Military Review

Xinjiang-Uyguria, Kazakhs in China and... Chinese Kazakhstan

50
Xinjiang-Uyguria, Kazakhs in China and... Chinese Kazakhstan

You may not be a Uighur



During the negotiations started on January 15, 1962 to clarify the Soviet-Chinese border, Beijing for the first time made claims to many of its sections. And on July 10, 1964, Mao Zedong, at a meeting with parliamentarians and the Japanese media, made claims to the vast territories of the USSR adjacent to the PRC.

In this situation, Moscow responded with the creation of the pro-Soviet "People's Revolutionary Party of East Turkestan" (NRPVT). It set as its goal the creation of the "Chinese Socialist Republic of Xinjiang Uyguria". Moreover, with the possible inclusion of it in the Kazakh SSR in the status of an autonomous republic.

However, it didn't happen...

The Soviet-Chinese confrontation that began in 1960 was accompanied in the PRC by the excesses of the Great Leap Forward (1958-1962) and the Cultural Revolution (1966-1969). They, among other things, included the strengthening of the “Sinification” of national autonomies - first of all, the very vast Tibet and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

The latter accounted for about 20% of the territory and over 10% of the total population of the PRC. "Sinification" was directed against the Uighurs and partly the Kazakhs, who made up more than 70% of the population of this region. But by the mid-70s, this figure had dropped to 50%.

This was achieved by the PRC authorities due to the mass resettlement of Chinese there, restrictions on the use of non-Chinese languages, religious restrictions, periodic campaigns to evict Turkic peoples, especially Uyghurs, to other regions of the PRC.

All this caused not only protests from the non-Chinese population, but also illegal emigration to the neighboring Kazakh SSR. The most massive flow of migrants came in 1962.


In more detail, in March of that year, hundreds of Uighurs and Kazakhs gathered in front of the Soviet consulate in Ghulja (western Xinjiang) - on Stalin Avenue (pictured), which has survived there to this day, who wanted to leave for the USSR. The Chinese authorities used military force against them.

As a result, at least 75 Uyghurs and Kazakhs soon crossed the border in its Kazakh (partially Kyrgyz) sections. Only for the period from April 22 to the first ten days of June 1962, inclusive, this figure amounted to 67 thousand people.

It is significant that among these persons up to 15% were servicemen of the 5th Army Corps of the People's Liberation Army of China bordering the Kazakh and Kirghiz SSR.

Geopolitics and nothing personal


The Chinese side did not dare to use military force against the emigrants on the border. And she accused the leadership of the USSR of provoking separatism in the PRC and encouraging an exodus from Xinjiang. But on April 29, 1962, in the Note of the Government of the USSR to the Government of the People's Republic of China, Peking's accusations against the USSR were categorically rejected.

The note stated that

“The border crossing is carried out from the Chinese side, with the connivance of the Chinese authorities. Which should have taken timely measures to prevent the mass crossing of the Sino-Soviet border.

In total for 1962-1972. at least 170 thousand people moved from Xinjiang to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, of which up to 80% were Uyghurs, the rest were Xinjiang Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Tajiks (for more details, see Ablazhey N.N., “The aggravation of national relations in Xinjiang: 1946-1963”, Barnaul, 2004; Kozhirova S.A., “Uighurs in Kazakhstan: история and modernity”, Astana, 2014)

Meanwhile, Sino-Soviet relations continued to deteriorate, prompting Moscow to form the predominantly Chinese Uyghur People's Revolutionary Party of Eastern Turkmenistan (PPRT—Shärqiy Turkistan Khälq Inqilawi Partiyisi). This was done in the autumn of 1963, with the deployment of its leadership in eastern Kazakhstan.


The organization set as its goal the restoration of the true autonomy of the XUAR with the cessation of its "sinification". And as a super-task, the accession to the Kazakh SSR of a number of Uyghur regions of the XUAR adjacent to Kazakhstan within the framework of an autonomous republic, if Beijing does not change its policy in this region.

Such a party was created, of course, under the "tutelage" of the KGB of the USSR with the participation of its Kazakh division. On the basis of the documents of this unit, the Kazakh portal "Nomad" on November 28, 2014 noted in the material "On the history of foreign intelligence of Kazakhstan" that

"The intelligence department of the KGB of the Kazakh SSR carried out work on the selection of candidates from among the operational personnel for use in illegal intelligence work both in Xinjiang and other regions of Southeast Asia."

But the authorities of the Kazakh SSR were not interested in increasing the role of the Uighur factor in the republic. That is why the top Soviet leadership was dissuaded from further encouraging the anti-Maoist Uyghur underground in Xinjiang and "connecting" the adjacent regions of the XUAR to eastern Kazakhstan. As is known, the Uighurs have been living there for a long time, and their largest number still remains in the Alma-Ata region.

The situation in Soviet-Chinese relations in the 60s - 70s. (cm. And the third Damansky is also forgotten) forced Moscow to work out various options for influencing Beijing, in which the Uighur factor also played an important role. The mentioned NRPVT, according to Chinese sources, by the end of the 60s consisted of up to 30 thousand people. and at least 150 illegal cells in XUAR.

The party had mobile radio stations, stocks of small arms weapons, distributed anti-Maoist proclamations in Uighur, Chinese, Kazakh. Reserve bases for this party in 1968-1972. were in southwestern Mongolia adjacent to Xinjiang. But at the request of Ulaanbaatar, where they did not want a further aggravation of relations with Beijing, these points were removed from Mongolia in 1973.

Ungrateful Beijing


The PRC intelligence services qualified that party as a pro-Soviet political group to support a possible coup in Beijing. However, the Chinese side did not dare to make public accusations against Moscow about the ITT, fearing more active Soviet actions to "replace" the Mao Zedong leadership.

In October 1969, in a number of cities in the XUAR, this party organized clashes with the Chinese and with the local police. Under the slogans of not only stopping the “Sinification” of this region. But also the proclamation of the XUAR as the "Chinese Socialist Republic of Xinjiang Uyguria" (similar to the existing Kuomintang "Republic of China on Taiwan").

The readiness of Beijing declared in the fall of 1969 to negotiate with Moscow to eliminate tensions on the mutual border changed the priorities in the Chinese policy of the USSR. And successful negotiations between the Soviet premier A. Kosygin and his Chinese colleague Zhou Enlai on September 11, 1969 at the Beijing airport on border and political and economic issues soon drew a line under the Uighur "project".


It is also characteristic that the intelligence services of the "Republic of China on Taiwan" initially cooperated and are still cooperating with the special services of the PRC in the suppression of Uyghur (and Tibetan, Mongolian) separatism.

At the turn of the 60s / 70s, Taipei handed over to Beijing the available information about the upcoming actions of the aforementioned pro-Soviet party. China received information about its plans to cooperate with the Uyghur ultra-Islamists, about the attempts of the Soviet KGB to cooperate with Taiwan against the PRC, about the new “bundles” of Indian intelligence with the Tibetan separatists (see. The great helmsman did not forgive us for this).

Beijing thanked: in 1972-1974. in the PRC, almost all the numerous Taiwanese intelligence agents identified in mainland China since the mid-60s were amnestied and sent to Taiwan (via British Hong Kong and Portuguese Macao). This decision of Beijing was also connected with the visit of US President Richard Nixon to China in February 1972.

As a result, local attempts to organize an “All-Uyghur” uprising in the XUAR were quickly suppressed by Chinese troops and special units. But, in order to justify itself to their protégés, the Soviet side accused the NRPVT of the prematureness of those actions.

Thus, the continuation of support for this party became a "fallback option" if Soviet-Chinese relations escalated again. Nevertheless, Moscow refrained from promoting a repetition of the events of 1969 in the XUAR. The main reason for this is the increasingly active political and economic rapprochement between the PRC and the United States. Why they forgot the second Damansky).

In the meantime, in 1980, the leadership of the "People's Revolutionary Party of East Turkestan" for the most part was illegally transferred to the XUAR. That is, in fact, it was set up for the Chinese special services, which in a matter of years practically defeated this organization.

In February 1983, she announced her self-dissolution, distributing proclamations with accusations against Moscow "in betraying the revolutionary struggle of the Uighur people" and "in collusion with Peking imperialism". Around the same time, the Sino-Soviet confrontation also began to wane...

Instead of PS, the Bolsheviks were framed


According to research by Karaganda State University (mid-2010s), Uyghur separatism in Xinjiang is not limited to the territory of the XUAR, covering - at least ideologically - the border regions of Kazakhstan. But since the Soviet period, Kazakhstani Uighurs have enjoyed a very wide cultural autonomy in Kazakhstan, and therefore they prefer to be content with it.

And, if separatist groups of Uyghurs arise in Kazakhstan, then these are almost exclusively refugees from the XUAR to post-Soviet Kazakhstan. However, radicalism in this environment is an infrequent phenomenon. Which is connected primarily with the policy of Kazakhstan to prevent any disputes, and even more so conflicts, with China.

For obvious reasons, Beijing has the same line. Therefore, as noted in the same studies, in the joint interstate declaration of 1996, the parties confirm that they are

“against national separatism in any form, they will not allow any organizations and forces to carry out separatist activities on their territory directed against the other side.”

The same is reflected in the 1997 declaration:

“... The parties confirm that they will “oppose any kind of national separatism, not allowing separatist activities of any organizations and forces directed against the other side on their territory.”

Accordingly, in 2004 and 2006 By decisions of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the activities of such recognized terrorist organizations as the East Turkestan Islamic Party and the East Turkestan Liberation Organization were banned.

In September 2002, a group of Uyghur activists led by former Chinese Kazakh Uyghur K. Kozhamberdiev came up with an initiative to create the "People's Party" Uyghurstan ". She had to defend the interests of the "majority" of the national minority.

The party of these "Bolsheviks" declared its goals to be the unification of all Uyghurs and the achievement of "sovereignty of Uyghurstan" by purely political means. However, the "majority" party did not receive proper support in the Uyghur diaspora in Kazakhstan and soon disbanded itself.

It remains to be noted that even today the authorities of Kazakhstan take into account that up to 1,3 million Kazakhs live in the XUAR. Therefore, a different Kazakh policy towards the Uyghur issue is fraught with appropriate measures by Beijing against the Chinese Kazakhs.
Author:
Photos used:
obozrenie-chita.ru, molitvazanarod.com, s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com, nic-pnb.ru
50 comments
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  1. Kaufman
    Kaufman 17 January 2022 06: 33
    +8
    In February 1983, she announced her self-dissolution, distributing proclamations accusing Moscow of "betraying the revolutionary struggle of the Uighur people" and "in collusion with Beijing imperialism." Around the same time, the Sino-Soviet confrontation also began to wane...

    that's how we throw our own ... Cuba, too, abruptly changed their ideology and abandoned our faithful Cuban comrades. Yugoslavia.
    drastically change ideology every few decades...
    Well, who is multi-vector here ?!
    1. Simple
      Simple 17 January 2022 13: 58
      +3
      Quote: kaufman
      this is how we throw ours ...



      Who - "their"?

      China. Kazakhstan and Russia acted rather wisely.
      Whoever wants to, will move.
      The main thing is that territorial claims are closed.
      The Chinese Socialist Republic of Xinjiang Uyguria would have been created, now this "card" would be played by the United States and the West.
    2. Elturisto
      Elturisto 17 January 2022 15: 48
      +4
      Uighur "comrades" - Islamic fundamentalists ...
    3. House 25 Sq. 380
      House 25 Sq. 380 17 January 2022 16: 00
      +3
      Yugoslavia? Josip, have you been abandoned?
      You, this, the same, do not tell))
    4. Fiesta
      Fiesta 18 January 2022 13: 44
      0
      Are radical Islamists your comrades? To me - no.
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 17 January 2022 07: 12
    -11
    But the authorities of the Kazakh SSR were not interested in increasing the role of the Uighur factor in the republic. That is why the top Soviet leadership was dissuaded from further encouraging the anti-Maoist Uyghur underground in Xinjiang and "connecting" the adjacent regions of the XUAR to eastern Kazakhstan.

    Correctly, the authorities of the KSSR dissuaded: the policy has changed, but hundreds of thousands of refugees from China remained and became a heavy burden on the authorities of the republic, changing its national composition and creating tension in the social sphere.
    1. Civil
      Civil 17 January 2022 09: 05
      +1
      The Kazakhs are implementing a program for the resettlement of Kazakhs from other countries to Kazakhstan, and quite successfully. But not without friction, of course.
      1. Xnumx vis
        Xnumx vis 17 January 2022 21: 17
        +5
        Quote: Civil
        The Kazakhs are implementing a program for the resettlement of Kazakhs from other countries to Kazakhstan, and quite successfully. But not without friction, of course.

        Now I understand why more than half of the Russian-speaking population of Kazakhstan left this country ... It turns out that the program to oust the Russian-speaking population is working successfully. That's it !
        1. Civil
          Civil 18 January 2022 07: 00
          0
          Quote: 30 vis
          Quote: Civil
          The Kazakhs are implementing a program for the resettlement of Kazakhs from other countries to Kazakhstan, and quite successfully. But not without friction, of course.

          Now I understand why more than half of the Russian-speaking population of Kazakhstan left this country ... It turns out that the program to oust the Russian-speaking population is working successfully. That's it !

          That is why they started this program.
    2. Altona
      Altona 17 January 2022 09: 12
      +5
      Quote: Olgovich
      and hundreds of thousands of refugees from China remained and laid a heavy burden on the authorities of the republic, changing its national composition and creating tension in the social sphere.

      -------------------------------
      Well, 170 thousand would hardly have had such a strong impact on the social and ethnic sphere. Kazakhstan, however, was not mono-ethnic, and there were only 40 percent of the autokhons themselves, like, for example, the Tatars in the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
      1. your1970
        your1970 17 January 2022 12: 21
        +2
        Quote: Altona
        170 thousand would hardly have had such a strong impact on the social and ethnic sphere.

        For several million local? It's a lot...
        1. Altona
          Altona 17 January 2022 12: 38
          +1
          Quote: your1970
          For several million local? It's a lot...

          -------------------------
          Well, let's compare. The 15 millionth non-rubber was brought in by 1,5 million Central Asians, not quite complementary. And here it is 10 times less, well, with a similar mentality, so to speak, and you can settle them there completely separately.
          1. your1970
            your1970 17 January 2022 12: 58
            +6
            Quote: Altona
            B15 millionth non-rubber was delivered 1,5 million Central Asians, not quite complementary

            You cut the number, up to 250 thousand (according to the then FMS estimates) maximum.
            And then our Saratov Kazakhs who go there on a watch will not fit. And also the Buryats, Koreans, Uzbeks and all the others who were born here during the USSR ....

            Quote: Altona
            here it is 10 times smaller, well, with a similar mentality, so to speak, and you can settle them there completely separately.

            You simply can’t imagine Kazakhstan. There can be 1000 km from city to city, and in the interval there are 2 villages with 10 inhabitants each and these will be - "Baaaal villages !!"
            And one and a half roads in winter .....
            1. Ingvar 72
              Ingvar 72 17 January 2022 13: 39
              -3
              Quote: your1970
              You cut the number, up to 250 thousand (according to the then FMS estimates) maximum.

              Come on? belay
              The number of migrants living in Moscow increased by 2019% by 15,4 and exceeded 1,6 million people. This was announced to journalists on Friday by the head of the Migration Department of the Main Directorate of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia for the capital, Dmitry Sergienko.

              But infa from him at the end of 2021.
              There are now less than 800 foreigners in Moscow, mainly from the countries of Central Asia, in 000 there were more than 2020 million of them, Dmitry Sergienko, head of the department for migration issues of the capital's main department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, said, RIA Novosti reports.

              And this figure does not include those who have become the proud owner of a Russian passport over the years. And there are a lot of them, since passports were handed out in order to compensate for the population decline.
              The number of foreigners who received Russian citizenship in 2021 will exceed 656 thousand people. Such data was provided by the First Deputy Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation Alexander Gorovoy. According to him, the number of persons admitted to citizenship increased from 498 people in 2019 to 656 in 2020.
              1. House 25 Sq. 380
                House 25 Sq. 380 17 January 2022 15: 58
                +3
                Unrelated numbers...
                Somewhere foreigners, somewhere migrants, somewhere Central Asia, somewhere about citizenship ....
                Most of the new citizens of the Russian Federation, by the way, are from the LDNR
                1. Ingvar 72
                  Ingvar 72 17 January 2022 18: 38
                  -4
                  Quote: House 25 Sq. 380
                  Unrelated numbers.

                  And think about it? wink Citizens of other regions of Russia are not called migrants. At least officials.
                  Quote: House 25 Sq. 380
                  Most of the new citizens of the Russian Federation, by the way, are from the LDNR

                  No. Since 2014, about 700 thousand people have received Russian citizenship. from LDNR.
                  1. House 25 Sq. 380
                    House 25 Sq. 380 17 January 2022 20: 13
                    +2
                    Yes, more than 1 million people became citizens of Russia from the LDNR ....
                    And I thought: officials call everyone migrants, of any nationality and from any region ...
                    1. Ingvar 72
                      Ingvar 72 17 January 2022 20: 38
                      -4
                      Quote: House 25 Sq. 380
                      Yes, more than 1 million people became citizens of Russia from the LDNR ..

                      Can you read and count? Since 2014, fewer than 700 people have received Russian citizenship. And over the past 3 years, 1.800.000 passports have been distributed.
                      1. House 25 Sq. 380
                        House 25 Sq. 380 17 January 2022 21: 22
                        +2
                        From ldnr - more than 1 million, update info...
                      2. Ingvar 72
                        Ingvar 72 17 January 2022 23: 25
                        -5
                        Quote: House 25 Sq. 380
                        update info...

                        Can you provide a link to the updated info? wink For as of July 2021, 611 thousand passports were issued to residents of the LDNR. Total.
              2. your1970
                your1970 17 January 2022 17: 54
                +5
                Quote: Ingvar 72
                1,6 million

                Quote: Ingvar 72
                800 000 foreigners

                Quote: Ingvar 72
                foreigners who received Russian citizenship in 2021 will exceed 656 thousand people.


                "In the first quarter of 2020, more than 161 thousand people received Russian citizenship, which is 2,5 times more compared to the same period last year. About 108 thousand newly minted Russian citizens are Ukrainians, most of them are residents of the DPR and LPR, the analytical service of the international audit and consulting network FinExpertiza.
                The bulk of those acquiring citizenship of the Russian Federation are citizens of Ukraine. For the period from the beginning of 2016 to the first quarter of 2020, their share among recipients of Russian passports amounted to 46,6%, or 676,8 thousand people.
                The second largest group is the natives of Kazakhstan (12,9%, or 187 thousand people), followed by Tajikistan (10%, or 146,1 thousand), Armenia (7,2%, or 104,6 thousand), Uzbekistan (6,3%, or 92 thousand), Moldova (4,8%, 69,5 thousand), Azerbaijan (3,4%, or 49,7 thousand), Kyrgyzstan (2,7%, 38,7 .2,4 thousand), then a group of stateless persons (35,4%, or 1,3 thousand), and citizens of Belarus close the top ten (18,7%, or XNUMX thousand)."

                total - Central Asians for 5 years amounted to 187 + 146,1 + 92 + 38,7 \u463d 800 against 676,8 residents of Ukraine

                in 2021 the ratio is about 50% of the inhabitants of Ukraine to all the rest.
                1. Ingvar 72
                  Ingvar 72 17 January 2022 19: 05
                  -2
                  Quote: your1970
                  For the period from the beginning of 2016 to the first quarter of 2020

                  I gave you the figures for the last 3 years. 1,8 million people
                  Of which, about 700 thousand are from the LDNR. From Kazakhstan during this time a little more than 140 thousand people.
                  Quote: your1970
                  The second largest group is the natives of Kazakhstan

                  In all sources, Tajikistan is in second place, Kazakhstan is in third.
                  But it still doesn't beat the numbers. request Someone somewhere is lying. For the total number of issued passports is clearly higher.
                  1. your1970
                    your1970 17 January 2022 21: 57
                    +3
                    Quote: your1970
                    found out the analytical service of the international audit and consulting network FinExpertiza

                    Everything in quotation marks is a direct quote.
                    As a resident of the border area, I can say that since 2016, Central Asians have been leaving much more (through us) than they have arrived.
                    It became unprofitable to work in Moscow for them because of the dollar exchange rate and double conversion (rubles - dollars - tugriks).
                    I’ll say more - it’s even less of us to go to Moscow on a shift - salaries have fallen dramatically and there’s more scammers. It’s economically inexpedient ....
                    1. Ingvar 72
                      Ingvar 72 17 January 2022 23: 29
                      -5
                      Quote: your1970
                      I’ll say more - it’s even less of us to go to Moscow on a shift - salaries have fallen dramatically and there’s more scammers. It’s economically inexpedient ....

                      Putin thinks differently, and he recently said this at a meeting with the President of Tajikistan. The highest officials of the state talk about the need for 1,5 million migrants.
                      1. your1970
                        your1970 18 January 2022 08: 03
                        +3
                        Quote: Ingvar 72
                        Putin thinks otherwise
                        why do you think so????
                        This just confirms my idea about a sharp decrease in the number of migrants and ours. That is why these 1,5 million people are being discussed.
                        Moscow is a specific city that has never done without gasters. Although under the tsars - outhouses, even under the USSR - "limitA", even now - shifts / gasters.
                      2. Ingvar 72
                        Ingvar 72 18 January 2022 12: 08
                        0
                        Quote: your1970
                        why do you think so????

                        From what he himself said.
                        What ANOTHER 1,5 million migrants need.
                        This is despite the fact that in Russia, according to official figures, there are more than 5 million unemployed.
                      3. your1970
                        your1970 18 January 2022 12: 52
                        +2
                        You do not read the opponent, alas ...
                        Quote: Ingvar 72
                        What ANOTHER 1,5 million migrants need.
                        - because LEFT few...left.....
                        NOT To existing - a in return those who left....
                        I did a little investigation here last year - I asked the road builders my friends ...
                        1) Our local guest workers work on the road for 42 official salaries (I know for sure from boos - that they charge so much)
                        2) in Saratov, an acquaintance who worked on the roads on equipment about 5 years ago - said that in less than 90 - he would not go.
                        3) a Moscow acquaintance of the road builder (on equipment) said that from 150
                        Something like this...
                        Moscow will go for 42? or ...
                        And so everywhere..

                        Zy about the figures of the unemployed - my neighbor KAMAZist is also included in it. He has been officially unemployed since 1993, and receives benefits as a poor person (like they live on his wife’s salary)
                      4. House 25 Sq. 380
                        House 25 Sq. 380 18 January 2022 21: 02
                        +1
                        Now in Moscow, at a construction site, a gaster - if he can carry something - earns 70 tyr ..
                        If the gaster is still intellectually developed enough to understand, without too much reminder, WHERE to take it, - 100 s...
                      5. Ingvar 72
                        Ingvar 72 18 January 2022 21: 22
                        0
                        Quote: House 25 Sq. 380
                        Now in Moscow at the construction site gaster

                        No need for stories. I have a friend who travels to work in Moscow. Two weeks later, subway. 30 thousand rubles + meals and hostel. Road at your own expense. They go by car, five of us, it's cheaper.
                      6. your1970
                        your1970 18 January 2022 23: 56
                        +1
                        Quote: Ingvar 72
                        I have a friend who travels to work in Moscow. Two weeks after two, subway

                        An acquaintance waited six months to work on a shift in Metro - the second watch has already been taken. He speaks on his hands 70 comes out. Four of them drive a car
                      7. House 25 Sq. 380
                        House 25 Sq. 380 19 January 2022 01: 45
                        +1
                        I didn't say the cleaners in the subway, I said the gasters at the construction site...
                        It's hard to work in construction...
                        Of course, whoever does not want to work at a construction site for a steward will be beating pears in the subway for 30 ...
                2. House 25 Sq. 380
                  House 25 Sq. 380 17 January 2022 20: 16
                  +2
                  It should also be borne in mind that many new citizens from Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan are Russians and other "non-titular" nationalities there...
                  1. Ingvar 72
                    Ingvar 72 17 January 2022 20: 44
                    -4
                    Quote: House 25 Sq. 380
                    Russians and other "non-titular" nationalities there ...

                    Yes, no one argues. But most of them are not Russians.
                    1. House 25 Sq. 380
                      House 25 Sq. 380 17 January 2022 21: 27
                      +3
                      Hundreds of thousands more from Ukraine itself, outside the LDNR...
                      For example, in 2019 alone, almost 100 Ukrainians became citizens of Russia, outside the LPR...
                      The main "source" is the re-issuance of previously issued residence permits and RVPs after the required residence time for obtaining citizenship ...
                      1. Ingvar 72
                        Ingvar 72 17 January 2022 23: 29
                        -6
                        Quote: House 25 Sq. 380
                        For example, in 2019 alone, almost 100 Ukrainians became citizens of Russia, outside the LPR...

                        Give a link?
                      2. House 25 Sq. 380
                        House 25 Sq. 380 18 January 2022 20: 55
                        +1
                        Right after your references for the end of 2021...
                      3. Ingvar 72
                        Ingvar 72 18 January 2022 21: 19
                        -3
                        Oh, troll arrow translations? laughing
                        Everything is clear with you, and with 100 thousand Ukrainians .....
                      4. House 25 Sq. 380
                        House 25 Sq. 380 19 January 2022 01: 42
                        +1
                        Words against words, links against links...
            2. Altona
              Altona 17 January 2022 14: 53
              +1
              Quote: your1970
              You simply can’t imagine Kazakhstan. There can be 1000 km from city to city, and in the interval there are 2 villages with 10 inhabitants each and these will be - "Baaaal villages !!"
              And one and a half roads in winter .....

              ----------------------------------------
              Of course, since you, I do not represent Kazakhstan. It was you named the distance I had in mind. Otherwise, how would Meskhetian Turks, Chechens and others be sent to Kazakhstan? Or do you have a "3-zhuz" paradigm" that rules your logic? Well, it's clear, "you don't understand, it's different."
              1. your1970
                your1970 17 January 2022 18: 05
                +2
                Quote: Altona
                Or do you have a "3-zhuz" paradigm" that rules your logic? Well, it's clear, "you don't understand, it's different."

                as soon as you live in the 25 km border zones of the border of the Republic of Kazakhstan - the Russian Federation - how do I live -
                I will be happy to discuss with you whether or not 3 zhuzes affect life in Kazakhstan, why they burned Alma-Ata (not the capital or Uralsk, for example), where Chechens lived, and other issues that are quite painful for local residents on both sides of the border ....
            3. polar fox
              polar fox 18 January 2022 14: 16
              0
              Quote: your1970
              You simply can’t imagine Kazakhstan. There can be 1000 km from city to city, and in the interval there are 2 villages with 10 inhabitants each and these will be - "Baaaal villages !!"
              And one and a half roads in winter .....

              yes ... I remember the city of Sary-Shagan ... the city ...
      2. antivirus
        antivirus 17 January 2022 20: 47
        0
        K. Massimov in the Republic of Kazakhstan for whom did he work?
        5-6 tgroks could play the Uigr art (in theory). including China
  3. yuriy55
    yuriy55 17 January 2022 07: 20
    +3
    I understand that for “complete happiness” Russia is not enough for Kazakhstan, having left the USSR, to go towards China.
    1. Altona
      Altona 17 January 2022 14: 59
      +3
      Quote: yuriy55
      went to China.

      -----------------------
      So he went there. All the people's bowels of Kazakhstan are being developed by the Chinese, the British and the Americans. All these CNPC, British Petroleum, Exxcon Mobil and others. And what will Russia offer him? To their own conditional elbasy of all the sausages of our conditional Sechins and Millers? Thanks, they don't need it. They only have one thing - these are Russian athletes, because for some reason I don’t see the new Serik Konokbaevs.
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 17 January 2022 08: 34
    0
    Such a policy, which was once conducted with the Uyghurs, but in relation to the Kurds - you see, and Erdogan would quickly become silky.
  5. Undecim
    Undecim 17 January 2022 08: 47
    +13
    The article is a fragment of the centuries-old conflict between the Uighurs and the Hans, taken out of the historical context, to which the authors sideways stuck the territorial disputes of the USSR and the PRC.
  6. House 25 Sq. 380
    House 25 Sq. 380 17 January 2022 15: 53
    +4
    "Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The latter accounted for about 20% of the territory and over 10% of the total population of the PRC" - the authors, be careful: what are "over 10% of the population of the PRC" ??
  7. Tests
    Tests 17 January 2022 17: 59
    +5
    Undecim, dear, I agree with you by 202%. From the 90s of the 2010th century to the 21s of the 40st century, a lot of articles, books, scientific and popular science, appeared in independent Kazakhstan on the history of the families of poor Kazakhs and Uighurs, who were divided by the evil USSR between the USSR and China. About the divided clans of Uzbeks, Kirghiz, Vakhans, various tribes of Mongols and Oirats, but the same Tuvans (as without Shoigu's relatives!) Somehow they did not remember. Although the borders until the end of the XNUMXs between the USSR, China and the MPR for nomads were largely conditional.
  8. Timur_3
    Timur_3 17 January 2022 21: 12
    +2
    1. China is an empire.
    2. You can cling to China's success, but it will be called China's New Colonies.
    3. My prediction:
    Until 2030, all of Central Asia will be swallowed up by China, Iran and the United States.
    a) Uzbekistan - USA.
    b) Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan - China.
    c) Turkmenistan - Iran (if not bombed before).
    d) Tajikistan - Afghanistan (Very likely).
    4. Feudal government certainly corrupts. But this is the main disadvantage. Today cities are named after the feudal lord.
    Tomorrow, wow!!! And the 20th Congress of the CPSU with Nikitka.
  9. Zhangjun Zhangjun
    Zhangjun Zhangjun 21 June 2022 17: 05
    0
    I am Chinese, and I can guarantee with my conscience that such a big lie was fabricated by the Xinjiang Kazakhs, who committed a crime in China and owed huge loans and fled to deprive Kazakhstan of refugee status. Kazakh riots are Xinjiang Kazakhs, they committed crimes in China, and also committed crimes in Kazakhstan, lies of the century in Xinjiang, fake paintings