides of the hull and tower 125 mm with cumulative shells.

Power screens of the case, from above on type T-72B / T-90, from below T-80U.

In fig. on the left - enclosure screens, on top of the type T-80 (left) T-72B / 90 (on the right). The power screens of the T-72B / T-90 case are made of solid steel plates, these screens have a significant drawback - a much smaller portion of the side projection that they overlap. The power screens of the T-80U / UD (T-84, T-64BM) are made split, the area they cover is much larger than that of the T-90 screens, but the protection from the BPS provided by them is somewhat smaller than that of the T-72Б / Т screens -90.
Features placement VDZ "Contact-V" on the MBT T-72B / T-90 and T-80U / T-80UD
As can be seen from the drawings and photos, the VDZ installation on the T-80U / UD and T-72B / 90 tanks is different.

T-80UD, T-80U, T-90.

On T-80U / UD EDS installed in blocks on the bearing elements, welded to the frontal projection of the tower.
Each block cavity contains up to 4 EHD. Further on the drawings it can be seen that there are a number of containers, which, depending on their location, differ in the shape and equipment of the EHD.

The DZ installation provides uniform overlap of the frontal projection and the absence of weakened zones between the trapezoidal DZ blocks.

On the T-72B / T-90, the units with EDS are mounted with bolt-on fasteners. The block contains two cavities with cassettes for placement of EHD. Each block cavity contains up to 6 EHL (6 at the top and 4 at the bottom). The angle of inclination of the containers is similar to the angle of inclination of the VLD of the tank and is 68 degrees, thus ensuring the ratio of the mass and velocity of the material that affects the TCP is the most optimal for a significant reduction in their penetration. The installation of VDZ on the frontal rolling of the T-72Б / Т-90 tower provides a slightly higher level of resistance from the PTS in a number of areas (upper containers of blocks), with a smaller overlapping projection of the tower by the complex as a whole.

As can be seen from the photos and drawings, the main tanks T-80U / UD and T-72B, whose mass production took place at the same time, were not completely unified by the elements of the VDZ complex. This can be attributed to the deficiency, which once again confirmed the problem of the lack of unification of domestic MBT. At the moment, measures are being taken in Russia to unify DZ tank complexes that are in service with T-72B (T-90) and T-80B. The protection of the upgraded MBT is made according to a single modular scheme - “relic”.

The figure shows the installation of the DZ on the tank 478BE (T-80UD with a welded turret).
320 such tanks were delivered to Pakistan.

With the advent of a large number of ammunition attacking the tank from above and on the passage, greater demands are being made to protect the roof of the tower. Protection of the roof of the towers, both domestic and foreign tanks at this stage due to their classic layout and does not provide protection from attacking from above the ammunition. However, domestic tanks compare favorably with foreign ones, as the roof protection is enhanced by dynamic protection, as well as layers of undercoat and nadboy from a polymeric material designed to protect against radiation, as well as additional protection, which minimizes the angle of spread secondary fragments.

Dynamic protection installed on the roof of the tower of domestic tanks (for example, T-80UD, T-90, BM Bulat, etc.) provides protection against modern cumulative and kinetic weapons. Dynamic protection blocked the main part of the roof of the tower except for hatches and sighting devices.

The figure shows the installation scheme of the DZ on the roof of the tank turret (option).

The successive action of the EDS and the elastic element placed between them, which additionally affects the cumulative jet or kinetic ammunition (the elastic element increases the operation time of the device, due to the dynamic compression of its material), and then the impact of the second EDS leads to a significant decrease in armor penetration of the attacking ammunition. In addition to the elastic elements between the EHL, additional plates of high hardness steel can be placed in the container.

Complex universal DZ modular type
Relic (EHL 4C23)

Improved performance was achieved by moving from a complex built to a modular design, which provides a number of advantages, such as ease of maintenance, including the ability to replace damaged modules in the field, the possibility of upgrading the existing tank fleet by the Defense Ministry’s enterprises during their planned repair.
The complex consists of a DZ module of the upper frontal part of the hull, quick-detachable DZ containers mounted on the roof and side projections of the tower, as well as on the sides of the hull.

Installation of a universal DZ "Relikt" on the turret and the VLD of the hull of the T-72B "Slingshot" tanks.

In advanced 4C23 devices, some of the disadvantages of 4C22 were eliminated, such as insufficient sensitivity when initiating low-speed kinetic shells and some types of cumulative ammunition. Increasing efficiency in protection against kinetic and cumulative ammunition is achieved through the use of additional projectiles, the inclusion of non-metallic elements acting on the attacking ammunition, as well as a longer interaction time. As a result of these activities, developers were able to achieve a reduction in the armor penetration capability of BOPS, depending on the type of ammunition within 20-60%. Due to the increased exposure time to the cumulative jet, it was also possible to achieve a certain efficacy in cumulative TCP with tandem warhead.

The total mass of the complex DZ - 2,3 tons. (When combined together with the OM - to 3 tons.)
The total number of sections DZ - 27 pcs.
The total number of EHL 4C22 - 394 pcs.
The number of sections on the main parts of the tank:
on the tower - 9 pcs;
on VLD-12;
on-board screens - 6 pcs.
The area of ​​the frontal projection of the tank, covered by the DZ complex:
at a course angle of 0 °> 60%;
at heading angles ± 20 ° (body)> 45%;
at heading angles ± 35 ° (tower)> 55%.
Enhance tank protection:
from PCB to 2 times;
from BPS to 1,5 times.

Upgraded MBT T-72B BMPT "Frame-99" with VDZ "Relic".
The T-72B, T-80B and BMPT protection complexes are unified.

According to the developers of the complex, it will provide T-72B and T-80B type tanks with effective protection against the most common currently sifting projectiles of the М829А2, DM-53 and other types with similar characteristics, as well as anti-tank systems with a TAND-2A tandem warhead and their analogues. The new DZ is also devoid of some of the shortcomings of its predecessors.

DZ complex for LME
(EHL 4C24)

As it is known, the armored vehicle booking (armored personnel carrier, infantry fighting vehicle) is much weaker than that of tanks; in the event of an EDS and PTS on their armor with such a joint explosion, the protected object can receive serious damage. As the available test results show, under these conditions, breaks and significant permanent deformations of armor parts, cracks in the welds of hulls and towers of the protected object can occur. In addition, a complex superposition of several shock waves with amplitude and time of action sufficient for causing damage to crew members (rupture of eardrum, etc.) arises in the internal volume of the protected object.

To eliminate the above problems, EDS are placed in layers of filler made of foamed polymeric material, which ensures smooth braking of metal plates scattered by the explosion, which, on the one hand, allows them to cause damage to a penetrating cumulative jet, the trajectory of which they intersect; on the other hand, the braking of the plates in the specified filler reduces the speed of their impact on adjacent explosive reactive elements to a safe value.

New unit DZ with EDS 4C24 for BMP
(in comparison with the old block DZ with EHD 4C20).

Does not detonate and does not burn when incendiary bullets hit. The blocks provide frontal and side-projection protection from PTS with a penetrability up to 600 mm (RPG-7ВМ / ВЛ / ВС / В, etc.). In places where DZ units are installed (in the case of the BMP-3), anti-bullet resistance is improved (the B-32 mm 14,5 mm armor-piercing bullets from the 50 range and above are secured from the 23 mm and above). Weight EHD 550C4 - kg 22, overall dimensions 1,37 х250 х130,9 mm. The total mass of the complex DZ - 10 t.
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